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Pandangan pertama mengenai Messerschmitt Me 262

Pandangan pertama mengenai Messerschmitt Me 262

Pandangan pertama mengenai Messerschmitt Me 262

Pandangan pertama mengenai Messerschmitt Me 262, membersihkan menunjukkan tiga dari empat kedudukan meriam.

Gambar ihsan Warbird Alley


Messerschmitt Me-262

Apa yang akan menjadi hasil perang di Eropah jika pada tahun 1940 potensi Projek 1065 Messerschmitt telah dihargai oleh pihak berkuasa tinggi? Sekiranya program kemalangan telah dibuat untuk meletakkan pesawat bertenaga turbojet ini dalam perkhidmatan pada tarikh yang lebih awal, apakah Luftwaffe telah mendapatkan semula inisiatif dua tahun pertama Perang Dunia II?

Sayangnya jawapannya tidak jelas dan tidak ada ruang di sini untuk membincangkan kebaikan dan keburukan. Cukuplah bahawa Me 262 (sebagai P.1065 ditetapkan) adalah pesawat berkuasa turbojet pertama di dunia yang memasuki perkhidmatan operasi - di Juvincourt, Perancis pada 10 Julai 1944. Namun, pada masa itu, penghujung permusuhan di Eropah adalah hanya sepuluh bulan lagi: kekurangan rancangan sebenar untuk penggunaan pesawat ini dan taktik yang tidak mencukupi untuk mendapatkan keuntungan sepenuhnya dari kelebihan kelajuan mereka tidak dapat diperbaiki dalam masa yang singkat - terutamanya dalam keadaan huru-hara yang ada di Jerman dan dengan bekalan bahan api yang berkurang.

Reka bentuk Messerschmitt P.1065 berasal dari awal tahun 1938 ketika Reichsluftfahrtministerium meminta perusahaan untuk merancang pesawat tempur bermesin kembar yang dapat menggunakan mesin turbojet baru yang dikembangkan di Jerman. Setelah diperiksa mock-up, tiga prototaip dipesan pada 1 Jun 1940. Tetapi kerana enjin untuk menggerakkan Me 262 belum cukup dikembangkan, prototaip pertama pada mulanya terbang dengan mesin omboh. Tidak sampai 18 Julai 1942, penerbangan pertama dengan kekuatan semua turbojet direkodkan. (Heinkel 280, yang tidak memasuki produksi, telah terbang sebelum Me 262, pada 2 April 1941, sehingga menjadi jet mesin berkembar pertama di dunia.)

Daripada pembinaan kulit tertekan semua logam konvensional, sayap itu mempunyai sapuan balas sederhana, aileron jangka panjang, penutup belakang, dan slot automatik bersaiz penuh. Mesin dipasang di bawah sayap untuk mengelakkan struktur spar sayap yang kompleks dan gear pendaratan dari jenis roda belakang yang dapat ditarik. Prototaip kelima memperkenalkan unit roda gigi yang tidak dapat ditarik dan yang keenam adalah yang pertama yang mempunyai alat pendaratan jenis roda tiga yang dapat ditarik sepenuhnya.

Versi utama pertama ialah pemintas Me 262A-1a Schwalbe (Swallow), bersenjatakan empat meriam MK 108 30mm yang dipasang di hidung. Ia dikuasakan oleh dua 8.825kN Junkers Jumo 109-004B-1 turbo-jet turas aliran lapan tahap. Sejumlah varian dibuat dengan persenjataan yang berbeza. Versi utama yang lain adalah pengebom Me 262A-2a Sturmvogel (Stormbird). Ini dihasilkan atas desakan Adolf Hitler - keputusan yang menyebabkan kelewatan pengeluaran keseluruhan. Ia membawa, sebagai tambahan kepada persenjataan MK 108, satu 1,000kg, dua 500kg atau dua bom 250kg. Seperti Schwalbe, ada sejumlah varian, terutama untuk pengintaian bersenjata atau tanpa senjata.

Mick siapa pun yang memberitahu anda bahawa Bom Atom tidak pernah dimaksudkan untuk digunakan menentang Jerman sangat disalahartikan. Surat EinsteinSzil, yang ditulis oleh Le Szil rd dengan bantuan rakan fizik Hungaria Edward Teller dan Eugene Wigner dan ditandatangani oleh Albert Einstein, telah dihantar kepada Presiden Amerika Syarikat Franklin D. Roosevelt pada 2 Ogos 1939, (lebih 2 tahun sebelum Jepun menyerang AS). Surat itu memberi amaran bahawa Jerman sedang mengerjakan reka bentuk reaktor Nuklear, dan juga mencari kemungkinan senjata menggunakan teknologi serupa. Roosevelt memutuskan bahawa surat itu memerlukan tindakan, dan mengesahkan pembentukan "Jawatankuasa Penasihat Uranium," yang dipengerusikan oleh Lyman Briggs. Setelah Amerika masuk ke dalam perang, pengembangan bom Atom, untuk mengatasi upaya Jerman yang dirasakan di bidang itu, menjadi sangat maju. Sebenarnya, ketika Jerman menyerah pada 8 Mei 1945, beberapa saintis yang mengerjakan proyek tersebut mendekati Oppenheimer, (saintis utama), dan bertanya apakah proyek itu akan dihentikan, sekarang Jerman, sasaran yang dimaksudkan, bukan lagi ancaman . Mereka diberitahu bahawa projek itu akan dilanjutkan untuk kemungkinan penggunaan terhadap Jepun.
"Fallout" bukan merupakan faktor dalam keputusan untuk menggunakan senjata Nuklear pada tahun 1945 kerana, luar biasa seperti yang didengar hari ini, para saintis yang mengerjakan projek ini tidak menyedari kesan jangka panjang dari "Fallout". Sebab mengapa bom Atom tidak pernah jatuh di benua Eropah adalah kerana bom Atom pertama tidak siap untuk diuji sehingga 16 Julai 1945 lebih dua bulan setelah Jerman menyerah.
Selepas perang, para saintis AS yang menyiasat kesan bom di Hiroshima terkejut dan terkejut mengetahui bahawa "Kejatuhan Nuklear" adalah salah satu kesan utama bom "A", dan bukan bom kecil yang mereka percayai Masih diperlukan "Operasi Crossroads", di Bikini Atoll pada pertengahan 1946, untuk meyakinkan perancang tentera AS bahawa "Kejatuhan" Nuklear adalah masalah besar ketika bom Atom digunakan.
Bahwa "Old Chestnut" mengenai Amerika tidak perlu menjatuhkan "The Bomb" di Jepun telah membuat pusingan selama 70 tahun terakhir. Di Kabinet Imperial, di mana Hirohito memecahkan kebuntuan dan memberitahu para menterinya untuk mengakhiri perang, topik perbincangan utama adalah kemungkinan pemusnahan seluruh orang Jepun oleh kekuatan pemusnah senjata "Super" baru Amerika, dan bukan kemasukan Rusia ke perang terhadap mereka. Kumpulan "Blame America first" selalu berusaha memanipulasi sejarah agar sesuai dengan agenda politiknya!

Saya membesar antara bidang Wright dan Patterson. Saya terbiasa dengan pesawat yang didorong oleh baling-baling, tetapi suatu hari saya mendengar bunyi aneh yang tidak pernah saya dengar sebelumnya. Saya melihat ke langit, tetapi tidak dapat menemui atau melihat apa-apa. ini terus berlaku selama beberapa hari, dan dengan hairan saya saya melihat jet Jerman. Kami telah menangkap Messerschmitt Me 262 dan mengujinya. Saya tidak terbiasa dengan pesawat yang berada jauh di hadapan bunyinya.

Bom atom selalu ditujukan untuk Jepun, mengebom Jerman dengan nuklir akan menutupi Eropah dalam awan kejatuhan radiasi & Sekutu tahu ini sebabnya ia tidak pernah jatuh di benua itu, pengeboman Jepun dengan nukleus adalah semata-mata politik kerana kerosakan yang disebabkan untuk industri sangat minimum, mereka menggunakan bom untuk menunjukkan kepada dunia yang "diduga lebih unggul". Jepun menyerah bukan dari ancaman nuklear tetapi oleh ancaman pencerobohan pencerobohan Soviet dari pendudukan Rusia oleh orang Japenese pada awal tahun 1900-an. Seperti biasa sejarah telah dimanipulasi agar sesuai dengan agenda politik

Semua "bagaimana jika" ketinggalan. Pertama sekali, tidak akan ada bom Atom Jerman pada tahun 1946 projek Bom Atom Jerman gagal, (ada yang berpendapat disabotaj oleh para saintis yang mengerjakan projek ini). Kedua, Projek Manhattan tidak dikejar ke Nuke Jepun, ini bertujuan untuk Jerman. Sekiranya Jerman memiliki Me262 dalam jumlah yang cukup untuk melancarkan perang di Eropah selama 4 bulan lagi, sudah pasti dua kota Jerman menerima "Fat Man" dan "Little Boy" pada awal Ogos 1945, bukan dua kota Jepun. Hasil akhirnya adalah kekalahan Jerman yang sama.

Dunia bebas berhutang pada hakikat bahawa nasib kapal terbang yang begitu cemerlang ini diputuskan oleh orang-orang yang LUAR BIASA.

