Podcast Sejarah

Nopatin SP-2195 - Sejarah

Nopatin SP-2195 - Sejarah

Nopatin
(SP-2195: t. 3,539; 1. 320'2 "; b. 48'1", dr. 16 '; s. 23 k.)

Nopatin sebuah pengangkutan yang dibina pada tahun 1913 oleh Harlan & Hollingsworth, Wiimington, Del. AB Manhattan, waB yang diperoleh oleh Navy aB Nopatin dari Central Vermont Transportation Co. 11 Januari 1918 dan ditugaskan pada 28 Januari 1918, Letnan Comdr. Alexander Smart dalam arahan.

Beroperasi di Selat Inggeris selama bulan-bulan perang yang semakin berkurang, Nopatin bergerak di antara Southampton, England dan Perancis dalam tugas berbahaya untuk mengangkut orang dan bekalan melalui perairan yang penuh dengan kapal selam musuh. Selepas perkhidmatan masa perang dan penutupan, dia diperintahkan dijual pada 15 Ogos 1919.


Nopatin SP-2195 - Sejarah

S.S. Grant, kapal penumpang 18.072 tan kasar, dibina pada tahun 1907 di Belfast, Ireland, untuk Hamburg-Amerika Linie. Dia berkongsi struktur superstruktur dan enam tiang khas dengan kapal saudaranya, Presiden Lincoln. Setelah tujuh tahun beroperasi secara komersial, dia berlindung di New York ketika pecahnya Perang Dunia I pada bulan Agustus 1914, menjadikan laut lepas tidak aman untuk kapal dagang Jerman, dan tetap tidak aktif sehingga Amerika Syarikat memasuki konflik pada bulan April 1917. Disita pada masa itu oleh Pemerintah AS, dia diserahkan ke Angkatan Laut dan, pada awal Agustus 1917, ditugaskan sebagai Presiden pengangkutan Grant (kemudian diberi ID pendaftaran # 3014). Sepanjang Perang Dunia Pertama, dia melakukan lapan perjalanan pergi melintasi Atlantik, mengangkut hampir 40,000 penumpang (terutama tentera A.S.) ke zon perang Eropah. Berikutan gencatan senjata 11 November 1918, Presiden Grant membawa pulang lebih dari 37,000 veteran perang dan orang lain dalam perjalanan lapan lagi perjalanan pergi dan balik. Dia dinyahaktifkan pada Oktober 1919 dan dipindahkan ke Tentera A.S.

Pada tahun 1920-1921 kapal itu berfungsi sebentar sebagai pengangkutan Angkatan Darat, dan pada tahun 1921 dikembalikan ke Dewan Perkapalan A.S. dan disiapkan. Dia diganti namanya menjadi Presiden Buchanan pada tahun 1922 atau 1923, kemudian diubah namanya menjadi Republik dan dibangun kembali dengan suprastruktur yang diperbesar dan dandang yang dibakar dengan minyak. Pada tahun 1920-an dan awal 1930-an, Garis Amerika Syarikat mengendalikannya secara komersial. Republik menyambung semula perkhidmatan Tentera Darat pada tahun 1931, bertugas sebagai Republik USS (AP-33) pada tahun 1941-1945 dan sekali lagi menjadi kapal Tentera Darat pada tahun 1945-1946.

Halaman ini menampilkan, dan menyediakan pautan ke, semua pandangan yang kami miliki mengenai USS President Grant (ID # 3014), yang kemudian menjadi USS Republic (AP-33).

Sekiranya anda mahukan pengeluaran semula resolusi yang lebih tinggi daripada gambar digital yang ditunjukkan di sini, lihat: & quotCara Mendapatkan Reproduksi Fotografi. & Quot

Klik pada gambar kecil untuk meminta pandangan yang lebih besar dari gambar yang sama.

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Di Brest, Perancis.
Foto asal ini mempunyai tarikh 18 Julai 1919. Walau bagaimanapun, penyamaran & quotdazzle & quot yang dipakai oleh Presiden Grant menunjukkan bahawa gambar itu sebenarnya diambil pada tahun 1918.