"Saya adalah kadet, atau anda boleh memanggil saya kadet penerbangan atau orang tengah jika anda mahu, untuk Tentera Udara. Saya adalah juruterbang pejuang pada masa itu. Saya terbang dengan Me-262. Pada masa itu saya tidak menyukai idea tentang perkara ini disebut jet. Saya fikir ia tidak selamat, dan saya akan membunuh diri sendiri. Oleh itu, saya terbang ke pertempuran, dan oh ya, saya lebih pantas daripada yang saya fikir boleh pergi. Anda semestinya telah melihat pandangan di wajah Amerika ketika saya berjalan di atasnya. Saya hampir bunuh diri pada hari itu, supaya tidak merasa bingung dengan tidak menggunakannya. Tetapi yang mengejutkan, saya hanya ingin berkongsi cerita saya. Google Terjemahkannya. "

Ich war ein Fahnenjunker, oder Sie k nnen mich einen Flug Cadet oder ein F hnrich, wenn Sie wollen, untuk mati Luftwaffe. Perang perang dan Kampfpilot an der Zeit. Ich flog eine Me-262. Zu der Zeit wichi ich nicht, wie die Idee meninggal dunia Ding menamakan ein Jet. Ich dachte, dass es nicht sicher war, und dass ich im Begriff war, mich selbst get tet. Juga cambuk di Schlacht dan oh ya, perang Schneller juga ich dachte, perang m glich gehen. Sie sollten den Blick auf jene amerikanischen Gesichter sehen sollen, juga ich ging sie auf. Ich habe mich fast umgebracht, dass Tag, so dass nicht zu spa en nicht mit ihnen. Aber erstaunlich Ebene. Ich wollte nur meine Geschichte zu teilen. Google Terjemahkannya.

Ya penglihatan dari kokpit bukanlah yang terbaik.
Kanopi itu baik-baik saja tetapi badannya begitu lebar dan enjin kembar di sayap yang disapu menyekat sebahagian besar pandangan keseluruhan.
Juga bentuk yang unik dapat dikenali dengan mudah oleh lawan. Sudah tentu kebajikan jauh melebihi kekurangannya.
Berbanding dengan rakan-rakan sezaman seperti Bell P-59 dan Gloster Meteor, Me 262 sangat hebat. 2 jet lain tidak mempunyai bahagian untuk mencampurkannya dengan Schwalbe.

Messerscmitt 262 mempunyai penglihatan yang kurang baik.

Oh tolong Justin! Anda hampir sama tertipu seperti Steinhoff!

Sekarang dimanakah Jerman dapat memperoleh cukup bahan untuk menghasilkan begitu banyak Me262s? Sekalipun kita menerima jumlah 80 Me262 yang tidak masuk akal dalam satu pertunangan boleh menghentikan pengeboman siang hari (yang berdasarkan pengalaman JG7 melancarkan antara 35-50 pesawat per serbuan selama Februari 1945 dibuktikan. Secara strategik ia masih tidak sama)

Dari bulan Jun 1943- Oktober 1944 Messerschmitt hanya dapat menghasilkan tidak lebih dari 340 kerangka udara, sebelum kerugian akibat pengeboman, kecelakaan, pengangkutan membawa kesan buruk.

Dan walaupun menurut Adolf Galland (lelaki itu sangat bersemangat tentang Me262 sejak dia mencubanya, tetapi hakikatnya masih ada banyak masalah dengan Jumo 004 dan masih belum beroperasi) optimis "meneka", dia akan memerlukan kira-kira 500 daripadanya untuk menghentikan pengeboman pada waktu siang, ini tentu saja tidak memperhitungkan fakta bahawa mungkin tidak cukup J2 yang tersisa di Reich untuk menyokong operasi seperti itu, dan walaupun ada, kekurangan juruterbang berpengalaman, yang diperlukan untuk menjaringkan gol dalam 2 saat dan melepaskan diri, pasti akan membuat rancangan itu ditakdirkan.

Secara realistik, fakta bahawa Me262 benar-benar berjaya memasuki status operasi tidak kurang dari keajaiban, tetapi untuk berharap bahawa ia dapat mengubah arus. yang di luar mimpi, itu hanyalah kisah dongeng yang diabadikan oleh fikiran yang kurang arif.

The Horton 18 adalah versi yang lebih besar dan juga tersembunyi. Sudah jelas bahawa Jerman akan mendapat nukleus pada tahun 1946. jika perang boleh berlaku sehingga dunia akan jauh berbeza.

Bayangkan jika Jerman telah menggunakan jumlah ini dengan banyak tanpa menjalani ujian selama bertahun-tahun sehingga mereka akhirnya menyedari bahawa mereka kalah. Kedua-dua enjin itu juga digunakan untuk menggerakkan Horton 229. Sekiranya tidak memerlukan masa yang lama, mereka boleh memiliki jet, stealth, dan meriam yang lebih pantas lagi, ia akan menyebabkan kemusnahan besar-besaran! Maksud saya, Horton 18 sebenarnya mempunyai jarak untuk sampai ke AS dan menjatuhkan Nuke!

SALAH SATU DARI SAYA 262 ADALAH DI PERTANDINGAN TYNDALL AIR FORCE DASAR YANG TERLETAK HANYA TIMUR TIMUR PANAMA, FLORIDA.

Semuanya sangat baik membuat spekulasi apa yang akan terjadi jika pesawat ini tidak ditangguhkan, tetapi bagaimana jika Whittle juga tidak diabaikan selama bertahun-tahun. Mungkin ada pesawat dengan prestasi Meteor / Vampire pada tahun 1938 dan pengebom jenis Canberra pada tahun 1941.
Tidak mungkin Hitler mempertaruhkan perang dengan Tentera Udara Diraja yang dilengkapi jet (Whittle sendiri menyatakan bahawa dia merasa seharusnya melakukan lebih banyak untuk meyakinkan pemerintah untuk mengadopsi turbojet lebih awal dan telah mencegah, atau setidaknya menunda, Perang Dunia 2. Tidak hairanlah lelaki itu adalah bangkai saraf).
Whittle kebanyakannya menyalahkan Freeman (protagonis nyamuk) sehingga memanggilnya ejen Nazi.

Saya telah membaca bahawa Adolf Galland mengajar juruterbang untuk menekan brek semasa lepas landas. Dia kononnya berdiri di tempat di landasan untuk menunjukkan titik untuk brek untuk menaikkan ekor dan memberikan penstabil mendatar beberapa aliran untuk bekerja. Saya mempunyai video pendaratan Me262 taildragger yang sangat pendek.

Apa yang tidak dinyatakan dalam menulis adalah bagaimana 262 beralih dari ekor dragger (roda ekor) ke konfigurasi roda hidung. Penerbangan ujian pertama tidak dapat melepaskan ekor sehingga pesawat tidak dapat lepas landas. Kerana enjin jet mereka kehilangan propwash yang membantu mengangkat ekor. Masalah besar! Semasa perjumpaan mengenai apa yang dapat dilakukan untuk menyelesaikan masalah ini, seorang juruteknik mencadangkan bahawa jika mereka membuat pesawat turun dari landasan dan kemudian pada masa yang sesuai tekan brek untuk membuat momen turun hidung (ekor ke atas) dan kemudian lepas landas. Ia bekerja pada beberapa penerbangan ujian pertama sehingga mereka mengkonfigurasi semula pesawat dengan roda hidung dan mendapat pusat graviti ke hadapan gear utama. Kisah ini diceritakan kepada saya oleh seorang bos saya, Richard Hadcock yang menemui salah seorang juruterbang selepas perang di sebuah persidangan. Ia juga disahkan kepada saya oleh Dr. Hans Von Ohein, penemu pemampat aliran paksi, yang lebih dikenali sebagai mesin jet. Dia menciptanya sebagai pelajar lepasan dan menceritakan kisah tentang betapa sukarnya menjaga turbin menyala. Dia memutuskan bahawa dia memerlukan bahan bakar dengan jarak pembakaran tertinggi dan menyedari bahawa itu adalah hidrogen. Dia berjaya menunjukkan enjin menggunakan hidrogen. Sir Ralph Whittle mengembangkan konsep pemampat aliran radial tetapi kerana luas frontal yang besar tidak sesuai untuk pesawat. Ternyata Dr. Von Ohein dan Sir Whittle menjadi kawan baik selepas perang. Dr. Von Ohein seperti yang saya faham, tidak ada satu sen pun royalti untuk penemuan mesin jet. Dia bekerja selama bertahun-tahun di pangkalan Tentera Udara Wright Patterson di jabatan pendorong. Seorang lelaki yang sangat baik dan cemerlang yang saya temui beberapa kali dan sangat disukai.

Dalam meneliti ME 262, apa yang mengagumkan saya pada masa itu dan masih merupakan kejayaan kejuruteraan Jerman, kerana keadaan perang pada masa itu dan kemudahan servis yang terhad, enjin jet ME 262 dapat dikeluarkan (di lapangan) dan diganti dalam satu jam! MENAKJUBKAN

Dalam meneliti ME 262, apa yang mengagumkan saya pada masa itu dan masih merupakan kejayaan kejuruteraan Jerman, kerana keadaan perang pada masa itu dan kemudahan perkhidmatan yang terhad, enjin jet ME 262 dapat dikeluarkan (di lapangan) dan diganti dalam satu jam! MENAKJUBKAN

Nota menarik: 262 yang saya lihat di pameran di muzium WPAFB mempunyai meriam (105mm?!) Raksasa yang keluar dari hidung, diimbangi dari tengah. Meriam tersebut adalah untuk 'pemusnahan tangki', ala America's A10 Warthog. Papan iklan menunjukkan bahawa Herman Goering, ketika ditangkap, ingin memastikan bahawa rakan-rakannya di pihak sekutu KNEW bahawa dia tidak begitu bodoh sehingga meletakkan meriam di pesawat. Perintah untuk meletakkannya di sana datang langsung dari orang gila itu sendiri, Der Fuhrer AH sendiri. Nampak sangat kelucuan.