Koleksi Peter K. Connelly. Dengan hormat William H. Davis, 1967.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 39KB 740 x 575 piksel

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Pengeluaran semula separuh kapal gambar kapal dalam penyamaran corak, sekitar pertengahan hingga akhir tahun 1918. Ia diterbitkan oleh A.M. Simon, 324 E. 23rd St., New York City, pada tahun 1919 sebagai salah satu daripada sepuluh gambar dalam & quotSouvenir Folder & quot; mengenai Presiden USS Grant.

Sumbangan Dr. Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 79KB 740 x 490 piksel

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Di New York City, sekitar musim bunga atau musim panas 1918, setelah dicat dengan penyamaran corak.
Gambar oleh New York Navy Yard.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 71KB 610 x 765 piksel

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Di New York City, sekitar musim bunga atau musim panas 1918, setelah dicat dengan penyamaran corak.
Gambar oleh New York Navy Yard.
Kapal yang disamarkan di luar buritan Presiden Grant adalah USS Nopatin (ID # 2195). Lihat Foto # NH 41747-A untuk versi gambar yang dipotong, yang menekankan kapal itu.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 88KB 630 x 765 piksel

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Mengukus dalam konvoi dengan kapal lain, 1918. Dia memakai & menyamar & menyamar.
Gambar asal dicetak pada stok kad pos (& quotAZO & quot).

Sumbangan Charles R. Haberlein Jr, 2007.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Saiz gambar dalam talian: 42KB 740 x 445 piksel

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Di Pelabuhan New York, 1919.
Gambar oleh E. Muller Jr., New York.

Sumbangan Dr Mark Kulikowski, 2008.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 96KB 900 x 500 piksel

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Di Pelabuhan New York, 1919.
Foto asalnya, diambil oleh E. Muller Jr., dari New York, dicetak pada stok kad pos (& quotAZO & quot).

Sumbangan Dr Mark Kulikowski, 2007.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 64KB 740 x 490 piksel

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Terikat dengan pelampung di pelabuhan, sekitar tahun 1919.
Gambar oleh & quotHF Co & quot.
Gambar asal dicetak pada stok poskad (& quotAZO & quot).

Sumbangan Charles R. Haberlein Jr, 2007.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Saiz gambar dalam talian: 71KB 740 x 465 piksel

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Di pelabuhan, mungkin di Newport News, Virginia, 1919.
Foto dilindungi hak cipta oleh Holladay pada masa itu.
Gambar asal dicetak pada stok kad pos (& quotAZO & quot).

Sumbangan Charles R. Haberlein Jr, 2008.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 67KB 740 x 480 piksel

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Bergambar pada tahun 1919 (mungkin pada 2 April), semasa bekerja membawa tentera A.S. pulang dari Eropah.
Gambar asal dicetak pada stok kad pos (& quotAZO & quot).

Sumbangan Charles R. Haberlein Jr, 2008.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Saiz gambar dalam talian: 64KB 740 x 495 piksel

Geran Presiden USS (ID # 3014)

Penghasilan semula separuh gambar kapal yang mengukus dalam konvoi dengan pengangkutan pasukan lain, 1918. Ia diterbitkan oleh A.M. Simon, 324 E. 23rd St., New York City, pada tahun 1919 sebagai salah satu daripada sepuluh gambar dalam & quotSouvenir Folder & quot; mengenai Presiden USS Grant.
Berdasarkan corak penyamaran dan penampilan fizikal umum, tiga kapal yang paling dekat dengan kamera adalah (dari kiri ke kanan): USS Zeelandia (ID # 2507) Presiden USS Grant dan USS Huron (ID # 1408).

Sumbangan Dr Mark Kulikowski, 2006.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 61KB 740 x 475 piksel

& quotPengangkutan Pasukan A.S. Asli & quot

Carta disusun pada 16 Ogos 1919, menunjukkan jumlah trans-Atlantik & sekitar quotturn & quot dan tempoh purata mereka untuk tiga puluh tujuh angkatan tentera laut A.S. yang digunakan semasa dan sejurus selepas Perang Dunia I.

Koleksi Persatuan Penyatuan USS Pocahontas, 1974.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 157KB 690 x 655 piksel

Klik di sini untuk memutar carta 90 darjah mengikut arah jam

Catatan: Kapal yang dilihat dalam Foto # NH 43544 pada asalnya, dan tidak betul, dikenal sebagai Presiden USS Grant, dan telah diterbitkan seperti itu. Kapal dalam pandangan itu sebenarnya USS Susquehanna (ID # 3016), yang mempunyai penampilan yang sangat berbeza.


Sejarah Virginia - Charles R. Adair

Untuk perbincangan mengenai sejarah dan salasilah New River Valley di North Carolina dan Virginia, anda dipersilakan untuk menyertai Kumpulan Perbincangan Sejarah dan Genealogi New River.

Selamat datang dan kami harap anda menyertai perbincangan.

ApaBaru:

Nota Sungai Baru & mdash Lengkap

21 Januari 2014

Setelah kira-kira dua tahun bekerja, kami telah menyelesaikan peningkatan besar ke New River Notes. Pada 21 Januari 2014, kami menukar fail terakhir dan semakan halaman terakhir.

Pada bulan Januari 2013 kami memperkenalkan susun atur laman web baru tetapi kerana masih ada banyak halaman yang tersisa untuk dilakukan, terdapat Pembinaan Merah berwarna merah di halaman depan. Setahun kemudian kami telah menyelesaikan semua halaman yang terdapat di laman web asal. Pembinaan selesai. Kami mempunyai laman web menarik yang penuh dengan bahan untuk membantu anda dalam penyelidikan dan mungkin menghiburkan anda.

Nota Sungai Baru

6 Januari 2013

New River Notes, sumber silsilah terkemuka untuk New River Valley di North Carolina dan Virginia, melancarkan laman web penampilan baru hari ini.

New River Notes pada awalnya dilancarkan pada tahun 1998 oleh Jeffrey C. Weaver memberikan banyak maklumat baru kepada penyelidik New River Valley dan tradisi itu diteruskan hari ini oleh Grayson County, Virginia Heritage Foundation, Inc.

Selamat datang dan kami harap anda menikmati penampilan baru kami.

Charles R. Adair

CHARLES R. ADAIR, yang sejak beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini telah membangun perniagaan insurans am yang besar dan berjaya di Narrows di Giles County, masih seorang lelaki yang relatif muda, namun telah memiliki pelbagai pengalaman seperti yang dicapai oleh beberapa orang.

Datuknya, James Adair, dilahirkan pada 4 Jun 1807, di County Down, Ireland. Dia datang ke Amerika Syarikat bersama keluarga ayahnya, William, Jane, Mary dan Robert Adair, tiba di Norfolk setelah berada di kapal selama lima puluh satu hari. James Adair berkahwin dengan Jane Swart, anak perempuan William R. Swart. Isteri William R. Swart adalah Elizabeth Rogers, yang merupakan anak perempuan Hugh dan Mary (Combs) Rogers. Bapa Hugh Rogers adalah Arthur Rogers, yang menghabiskan tahun-tahun awalnya di Bucks County, Pennsylvania, dan setelah itu pindah ke Loudoun County, Virginia. Arthur Rogers adalah anak lelaki William Rogers, yang datang ke Amerika Syarikat sekitar tahun 1720. William Rogers mewakili: di keluarga Presbiterian lama Scotch-Ireland di County Antrim, Ireland, dan keluarga yang ditubuhkan di Ireland oleh penghijrahan dari Scotland sekitar pertengahan abad keenam belas.