Messerschmitt Me 262

Oleh Stephen Sherman, Disember 2008. Dikemas kini pada 2 Mei 2012.

Juruterbang ustang Bud Anderson mempunyai jet tempur Jerman yang baru. Tetapi ketika dia masuk, jet itu "menyusut dan hilang." Messerschmitt ME 262, jet pejuang pertama di dunia, menjauhinya dengan jarak lebih dari 540 MPH, seratus batu sejam lebih cepat daripada P-51.

Sejarah

Dari tahun 1930-an pereka mesin di beberapa negara berusaha untuk mengembangkan alternatif baru secara radikal untuk enjin timbal balik (piston). Orang Jerman memberi tumpuan kepada penyelidikan turbojet, dan melakukan perarakan kepada yang lain. Menjelang tahun 1938, BMW dan Junkers memiliki program mesin yang menjanjikan, sementara Ernst Heinkel dan Willi Messerschmitt merancang pesawat terbang untuk membawa mesin jet. Heinkel's He 2800 terbang pertama dan dalam banyak aspek tampaknya memiliki lebih banyak potensi, tetapi Messerschmitt (perancang yang disukai oleh rejim) berjaya membuat Me 262 miliknya disetujui untuk produksi. He 280 disimpan.

Walaupun begitu, Hitler dan the Reichsluftministerium (RLM), tidak mengutamakan jet tempur. Mereka merasa agak aman dengan ruang lingkup wilayah yang dikuasai Jerman yang sukar bagi pejuang musuh untuk mengawal pengebom ke dalam. Juga, Hitler menyukai pengembangan pengebom berkuasa jet. (Walaupun ini menjadi topik perbahasan mengenai seberapa banyak ini sebenarnya menunda program jet tempur.) Lebih jauh lagi, terdapat kesukaran besar untuk mendapatkan aloi keluli bersuhu tinggi dan bahan unik lain yang diperlukan untuk jet. Tidak sampai Disember 1943, Me 262 yang bersenjata pertama pergi ke langit.

Walaupun sangat pantas, Me 262 bukan tanpa kekurangan dan masalah. Enjin Jumo 004 novel itu berumur pendek dan tidak boleh dipercayai, rentan terbakar dan terbakar. Sudah tentu, Me 262 adalah pesawat bermesin kembar (idea yang sangat bagus!) Dan ia boleh terbang dengan cukup baik hanya dengan satu mesin yang berfungsi. Pendaratan adalah tujahan asimetri yang berbeza menjadikan pendaratan sangat sukar. Jet tidak dapat memecut dengan cepat, memerlukan landasan udara yang panjang untuk berlepas. Ia juga tidak dapat melambat dengan cepat, dan 'keliling' pendaratan tidak praktikal. Ia tidak dapat berpusing dengan baik, dan kehilangan banyak kelajuan pada putaran keras, kelemahan kritikal dalam pertempuran udara. Pengendalian sangat mencabar, dan hanya untuk juruterbang yang berpengalaman dan mahir. Walaupun Me 262 dapat terbang seperti Neraka dan bersenjata berat, itu sahaja.

Pada bulan Jun, 1944, Luftwaffe membentuk unit percubaan pertama, Erprobungskommando 262 (Ekdo 262), terutamanya dengan juruterbang dari Zerst & oumlrer unit, diperintahkan oleh Werner Thierfelder. Untuk beberapa bulan pertama, unit Me 262 bermula dengan memintas pesawat pengintai ketinggian. Pada bulan September, beberapa jet dan juruterbang melepaskan diri dari Ekdo 262 untuk membentuk sebuah Einsatzkommando, diketuai oleh ace terkenal, Walter Nowotny, yang dengan demikian disebut "Kommando Nowotny." Berpusat di Achmer dan Hesepe, Me 262s memerlukan landasan konkrit, bukannya landasan biasa Luftwaffe, dan meninggalkan tanda-tanda hangus kiri ketika lepas landas. Tidak lama kemudian, pengintipan Sekutu mengetahui bahawa ladang-ladang ini menempatkan jet baru, dan juga dengan cepat mengetahui kerentanan 262 semasa lepas landas, pejuang Sekutu mula melakukan rondaan di kawasan tersebut.

Pada bulan Oktober 1944, Kommando Nowotny akhirnya bertindak, dan ketika menembak jatuh beberapa pengebom Bersekutu, mengalami kerugian yang tinggi, disebabkan oleh kemalangan dan juga pesawat Amerika. Pada 8 November, Nowotny sendiri ditembak jatuh, mungkin oleh orang yang ramah. Komandan yang baru adalah Georg-Peter Eder, dan ketika Jenderal-Fighters Adolph Galland melihat situasi (pesawat baru, pilot yang dilatih, dan dekat dengan depan), dia memerintahkan unit (sekarang ditetapkan III / JG 7) ditarik ke Lechfeld .

Pada bulan November, Goering meluluskan penubuhan Kumpulan jet penuh (Jagdgeschwader), JG 7, yang diperintahkan oleh Macky Steinhoff, yang harus mengawasi pengembangan taktik yang sesuai untuk Me 262. Walaupun kelajuannya luar biasa, penggunaan kelajuan itu, dengan mempertimbangkan keterbatasan pesawat, memerlukan taktik baru. Agak mengejutkan, juruterbang pengebom, yang biasa dengan terbang instrumen, tampaknya menjadi calon yang paling menjanjikan. Doktrin baru untuk penggunaan jet itu mirip dengan roller coaster, Me 262 menghampiri tinggi dan di belakang pengebom empat enjin USAAF, terjun sedikit di bawahnya, kemudian naik beberapa kecepatan yang membolehkan juruterbang menembak dan menembak , dan akhirnya menyelam lagi untuk melepaskan diri dari pejuang pengiring.

Tetapi semuanya tidak berhasil. Walaupun Reich ternyata jumlah Me 262 yang mengagumkan (1.433 tepat), latihan juruterbang, kemampuan manuver yang buruk, pangkalan yang lemah, kelebihan udara Sekutu yang luar biasa, dan bahkan politik Nazi, semuanya bersekongkol untuk mencegah jet tempur pertama di dunia membuat kenyataan perbezaan perang. Menjadi membosankan untuk mencuba membuat semula semua perubahan organisasi yang berkaitan dengan Me 262, tetapi beberapa kelebihan hebat (Pakar) yang memainkan peranan kepemimpinan dengan Me 262 unit adalah: Nowotny, Steinhoff, Heinz "Pritzl" B & aumlr, Erich Hohagen, Theodor Weissenberger, Erich Rudorffer, dan Georg-Peter Eder.

Varian

Saya 262A-1a Schwalbe

Versi pejuang asas, dengan catatan spesifikasi di atas. Dalam operasi pejuang biasa, lebih dekat berat 'kosong'.

Saya 262A-2 Sturmvogel

Sturmvogel adalah versi pesawat tempur-pengebom, dilengkapi untuk membawa dua bom 500kg yang membawa muatan ini, dengan berat hingga 15,500 lbs., Kelajuan maksimumnya adalah "hanya" 470 MPH.


Kandungan

Kebolehlaksanaan jet dorong telah ditunjukkan di Jerman pada awal tahun 1937 oleh Hans von Ohain yang bekerja dengan syarikat Heinkel. Sebahagian besar Kementerian Udara Reich (RLM) tetap tidak berminat, tetapi Helmut Schelp dan Hans Mauch melihat potensi konsep tersebut dan mendorong pengeluar mesin aero Jerman untuk memulakan program pengembangan enjin jet mereka sendiri. Syarikat tetap ragu-ragu dan sedikit pembangunan baru dilakukan.

Pada tahun 1939 Schelp dan Mauch mengunjungi syarikat-syarikat tersebut untuk memeriksa kemajuannya. Otto Mader, ketua Junkers Motorenwerke (Jumo) bahagian firma penerbangan Junkers yang besar, menyatakan bahawa walaupun konsep itu berguna, dia tidak mempunyai siapa pun yang mengusahakannya. Schelp menjawab dengan menyatakan bahawa Dr Anselm Franz, yang ketika itu bertugas dalam pembangunan turbo- dan supercharger Junkers, akan sempurna untuk pekerjaan ini. Franz memulakan pasukan pengembangannya pada akhir tahun itu, dan projek itu diberi sebutan RLM 109-004 (Awalan 109-, yang ditugaskan oleh RLM adalah umum untuk semua projek enjin reaksi di WW II Jerman, dan juga digunakan untuk reka bentuk mesin roket WW II Jerman untuk pesawat berawak).

Franz memilih reka bentuk yang sekaligus konservatif dan revolusioner. Reka bentuknya berbeza dengan von Ohain kerana dia menggunakan jenis pemampat baru yang membolehkan aliran udara terus menerus melalui mesin ( pemampat paksi), yang baru dibangunkan oleh Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA - Institut Penyelidikan Aerodinamik) di Göttingen. Pemampat aliran paksi bukan sahaja mempunyai prestasi yang sangat baik, sekitar 78% cekap dalam keadaan "dunia nyata", tetapi juga mempunyai keratan rentas yang lebih kecil, penting untuk pesawat berkelajuan tinggi. Pembantu lama Dr. Bruno Bruckman dalam program enjin jet, Dr. Österich, mengambil alih tugasnya di Berlin, dan memilih reka bentuk aliran paksi, kerana diameternya yang lebih kecil [1] ia 10 cm (3,9 inci) kurang daripada yang bersaing aliran paksi BMW 003. [2]

Sebaliknya, ia bertujuan menghasilkan mesin yang jauh di bawah potensi teorinya, demi mempercepat pembangunan dan mempermudah pengeluaran. Salah satu keputusan utama adalah memilih kawasan pembakaran sederhana menggunakan enam "kaleng api", dan bukannya kaleng tunggal yang lebih efisien. Atas sebab yang sama, dia banyak bekerjasama dalam pengembangan turbin mesin dengan Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (General Electric Company, AEG) di Berlin, dan alih-alih membangun mesin pembangunan, memilih untuk segera mulai bekerja pada prototaip mesin yang dapat langsung dilancarkan. Pendekatan konservatif Franz dipersoalkan dari RLM, tetapi dibenarkan ketika diberi masalah perkembangan yang harus dihadapi, 004 memasuki pengeluaran dan perkhidmatan jauh lebih awal daripada BMW 003, pesaing dorongannya yang lebih maju dari segi teknologi tetapi sedikit lebih rendah (7.83 kN / 1,760 lbf).

Di Kolbermoor, lokasi enjin Heinkel-Hirth berfungsi, Fedden Mission, yang diketuai oleh Sir Roy Fedden, mendapati pembuatan mesin jet lebih sederhana dan memerlukan tenaga kerja berkemahiran rendah dan perkakas yang kurang canggih daripada pengeluaran mesin omboh sebenarnya, sebahagian besar pembuatan bilah turbin berongga dan kerja logam lembaran pada jet dapat dilakukan dengan perkakas yang digunakan dalam membuat panel bod mobil. [3] Fedden sendiri mengkritik pemasangan casing pemampat 004, yang berada dalam dua bahagian, dilekatkan pada bahagian separuh dari stator. [4]

Penerangan dan ujian teknikal Edit

Prototaip pertama 004A, yang dibangun untuk menggunakan bahan bakar diesel, pertama kali diuji pada Oktober 1940, walaupun tanpa muncung ekzos. Ia diuji pada akhir Januari 1941 ke dorongan tertinggi 430 kgf (4,200 N 950 lbf), dan kerja terus meningkatkan output, kontrak RLM telah menetapkan minimum 600 kgf (5,900 N 1.300 lbf) tujahan. [5]

Masalah getaran dengan stator pemampat, yang awalnya dilengkapkan dari luar, [6] menunda program pada ketika ini. Max Bentele, sebagai jurutera perunding Kementerian Udara dengan latar belakang getaran turbocharger, membantu menyelesaikan masalah. [6] Stator aluminium yang asli diganti dengan keluli yang konfigurasi enjinnya dikembangkan 5.9 kN (1.300 lbf) pada bulan Ogos, dan lulus ketahanan 10 jam pada 9.8 kN (2.200 lbf) pada bulan Disember. Ujian penerbangan pertama dilakukan pada 15 Mac 1942, ketika 004A dibawa tinggi oleh Messerschmitt Bf 110 untuk menghidupkan mesin dalam penerbangan. 004 menggunakan pemampat aliran paksi lapan peringkat, dengan enam [7] ruang pembakaran paksi (terbuat dari keluli lembaran), dan turbin satu tahap dengan bilah berongga. [4]

Pada 18 Julai, salah satu prototaip Messerschmitt Me 262s terbang untuk pertama kalinya dengan kekuatan jet dari enjin 004nya, dan 004 diperintahkan untuk dikeluarkan oleh RLM sejauh 80 mesin.

Enjin 004A awal yang dibina untuk menggerakkan prototaip Me 262 telah dibina tanpa sekatan pada bahan, dan mereka menggunakan bahan mentah yang jarang seperti nikel, kobalt, dan molibdenum dalam jumlah yang tidak dapat diterima dalam pengeluaran. Franz menyedari bahawa Jumo 004 harus direka semula untuk memasukkan minimum bahan strategik ini, dan ini dapat dicapai. Semua bahagian logam panas, termasuk ruang pembakaran, diubah menjadi keluli ringan yang dilindungi oleh lapisan aluminium, dan bilah turbin berongga dihasilkan dari aloi Cromadur yang dilipat dan dikimpal (12% kromium, 18% mangan, dan besi 70%) dikembangkan oleh Krupp, dan disejukkan dengan udara mampatan "berdarah" dari pemampat. Jangka hayat operasi enjinnya dipendekkan, tetapi di sisi positifnya ia lebih senang dibina. [5] Mesin pengeluaran mempunyai selongsong magnesium cor dalam dua bahagian, satu dengan separuh bahagian pemasangan stator melekat padanya. [4] Empat penyilang depan dibina dari bilah aloi keluli yang dikimpal ke dudukan. Lima belakang dilapisi lembaran keluli yang dibengkokkan di atas pelekap dan dikimpal. [4] Bilah pemampat aloi keluli dimasukkan ke dalam slot pada cakera pemampat dan dipasang dengan skru kecil. [4] Pemampat itu sendiri dipasang pada batang keluli dengan dua belas set skru. [4] Jumo mencuba pelbagai bilah pemampat, bermula dengan keluli padat, kemudian logam lembaran berongga, dikimpal pada tirus, dengan akarnya dipasang di atas kancing rhomboid pada roda turbin, di mana mereka disematkan dan disikat. [4]

Salah satu ciri menarik dari 004 adalah sistem pemula, yang direka oleh jurutera Jerman Norbert Riedel, yang terdiri daripada enjin rata 2-lekap 10 hp (7.5 kW) yang tersembunyi dalam pengambilan, [4] dan pada dasarnya berfungsi sebagai contoh perintis APU untuk memulakan enjin jet. Lubang di bahagian hidung ekstrim badan pengalih pengambilan mengandungi penarik tarik untuk kabel yang "menghidupkan" mesin omboh, yang pada gilirannya memutar turbin. Dua tangki campuran minyak / minyak kecil dipasang di perimeter atas perumahan logam lembaran pengambilan anulus untuk mengisi unit APU mekanikal dua lejang Riedel. Unit Riedel juga digunakan - tetapi dipasang dengan cara yang berbeza - untuk permulaan enjin BMW 003 yang bersaing, dan untuk reka bentuk turbojet HeS 011 "campuran-aliran" Heinkel yang lebih maju.

Model pengeluaran pertama dari 004B beratnya 100 kg (220 lb) kurang dari 004A, dan pada tahun 1943 telah lulus beberapa ujian 100 jam, dengan masa antara perbaikan 50 jam dicapai. [8]

Kemudian pada tahun 1943 versi 004B mengalami kegagalan bilah turbin yang tidak difahami oleh pasukan Junkers. Mereka memusatkan perhatian pada bidang seperti kecacatan bahan, ukuran butiran dan kekasaran permukaan. Akhirnya, pada bulan Disember, pakar getaran pisau Max Bentele sekali lagi dibawa semasa perjumpaan di ibu pejabat RLM. Dia mengenal pasti bahawa kegagalan itu disebabkan oleh salah satu frekuensi semula jadi bilah yang berada dalam jarak operasi mesin. Penyelesaiannya adalah untuk meningkatkan frekuensi, dengan meningkatkan penguncian pisau dan memendekkannya sebanyak 1 milimeter, dan untuk mengurangkan kelajuan operasi mesin [6] dari 9.000 hingga 8.700 rpm.

Tidak sampai awal tahun 1944 produksi penuh akhirnya dapat dimulakan. Jenis cabaran terperinci kejuruteraan ini untuk reka bentuk enjin jet siri 109-004, membentuk kemunduran yang menjadi faktor utama yang melambatkan pengenalan Me 262 oleh Luftwaffe ke dalam perkhidmatan skuadron.

Memandangkan keluli berkualiti rendah yang digunakan pada 004B, enjin ini biasanya hanya memiliki jangka hayat sekitar 10-25 jam, mungkin dua kali ganda ini di tangan juruterbang yang mahir. [9] Kelemahan enjin lain, yang biasa berlaku pada semua turbojet awal, adalah tindak balas pendikitnya yang perlahan. Lebih buruk lagi, cukup mudah untuk menyuntikkan terlalu banyak bahan bakar ke dalam mesin dengan mendesak terlalu cepat, membiarkan haba menumpuk sebelum udara pendingin dapat mengeluarkannya. Ini menyebabkan pelembutan bilah turbin menjadi lemah, dan merupakan penyebab utama kerosakan enjin. Walaupun begitu, ia menjadikan kuasa jet untuk pesawat tempur menjadi kenyataan buat pertama kalinya.