James Adair adalah peneroka awal di Giles County, Virginia, menjalankan ladang besar dengan bantuan hamba. Dia (berbohong di Bell Point, Giles County, 20 Ogos 1868. Isterinya, Jane A. Swart, dilahirkan di Fauquier County, 30 September 1813, dan meninggal di Bell Point, 10 Mac 7865. Mereka mempunyai keluarga besar daripada tujuh putera dan dua anak perempuan: William, lahir 24 Mac 1844 Ellen Adair, lahir 30 Mac 1845 Asa Rogers, lahir 20 Mac 1846, meninggal 24 Januari 1923 Robert Wallace, lahir 3 April 1848 Hugh T., 7 Oktober , 1849 John A., yang disebutkan di bawah Mary Jane, lahir 10 Mac 1854 James Arthur, lahir 9 April 1857 dan Menelius Chapman, yang lahir pada 30 Jun 1862, dan lemas di muara Sungai Yukon di Alaska, Jun 10, 1900.

John A. Adair, bapa Charles R., dilahirkan di Bell Point, sekarang dipanggil Lurich, di Giles County, 20 Jun 1851, dan kini praktikalnya adalah penduduk yang sudah bersara di Narrows. Dia dibesarkan di Giles County, menyelesaikan pendidikannya di bawah Profesor Humphrey di White Gate Academy, dan tahun-tahun aktifnya telah dikhaskan untuk bertani. Ile masih memiliki harta tanah yang banyak di Narrows. Kediamannya telah berada di Virginia Barat Daya, kecuali selama tiga tahun ketika dia berusaha merintis di negara Kansas, Sumner County, yang ketika itu berbohong dan keluarganya tinggal selama tiga tahun, 1878-80. Dia adalah seorang demokrat dan berkhidmat sebagai timbalan sheriff di Giles County di bawah Sheriff John D. Snidow empat tahun. Ile adalah ahli aktif Gereja Baptis Missionary. Isteri pertamanya, Virginia McClaugherty, dilahirkan berhampiran Pearisburg pada tahun 1852 dan meninggal pada tahun 1890. Dia adalah ibu kepada empat orang anak: James, seorang pekerja Narrows Extract Works Charles R., Janie, isteri Percy O. Ivery, seorang akauntan tinggal di Langeloth, Pennsylvania dan Miss Ellen Kyle, tinggal bersama ayahnya. John A. Adair berkahwin dengan isteri keduanya, Fannie W. Peck. Terdapat tiga anak kesatuan ini. Arthur C., seorang jurutera awam dan perlombongan dengan Syarikat Baja Amerika Syarikat di Gary, Virginia Barat., Berada dalam perang Dunia selama satu tahun, ditempatkan di Camp Meade, dan ditugaskan sebagai letnan kedua di Jabatan Quartermaster. Bennett F., anak kedua, adalah pengawas pos, peniaga dan peniaga kenderaan di Rich Creek di Giles County, dan juga merupakan veteran perang Dunia. Dia adalah anggota bomba kelas pertama di A.S. S. Nopatin, dan sepanjang masa perang terlibat dalam pengangkutan tentera Inggeris dan Amerika ke seberang Selat Inggeris. Anak ketiga, John Alexander, Jr., mempunyai kedudukan di jabatan kejuruteraan Steel Corporation di Gary, West Virginia.