Messerschmitt AG Developments 1926 & ndash 41

A Setelah bergabung dengan Bayerische Flugzeugwerke sebagai pembantu pengurusan muda pada tahun 1926, Rakan Peter Kokothaki berusaha melalui organisasi untuk menjadi Anggota Kewangan dan Pemasaran pada akhirnya lembaga Messerschmitt AG. Pada tahun 1928 Willy Messerschmitt telah memindahkan perniagaan pembuatan pesawat kecilnya dari Bamberg ke Augsburg, mengintegrasikannya ke Bayerische Flugzeugwerke tetapi mempertahankan untuk pejabat reka bentuknya ukuran autonomi dari syarikat yang lebih besar. Oleh itu, Kokothaki menjadi pemerhati yang berminat di tangan Messerschmitt & rsquos nafsu tanpa henti untuk merancang pesawat dari 1928 dan seterusnya.

Setahun sebelum bergerak, Messerschmitt telah mengembangkan M 20, sebuah pesawat komersial sepuluh tempat duduk. Deutsche Lufthansa, yang dikendalikan oleh Erhard Milch pada masa itu, kemudian menjadi Setiausaha Negara Goering & rsquos Luftwaffe, memerintahkan sepuluh mesin tersebut. Dilantik sebagai juruterbang ujian untuk penerbangan perdana di Augsburg pada 26 Februari 1928 adalah Hans Hackmack, rakan dan juruterbang peribadi Erhard Milch & rsquos. Penerbangan mengambil jalan yang paling tragis. Hubert Bauer, yang kemudian menjadi pembantu di tempat kerja, yang kemudian menjadi ahli lembaga Messerschmitt AG, telah lama menjadi saksi kepada kemalangan itu dan menjelaskannya:

Pesawat terbang untuk masa yang cukup lama melalui lapangan terbang dan daerah sekitarnya tanpa masalah. Setelah kira-kira dua puluh minit ia kembali ke lapangan terbang dan melalui teropong seseorang dapat melihat sesuatu yang terang mengepakkan di hujung sayap. Tidak lama kemudian, kami melihat juruterbang itu keluar dari pintu di bahagian belakang pesawat dan melompat. Kanopi payung terjunnya mulai bergerak segera dan terjerat ke dalam pesawat sehingga Hackmack dibiarkan tergantung oleh tali payung terjun. While he struggled desperately to unsnag it by tugging on the shrouds and kicking out, the aircraft continued serenely in level flight for quite some time before eventually the nose dipped and dived into the ground. Hackmack was killed instantaneously.

The investigation reported that some fabric had come loose at the trailing edge and this was the flapping seen by witnesses. It was assumed that the pilot had mistaken it for a fire or believed that the wing had fractured. Nobody was directly responsible for the accident. Hans Hackmack had probably lost his nerve, perhaps mindful of a test flight a few weeks previously in which he had narrowly escaped death. According to the report there should have been no problem landing the M 20 safely.

That Milch was deeply affected by the death of his friend was obvious. He blamed nobody but reacted very emotionally at Messerschmitt&rsquos disinterest in his personal loss. Messerschmitt did not even deign to attend the crash site. This coldness in Messerschmitt&rsquos personality was one of the causes for the split in the relationship between them.

Nevertheless Milch ordered two modified M 20a aircraft after they had been test-flown and pronounced problem-free. They proved successful on operations and when an M20b version became available Lufthansa also ordered two of these. Both crashed, one with only the pilot aboard, but the other involved passenger deaths. Initially, Messerschmitt was accused of having built M 20b in breach of safety regulations but after examining both wrecks, the German Test Institute for Aviation (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt) rejected the accusations. The actual cause was put down to sudden turbulence. Little was known of this at the time although aeronautical scientists in Germany were studying the phenomenon.

Willy Messerschmitt &ndash today an acknowledged pioneer of lightweight construction &ndash spared weight wherever possible provided it did not contravene aircraft construction regulations. If the regulations themselves were inadequate, that was not his fault. The two M 20b accidents were thereafter always known as the &lsquoTurbulence Cases&rsquo. How widely known Messerschmitt had become for his successful lightweight airframes is exemplified by the following anecdote: The Academic Pilot Group (Akademische Fliegergruppe) Berlin had ordered from Augsburg the sporty M23. The Group&rsquos leader, a Dr Leander, arrived at Augsburg to fly the aircraft to Berlin. Messerschmitt took this important client for a guided tour of the works and rounded off by asking if the customer had any request. &lsquoYes,&rsquo Leander said, &lsquoShow me how you scrape the wood off from beneath the varnish.&rsquo

The consequence of the three M 20 crashes was the cancellation of the Deutsche Lufthansa order. This meant administration for the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke. The negotiations were handled between Augsburg banker Friedrich Seider, an experienced liquidations administrator, and the BfW financial wizard Kokothaki, and lasted from 1931 until the Hitler government saved the firm with the first armaments contracts in 1933. Kokothaki despaired at the construction costs incurred from early on by Messerschmitt. Although the aircraft were outstanding, demand was slack. But Messerschmitt was not the only aircraft builder who paid scant heed to costs so long as others were going to be paying them.

During the Spanish Civil War another Messerschmitt design, the Bf 109 fighter, confirmed a superiority which had been self-evident for some time and in the summer of 1937 the Bf 109 left the aviation world in shocked silence. Dübendorf aerodrome near Zürich was the venue for an international flying tournament attended by entrants from France, Italy, Germany, Britain, Czechoslovakia and elsewhere. There were five competitions and the Bf 109 won all five. The machine flew and climbed faster than all its rivals. As a fighter it won the individual and team races. Never before had German aircraft even participated in an international competition. A few in the know might have been confident enough to place a bet on one or two victories. Europe was already bracing itself for war. To win all five races outright was almost a provocation. The Bf 108 Taifunfour-seater pleasure aircraft, and the Bf 109 fighter, his two excellent designs, elevated Willy Messerschmitt and his engineers, who numbered among the best in Germany, into the front rank of the world&rsquos aircraft builders.

In the spring of 1938, they now faced a daunting task. Men who would later become household names in Germany &ndash Lusser, Voigt, Degel, Hornung, Kaiser, Wackerle and Ludwig Bölkow, a young graduate engineer fresh from University who knew his subject, had talent and a store of ideas &ndash wrestled at desk and drawing board with the mathematics and technical design of an aircraft which was certain to lead them into virgin territory. The problem confronting the team was to come up with something special in aircraft design. A machine to succeed the Bf 109 no less, and that was by no means going to be easy. Within a few months they had conceived project P 1065 for a twin-engined jet fighter. The files entitled &lsquoMe 262 &ndash Pursuit Fighter&rsquo were presented to the Reich Air Ministry on 7 June 1938. Six months afterwards, in December 1938, engineers and officials from the Ministry made their first inspection of the full-size mock-up. The contract for the construction of three experimental aircraft followed a little later.

Elsewhere a series of world records was now set and broken. On 11 November 1937 &ndash shortly after Dübendorf &ndash Dr Hermann Wurster, chief test pilot of the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, the trade name of the Messerschmitt organisation, hence &lsquoBf&rsquo, reached 611.004 kph in a souped-up Me 109E. The flight set a world record for land aircraft. On Whit Sunday 1938 the World War I fighter ace Ernst Udet flew at 634.73 kph over 100 kilometres at the controls of a Heinkel He 100, easily destroying the existing record of 554 kph held by the Italian Francesco Agello. On 30 March 1939 Hans Dieterle flying the Heinkel He 100 V8 set an absolute world speed record with 746.606 kph which Messerschmitt test pilot Fritz Wendel broke in turn on 26 April 1939 with 755.138 kph.

Wendel&rsquos machine was not a souped-up Bf 109, from which it differed outwardly, but an aircraft designed specifically to set the world record, the Me 209 V1. It was shorter, had finer wings the Bf 109 water-cooling system with its high frontal resistance had been replaced by a surface-mounted radiator and an evaporation device the oil cooler was a circular intake set in the airstream behind the propeller. Seven litres of cooling water were consumed per minute. Propulsion was supplied by an 1,800 hp DB601 V10 12-cylinder liquid-cooled piston engine specially engineered by Daimler &ndash Benz for record attempts and could manage 2,770 hp in a five-minute burst. The record was claimed at the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) for an aircraft designated Me 109R to give the impression for propaganda purposes that a modified Me 109 had taken the world record. No effort was spared to protect the machine from the camera to maintain the deception.

The expression &lsquothe Me 109&rsquo sounds more formidable and slips off the tongue more smoothly than &lsquoBf 109&rsquo and the Propaganda Ministry was quick to seize upon it. The deception was never corrected with the FAI and Fritz Wendel&rsquos world record stood for thirty years. Even then only a few surpassed it. In 1939 Germany had four pilots who each held a world aviation speed record, and that in itself was a world record.

These achievements brought the piston engine to the zenith of its development. The four-stroke machine invented by Nikolaus August Otto could advance no further. And aircraft speeds could neither be increased by higher revs or a different design of spinner. To fly faster would only be possible powered by rockets or jet propulsion. In the endurance field, hardly 500 kph had been attained: even the Me 109 could not manage 400 kph in winning the competition over the set course at Dübendorf. The fastest propeller-driven aircraft of World War II were the twin-engined RAF Mosquito, and the German Dornier 335 &lsquoPfeil&rsquo with a propeller front and rear. These were capable of approaching 750kph in December 1944 and became the world&rsquos fastest series-produced aircraft. But that was the dead end.

The first manufacturer to fly a jet aircraft successfully was Ernst Heinkel AG of Warnemünde, whose experimental rocket-propelled He 176 and jet-propelled He 178 made their maiden flights piloted by Erich Warsitz in the summer of 1939. Interested onlookers on the ground were Hitler, Goering and Ernst Udet, Minister for Aircraft Production and Supply, but with the impending invasion of Poland only weeks away decisions had to be postponed until such time as Warsaw had requested an armistice. The German High Command was sure that Britain and France would look the other way once more. Later in the war both aircraft went on show in the Berlin Aviation Museum and were eventually destroyed there in an air raid.

The successor to the He 178 was the twin-engined He 280 with He S 8A turbines each developing 700 kg thrust. First tested in 1942, Udet recognised the possibilities of the machine at once but his pleas for its adoption by the Luftwaffe fell on deaf ears. Seven months later he was dead and Milch, who took over his office, lacked his predecessor&rsquos vision and felt that the development of the turbojet &lsquowith which the He 280 was first powered had enough bugs in it that the original flights of the jet fighter were made with the engines uncowled&rsquo and was thus not sufficiently advanced for him to advocate it. In the event, although work was continued on the prototype, the aircraft fell prey to the 1940 edict that any development which would not be usable within six months was to be abandoned. This might not have stopped Professor Messerschmitt but it was certainly the end of the He 280, the aircraft for which the time was ripe.

Shortly before the outbreak of war, aeronautical engineers in Britain, France, Italy and the United States were considering jet-engine designs, but in development already they lagged far behind Germany. The Kiel-based firm of Hellmuth Walter supplied the 600kg-thrust rocket motor for the Heinkel He 176 and was developing a liquid fuel for the Alexander Lippisch-designed Me 163 rocket fighter. The jet engine for the He 178 had been built by engineer Dr Hans Pabst von Ohain while early work on jet turbines had been in hand since 1935 at BMW and the Junkers Motorenwerke (Jumo). Information regarding progress being made on building the new turbines came from BMW and Jumo in a steady flow and Messerschmitt was confident that his Me 262 prototypes would be ready for testing as soon as the turbines arrived and were fitted.

Since BMW led Junkers in the development race, Messerschmitt consulted chiefly with the Bavarian firm and calculated from the available data that the fighter could top 800 kph in level flight. This speed was hitherto only dreamed of but still sufficiently short of the sound barrier that the expected problems at Mach 1 need not be addressed.

There was an initial difference of opinion about where the two engines should be sited. For aerodynamic reasons, Messerschmitt himself wanted the two cigar-shaped turbines built into the wings. After his engineers explained the difficulties this would cause, such as poor accessibility for maintenance and repair, the large personnel requirement for engine changes and finally a much greater risk of the whole aircraft exploding if hit by enemy fire, Messerschmitt was persuaded to sling a turbine below each wing. This would allow a conventional piston engine to be fitted in the nose of the experimental prototype as a stand-by in the event of turbine failure. The wisdom of this precaution was to prove itself, although not quite in the way that had been anticipated.

By the outbreak of war in September 1939, German military aviation had been developed only to the stage where the Luftwaffe could control the airspace over the Reich and the territories adjacent to it. Until then, it had seemed improbable that Germany would be faced by a dangerous enemy or superior combined enemy forces in the air. Hitler had concluded a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union, the French air force was obsolete, the Polish air arm was small, obsolete and not independent of the Polish army, while Germany with 4,500 aircraft, some of them of the most modern design, led the field in Europe. The RAF at the time had a thousand fewer aircraft than the Luftwaffe.

The lightning victories over Poland and then France played their part in strengthening German confidence in the invincibility of the Wehrmacht and there were relatively few people, even among those in the know about certain adverse trends in Luftwaffe development, who took a less sanguine view. But even having disposed of the French, the German Luftwaffe was simply not strong enough for an air-war across the western European continent, particularly if pitted against the consequential and technically well-armed opponent which Great Britain was becoming. After an initial superiority the balance shifted to a parity between the fighter pilots of both sides during the Battle of Britain, but Germany lacked a modern heavy bomber able to penetrate far enough inland with a worthwhile payload even from airfields in northern France. And had such a bomber been available, no fighter existed with the range to provide aerial protection to, say, Liverpool or the Tyne and back. Early on, all hopes resided in the He 177 bomber. This machine was to prove itself a problem child of the first order. The trio of twin-engined bombers which formed the backbone of the German offensive against southern England were short-ranged and either troublesome mechanically, such as the Ju 88, or obsolete, as were the He 111 and Do 17: the Bf 110 &lsquodestroyer&rsquo was too slow and had little value as a bomber. The mediocrity of the Bf 110 had been recognised by the Reich Air Ministry in 1939. Udet himself had asked Messerschmitt if he would be able to supply the Luftwaffe with 2,000 improved Bf 110s by October 1942. Messerschmitt said yes and got the contract. This meant that he was now turning out Germany&rsquos principal fighter, and soon would be responsible for producing Germany&rsquos principal light bomber, and after that the world&rsquos first jet fighter.

By the beginning of 1941 &ndash still without the jet turbines &ndash the airframes of Me 262 prototypes V1, V2 and V3 were reported to the Ministry as ready for aerial testing. Since the manufacturers could not confirm a delivery date for the new turbines, Messerschmitt decided to fit a 750 hp Jumo 210G piston engine in the fuselage nose for the first test flights. Being portly, it was certainly a departure from the aerodynamic elegance of the shark-like hull, but it would serve its purpose and save time.

On the evening of 18 April 1941, Fritz Wendel, who had discharged himself from hospital against medical advice, climbed into the cockpit of Me 262 V1 and took off at 19:35 hrs. With its relatively weak engine, it was a close call to get the 2,660 kilos of machine into the air before arriving at the end of the 1,000-yard runway. In its first ascent and at altitude the new aircraft showed good flying qualities although the maximum 420 kph in level flight was only half its designed top speed. To see how the hull behaved at higher speeds, the aircraft had to be dived at a steep incline at full throttle repeatedly over the series of trials. On the first test, wing vibrations were observed at 540 kph. Twice previously flying other aircraft types Wendel had had to evacuate by parachute perilously close to the ground, but that was the risk a test pilot ran in the endeavour to find a new aircraft&rsquos defects if it was to be recommended for series production. As the angle of dive became ever steeper, the starting altitude became progressively higher to allow the pilot more time to bale out in case of disaster. Wendel established that the dangerous vibrations fell away at higher speeds. This brought him a certain relief, but he was sure that later when the jet powerplants were fitted and provided much higher speeds, more unpleasant surprises would be bound to lie in wait. The flight characteristics of the new hull were not merely good, however stability, the effectiveness of flaps, ailerons and rudder and performance at slow speed in particular were outstanding. Test flying the Me 262 airframe lasted the remainder of 1941.


July 18, 1942: World's First Operational Jet Fighter Takes Wing

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Untuk menghidupkan semula artikel ini, kunjungi Profil Saya, kemudian Lihat cerita yang disimpan.

The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe was the first German jet fighter used in World War II.
Photo: Bettmann / Corbis 1942: The third prototype of the Messerschmitt 262 becomes the first true operational jet plane when it takes to the skies over Bavaria at the height of World War II.

Engine problems, other teething difficulties and political bungling delayed its debut as a combat aircraft until 1944, but when it arrived, the twin-jet Me 262 showed that with an experienced pilot at the controls, it was more than a match for the best Allied fighters, including Britain's own jet, the Gloster Meteor.

In truth, the Me 262 should have been ready for front-line service much earlier. The original design, which, in the end, looked a lot like the finished product, existed as early as April 1939. But high costs and the belief of many high-ranking Luftwaffe officers that conventional aircraft could win the war prevented Germany from making the Me 262 a priority.

The first prototype flew in 1941, but the BMW-made turbojets weren't ready, so the first Me 262 went aloft equipped with 700-horsepower Jumo 210G piston engines.

Like the Type XXI U-boat, the Me 262 appeared too late in the war to help Germany stave off defeat. History will remember it as the world's first operational jet plane, but the Me 262's true legacy is the influence it had on the design of a new generation of warplanes.


Entering A New Age: Germany’s Stormbird – The Me 262

The Messerschmitt Me 262 ‘Schwalbe’ (“Swallow”) is undoubtedly one of the most important examples of Germany’s technological advancement in both aerodynamics and jet engines during the Second World War. But the entry into operational service of the first jet fighter in history was delayed by a tumultuous and difficult development, mostly due to engine troubles and political decisions. Thinking that the war would be short, the Third Reich never granted it any priority. But once they were confronted with the possibility of a defeat, it was too late to produce it in sufficient numbers, train the pilots and have any significant effect on the outcome of the war.

This article is by Menetrey Yanndari Switzerland,a guest authoruntuk Defencyclopedia.


Me 262

DEVELOPMENT

Work on the Me 262 started before WW2 in 1938, but as an experimental aircraft. After the successful test flight of the world’s first jet powered aircraft, the Heinkel He 178, Germany adopted jet engines for an advanced fighter. Dinamakan semula ‘Projekt 1065’, the Me 262’s development progressed slowly due to difficulties encountered with the development of the BMW 003 jet engine which could only produce half of the expected output. While the Me 262 prototype was ready to fly, there were no power plants available to take it to the sky. This postponed the first flight of the Me 262 V1 prototype to the 18hb of April 1941. The V1 was equipped with a Jumo 210G piston engine in the nose and two mock BMW 003 under the wings and only served to test the aerodynamics of the fighter.

Me 262 V1

Dihidupkan 29 July 1942 finally occurred the first flight with jet engines, more than a year after the completion of the airframe. The V3 prototype was powered by two BMW 003 producing 750kg (1,650lb) of thrust each and fitted with a classic tail wheel. This landing gear layout proved inadequate as the aircraft couldn’t leave the ground. While accelerating, brakes had to be applied to raise the tail of the prototype and allow it to take off. The V3 thus received a redesigned tricycle landing gear to be in a horizontal position during take off and test flights continued slowly.

Me 262 V3

The Germans produced two jet engines during the war: the BMW 003 and Jumo 004. Unlike the British, the Germans favoured axial-flow turbojet over centrifugal compressor turbojet. The axial-flow engine was far more powerful and had a smaller cross-section (important for high-speed aircraft) but was more fragile and complex to manufacture. The development of the BMW and Jumo engines was made in parallel, and both proved to be unreliable.

At first, the BMW 003 was the planned engine for the Me 262. Delays and problems in its development led Messerschmitt to choose the Jumo 004 instead. In the end, the BMW 003 only powered two V-prototypes and two production Me 262 A-1b. The Jumo 004, despite having its own development problems, entered production well ahead of its more technologically advanced competitor. Jumo’s jet engine had a smaller diameter but was heavier than the BMW 003.

Me 262 Jumo 004

The wing of the Me 262 had thus to be redesigned to maintain the centre of gravity. To resist high temperatures in the engine, scarcely available materials were used, which were unacceptable in production. To address this problem, a sheet of aluminium was applied over mild steel. The engine was easier to produce, but its lifespan was shortened, not exceeding 15 jam. The Jumo 004 could produce 900kg (1�lb) of thrust.

But in summer 1943, Hitler wondered if the Me 262 could be designed as a fighter-bomber. In fact, Hitler was giving more importance to a fleet of versatile aircraft capable of both intercepting enemy fighters and attack troops attempting an invasion of German-held territory before his Panzer divisions could repel it. Messerschmitt indicated it was impossible for the Me 262 to carry bombs in its current state and that it would require major modifications. Furious, Hitler ordered that every Me 262 had to be produced as a fighter-bomber.

Modifications were effectuated and two 250kg (500lb) bombs could be carried, becoming the Me 262A-1b/2a version. However, this improvised solution occasioned an excessive delay in the deployment of the Me 262. The jet fighter was thus never ready for the expected landings in Normandy, the very invasion Hitler wanted it to counter. The operational interest in the fighter-bomber version quickly fell and the Germans abandoned its production in favour of its initial interceptor version, the Me 262 A-1a.

ARMAMENTS AND DIFFERENT VARIANTS

Messerschmitt thought of its jet fighter as a bomber interceptor. To make short work of Allied heavy bombers, a powerful armament had to be mounted. The nose of the Me 262 had enough space to accommodate a wide variety of armament layout, depending on the version and the role it was intended to fulfil. Dalam 1942, Rheinmetall-Borsig submitted its newly developed 30mm Mk 108 cannon, specially designed for use against heavy bombers. The cannon could fire the ‘Minengeschoss’ (“mine-shell”), a shell with a warhead filled with powerful RDX explosive, making it highly lethal against bombers. Three of these strongly brisant high-explosive ammunitions were enough to take a heavy bomber down.

The 30 mm Minengeschoss shell

The first armament trials with the Mk 108 were effectuated with the V8 prototype in March 1944. The Me 262 received not less than four Mk 108, each fed with 100 pusingan, giving it the heaviest armament of any WW2 fighter. 45kg of lethal projectiles could be fired in a 3 seconds burst. In comparison, the Hawker Tempest could “only” fire 18kg with its four Hispano 20mm cannons. However, the Mk 108 had a low muzzle velocity and was prone to jamming.

To overcome the limitations of the usual quartet of Mk 108 mounted on the Me 262A-1a, another armament compartment was designed. Mounted on the Me 262A-1/U1, it featured two 20mm MG 151 cannons, two 30mm Mk 103 cannons and two Mk 108. The combination of the different cannons was problematic and only three examples of the Me 262A-1a/U1 were built. Another compartment was tried and fitted on the Me 262A-1/U5, featuring six Mk 108 cannons. But this solution was found too heavy and couldn’t store much ammunitions for the cannons. Only one example was built.

The different nose variants of the Me 262

The Me 262A-2a was the definitive fighter-bomber version, capable of carrying two SC500 500kg (1,000lb) bom. Sahaja two Mk 108 cannons were retained on this version. Messerschmitt also developed a reconnaissance version of the Me 262, starting with the Me 262A-1a/U3. This model could be distinguished by its bulge over the gun bay area which held two RB20/30 cameras. A single Mk 108 could be fitted but all twenty-six airframes were unarmed. The Me 262A-5, the final reconnaissance variant, could carry two Mk 108 cannons, but only a few were produced before the end of the war.

The Me 262 recon variant

The armament was completed by 24 R4M rockets mounted on wooden racks under the wings. The R4M was a simple, small rocket-propelled missile that served almost exclusively on the Me 262. It had the advantage of being more practical than the large Werfer-Granate 21, had a higher velocity than 30mm shells but kept the same ballistic trajectory than the Mk 108 shells, making the aim easier. 12 were fitted under each wing and R4Ms were generally fired in a salvo of six rockets. Since their accuracy was limited, six rockets were enough to cover roughly the size of a heavy bomber, almost guaranteeing a hit.

Me 262 R4M

SPECIAL VARIANTS

Starting with one of the most atypical (and popular) versions of Messerschmitt’s jet fighter, the Me 262 A-1a/U4. The U4 version was nicknamed “Pulkzerstörer” (“formation/pack destroyer”) and would have probably been the bomber-destroyer by excellence. Two airframes were taken off the production line, fitted with new nose sections and became the prototypes of the A-1a/U4. Flight tests were carried out in May and April 1945. The major difference between the “Pulkzerstörer” and an ordinary 262 is obviously the entire nose section that had been specially designed to accommodate the Mauser Mk 214A 50mm cannon.

Mauser Mk 214A 50mm cannon

Weighing 490 kilos (1,000lb) and with a rate of fire of 45 rounds/minute, it could carry 22 projectiles. Just like for the Mk 108, the Mk 214 could fire shells fitted with powerful RDX explosive. Only one of these large 50mm shells was enough to effectively destroy a bomber. The size of the gun meant that the nose wheel mechanism had to be reconstructed and the nose wheel swivelled 90 degrees to lay horizontally in the bay beneath the gun when fully retracted.

This layout had already been developed for the Messerschmitt Me 309 and adapted for the Me 262. The cannon was accessed by removing a large hatch along the upper nose and the otherwise so sleek outlines of the 262 were marred by a hump covering the foremost parts of the gun. The barrel itself protruded from the nose of the aircraft, making it look like a giant vicious insect.

Me 262 BK5

Even if the Mk 214 was the planned cannon for the Me 262, only one of the two airframes received it while the other was tested with the BK5, already in use with the Messerschmitt Me 410. Both cannons were highly powerful, allowing them to be accurately fired from long ranges, well outside the range of the defensive guns mounted on the bombers. With its speed advantage and tremendous power, the U4 would have surely been one of the worst nightmares of Allied bomber crews.

Check out some original gun camera footage from the Luftwaffe Me 262s

Another interesting variant is the two-seater one. The Messerschmitt Me 262 was a very delicate fighter to fly, requiring skills and experience. Early jet engines were less reactive than piston engines at low speed, making landings tricky for young pilots. A tandem-seat trainer version of the Me 262 was thus desirable and greatly eased the conversion of pilots on the jet fighter.

A second seat and dual controls were fitted, replacing one of the fuel tanks. Ini menjadi Me 262B-1a version which was introduced in the summer of 1944. Only fifteen airframes were built. However, the Me 262B-1a led to the development of an impressive night fighter variant, the Me 262B-1a/U1. A FuG-218 ‘Neptun’ long-wavelength radar was fitted along the ‘Naxos’ centimetric-radar-homing gear. The ‘Neptun’ was only a stop-gap before the improved Me 262B-2 fitted with the advanced FuG 240 ‘Berlin’ airborne interception radar was ready. The ‘Neptun’ was still capable of detecting a target between 100m dan 5000m and was covering a 120° angle. However, its characteristic antennas were slowing the Me 262, but the latter was still capable of a max speed of 750km/h (470mph), still faster than the feared British De Havilland Mosquito which preyed on German night fighters.

The Me 262 B1 Night Fighter

To fit the radar in the nose, the two upper 30mm Mk 108 cannons were replaced by two 20mm MG 151 cannons but the two lower Mk 108 were retained. With the second seat, the Me 262 had lost a fuel tank, which greatly reduced its already short range. A good night fighter had to be capable of staying in the air and patrol for hours, so two 300L (80 US gallon) external fuel tanks were fitted under the forward fuselage, greatly extending the fighter’s range.

Trials started in October 1944. However, the Me 262B-1a/U1 didn’t see combat before April 1945. The NJG 11 ‘Kommando Welter’ was already flying the Me 262 A-1a fighter variant as an experimental jet night fighter unit and received ten Me 262 B-1a/U1 in April. Some accounts claim that these night fighters participated in the defence of Berlin and shot down some RAF De Havilland Mosquitos, but there is no confirmation of such claims.

AERODYNAMICS AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT

Let’s get a bit technical here and speak about the aerodynamics of the aircraft. The Me 262 was already featuring some technological revolutions but considering how far German researchers in aerodynamics were at the time, the fighter wasn’t that advanced. Messerschmitt’s jet was first supposed to receive wings with a 35° sweep and two BMW 003 engines. As the Me 262 was finally powered by two Jumo 004 which were heavier, the wings had to be modified with an 18° sweep to keep the centre of gravity of the aircraft.

But what’s special with the angle of a swept wing? When an aircraft approaches supersonic speeds, the pressure on the wings increases brutally, increasing the drag as well. This phenomenon is called ‘compressibility’ and can be fatal for aircraft as they become nose-heavy and enter a vicious dive. When the compressibility limits of an aircraft are reached, surface controls become fixed. The pilot loses control of his aircraft which enter in a steeper dive, leading to the crash or disintegration of the plane in the air.

Swept wings have a crucial advantage: their compressibility ratio is much higher, allowing higher speeds. The sweeper the angle is, the higher the compressibility ratio is. This was discovered by the Germans in 1935, and further researches were immediately carried out. But an 18° sweep wasn’t enough for the Me 262. Its pilots were forbidden to enter 90° dives or reach speed in excess of 900km/h, otherwise, the fighter would be out of control. Messerschmitt was well aware of this and started to work on the HG versions (Hochgeschwindigkeit, or “high-speed”) in 1943.

A side view showing the aerodynamics of the Me 262

The Me 262HG I had a wider chord of the inner wing section thanks to the insertion of a fillet increasing the angle of sweep between the engine nacelles and the fuselage. A new low-drag cockpit canopy and swept horizontal tail surfaces were designed. Flight tests started in January 1945 with the Me 262 V9 modified to the above standards. Tests were satisfactory but the new tail section gave rise to problems. The Me 262HG II received a new wing with the originally planned 35° sweep, improved engines nacelles, the low-drag canopy and the swept horizontal surfaces.

Messerschmitt also investigated a “V-tail” version. Extensive wind tunnels tests were effectuated and the Me 262HG II prototype was about to start flight trials but was damaged in a ground accident. The Me 262HG III incorporated a new wing with a 45° sweep, a centralised engine installation in the wing roots which would have greatly reduced drag, the low-drag canopy and the swept horizontal tail surfaces. The HG I and II were made to gain experience in high-speed flight while the HG III would have been the ultimate version of the Me 262. The top speed of the HG III was projected as Mach 0.96 (1,185km/h, 736mph). After extensive wind tunnels tests, construction of the HG III prototype started but wasn’t completed before the war’s end. And this is how ends the story of the first operational jet fighter’s development.

Mengenai Pengarang

Yann Menetrey is a 21 years old university student living in Geneva, Switzerland. Fascinated by aviation since childhood, and later by military history, he’s running @the_ww2_gallery since three years, an Instagram account dedicated to the Second World War.

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Messerschmitt KR200, the super cool bubble car from the 50s

Noted for its odd appearance, the Messerschmitt did not fail to win the hearts of thousands of people across Europe.

Yes, we are talking about that weird, bubble-fashioned, three-wheels-only car that saw its heyday during the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Several models of this micro-car were released by its manufacturers, such as KR175 and KR200. Its German name is Kabinenroller and translates into “scooter with a cabin.”

Roughly 40,000 models were sold after it was introduced to the market in 1956, until 1964, when production ceased.

However, that was just enough time for the bubble car to establish itself as an entirely new niche in the car industry, which consequently also attracted others to produce their own variations of the model.

Painted blue, with neat leather seats, the interior of an elegant Messerschmitt three-wheeler, Photo by Norbert Aepli CC BY 2.5

Are they racing? Four Messerschmitts on the autobahn, Photo by Kenneth Allen CC BY-SA 2.0

Two red Kabinenrollers, one with a case fixed to the luggage rack, being admired by enthusiasts

FMR Messerschmitt KR 200 ‘Super’ this is reportedly the model that broke dozens of speed records back in its day as its manufacturers wanted to demonstrate the car’s durability and speed, Photo: Alf van Beem – Own work

White and blue model of the bubble car with a cute trailer, Photo by Brian Snelson CC BY 2.0

Only one passenger please, Photo by Brian Snelson CC BY 2.0

The control board of a KR200 model, Photo by Bruno Kussler Marques CC BY 2.0

Black and white photography from 1969, showing the bubble car in front of a seemingly abandoned house, Photo by FORTEPAN / Lechner Nonprofit Kft. Dokumentációs Központ CC BY-SA 3.0

You don’t often get to see one of these in the parking lot. Side view of a blue three-wheeler, Photo by Noebu CC BY 2.5

In the beginning, the Messerschmitt name didn’t have anything to do with cars. It was originally a company that produced aircraft, ever since World War One.

The Bf 1909 aircraft models and later the famed Me 262, the world’s first jet-powered operational airplane fighter model, were the product of the same manufacturer that later became famous for its micro-cars.

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After World War Two, the German company was banned from producing planes as part of the denazification process, therefore temporarily shifted to production of prefab houses.

The bubble-shaped car arrived only in the mid-1950s, when the company opted to reinvent its production line once again. The change was worth it, as there was suddenly this adorable, now all-about-vintage car you can take a look at in the photographs below.

A 1956 model out for a roadtrip. Messerschmitt produced these strange-looking automobiles from 1955 until 1964. Photo by FORTEPAN / Négyesi Pál CC BY-SA 3.0

Messerschmitt Kabinenroller from 1956, Photo by FORTEPAN / Négyesi Pál CC BY-SA 3.0

Inside the “cockpit” of a KR 200 model, Photo by Lothar Spurzem CC BY-SA 2.0 de

Messerschmitt KR 200 Cabrio-Limousine, painted yellow, Photo by Lothar Spurzem CC BY-SA 2.0 de

A Messerschmitt KR 200, produced in 1955. This one comes with a trailer too, Photo by Lothar Spurzem CC BY-SA 2.0 de

Exhibited here is a model KR175 Messerschmitt, Photo by Clément Bucco-Lechat, CC BY-SA 3.0

As good as new, a green-painted stunning-looking KR200 model, Photo by Jin Kemoole, CC BY 2.0

The Messerschmitt management did not come up with the idea of the three-wheeler by themselves, however. It was reportedly a man known as Fritz Fend, who had, during World War Two, served as a technical officer with the German Air Force.

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He approached the company with an invention he came up with in the years following the end of the war, the “Fend Filtzer,” a carriage that sported three wheels only.

The model came with an additional motor and the entire machine resembled an early version of an automated wheelchair, CarBuzz menulis.

It will certainly make your day if you see a red Messerschmitt KR200

Messerschmitt KR200, opened to show off its beautifully simple interior, Photo by Brian Snelson, CC BY 2.0

Blue bubble-car gleaming in the sun, Photo by François de Dijon, CC BY-SA 3.0

Turkish writer Yılmaz Onay (left) and actor Erol Keskin in a Messerschmitt, 1968, Photo by Yılmaz Onay, CC BY-SA 3.0

The bubble car that came as an improvement of Fend’s original invention, and his collaboration with the Messerschmitt management, was destined to have an aircraft-like hint, one that could be easily spotted in the car design.

Just notice in the photos above how the car can be opened, with a canopy-like opening on the top instead of regular-looking doors, or the combination of tandem seats, also typical for combat aircraft of the day.

It’s no surprise really, as the manufacturers and Fend both had a long history in the aviation field. No regrets and no complaints either. Perhaps the bubble car is now part of history, but even the quickest glance will melt your heart.


Sejarah

The Messerschmitt Me 262 began development as early as 1939, even before the start of the war. However, low-priority status and issues with the extremely complicated jet engine manufacturing delayed the project severely. However, the aircraft finally took flight with jet engines in July 1942. However, engine problems still roamed over the development, with more engines breaking down than actually functioning. Furthermore, Hitler's insistence that the aircraft be used solely as a fast bomber instead of fighter only further delayed the 262's value even after it reached operational status. However, in July 1944, the aircraft scored its first victory against a Mosquito and then the 262 was finally being used against the ever increasing Allied air raids. It was a success, scoring numerous bomber and fighter kills in the raids.

However, a few victories could not stop the bombing completely and as such, many of Germany's jet aircraft had to be moved to special underground hangars. Β]  As for fighting in the air, 262 pilots often had to master their tactics quickly or die. The standard method was to dive on the bombers from behind and make a fast pass, though the speed at which the 262 moved meant that there was little to no time in which to aim and fire. Adding to the German pilot's troubles, as the war progressed, Mustang pilots began working in specialized teams to attack the jet aircraft and finally began to be effective against them. In total, some 1,430 examples of Messerschmitt Me 262 had been produced during the war.


Selepas perang

With the end of hostilities in May 1945, the Allied powers scrambled to claim the remaining Me 262s. Studying the revolutionary aircraft, elements were subsequently incorporated into future fighters such as the F-86 Sabre and MiG-15. In the years after the war, Me 262s were used in high-speed testing. Though German production of the Me 262 ended with the conclusion of the war, the Czechoslovak government continued building the aircraft as the Avia S-92 and CS-92. These remained in service until 1951.

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