Charles R. Adair dilahirkan pada 3 Februari 1880, sementara ibu bapanya tinggal berhampiran Wichita di Sumner County, Kansas. Dia adalah bayi ketika mereka kembali ke Virginia, dan dibesarkan di Giles County, menghadiri sekolah-sekolah negara dan sekolah-sekolah di Pearisburg, dan menyelesaikan kursus sekolah menengahnya di sana pada usia lapan belas tahun. Dilahirkan di negara Barat Daya, dia mungkin mewarisi rasa keberadaan perbatasan, sejak meninggalkan sekolah dia pergi ke Western Texas, menjadi koboi, tinggal di peternakan berhampiran Barstow empat bulan, dan pergi ke Deming, New Mexico, di Pergunungan Trasermanus, di mana dia bekerja di lombong perak empat bulan. Meninggalkannya, dia melakukan lawatan panjang ke Negara-negara Barat, bekerja di lombong, mengeluarkan kayu, juga membantu dalam penuaian gandum, dan sebagai puncak dari pengalaman baratnya, dia membuat lari ke sebuah homestead di Oklahoma, di pembukaan tanah di sana pada tahun 1901, tetapi tidak berjaya mendapatkan lokasi. Setelah tiga tahun hidup kasar, dia kembali pada musim gugur 1901 ke Giles County. Selama beberapa bulan, dia adalah penjaga masa dan hak untuk Bell Telephone Company, kemudian menjadi pembeli sebuah syarikat arang batu besar di Flat Top Coal Fields, setelah itu dia belajar dan mengikuti perdagangan pembuat roti di Cincinnati dan di Chesapeake & amp Ohio Railway ladang arang batu. Pada tahun 1906, dia pergi ke jalan sebagai jurujual untuk Syarikat Pembuatan Brown Greenville, yang meliputi wilayah selatan hingga tahun 1908. Pada tahun berikutnya, dia adalah ketua pemeriksa untuk Bahagian Tenaga Motif Kereta Api Norfolk & Barat, dengan ibu pejabat di Roanoke, dan untuk satu tahun berjalan untuk rumah runcit borong di Virginia dan Virginia Barat.

Sejak meninggalkan jalan, minat Mr. Adair tertumpu di Narrows, di mana pembohongan adalah seorang peniaga sehingga April 1916. Dia kemudian terlibat dalam perniagaan insurans am, dan mengendalikan insurans untuk komuniti besar di sekitar Narrows. Adair memiliki rumah moden di kota itu, juga bangunan gedung, dan sejak 1 September 1922, telah menjadi keadilan polis di bandar ini. kebohongan mengambil bahagian: aktif dalam urusan sosial dan kewarganegaraan, dan dirinya adalah lelaki yang sangat popular dan senang. Dia adalah seorang demokrat, seorang diakon Gereja Presbyterian dan pengawas sekolah Minggu, dan berafiliasi dengan Giles Lodge No. 106, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons Pearisburg Bab No. 29, Royal Arch Masons Graham Commandery No. 22, Knights Templar , Kuil Kazim Kuil Mistik di Roanoke, dan juga ahli United Commercial Traveller. Pengaruh dan gerejanya - berada di tangan Pemerintah semasa perang Dunia, dan dia secara aktif membantu dalam semua Pinjaman Liberty dan usaha lain.

Pada 30 Oktober 1907, di Fork Union, Fluvanna County, Encik Adair mengahwini Miss Margaret M. Davis, anak perempuan Henry dan Nettie (Thomas) Davis, ibunya kini meninggal dunia. Ayahnya adalah seorang petani di Fluvanna County. Puan Adair adalah lulusan Sekolah Tinggi Hill Grove di Fork Union. Mereka mempunyai dua orang anak, Mary Davis, lahir 26 Mei 1909, dan Charles Robert, lahir pada 29 September 1914.


Perbaikan terbaru ini mengandungi kemas kini untuk komponen Perkhidmatan MIM, Portal MIM dan PAM.

  • Status: Pek Perkhidmatan MIM 2016 (SP2) Oktober 2019
  • Nombor versi BHOLD yang sepadan: 6.0.62.0

Pastikan anda membaca panduan penyebaran MIM untuk senarai pra-syarat dan had yang dikemas kini yang berkaitan dengan persekitaran TLS 1.2 sahaja, sokongan Akaun Perkhidmatan Terurus Kumpulan dan jalan peningkatan dari versi MIM dan FIM sebelumnya.

Pakej rollup Service Pack 2 (SP2) (build 4.6.34.0) tersedia untuk Microsoft Identity Manager (MIM) 2016. Ia adalah kemas kini kumulatif yang menggantikan kemas kini MIM 2016 SP1 4.4.1302.0 hingga build 4.5.412.0.

Kemas kini dalam Pek Perkhidmatan 2 MIM 2016

Tambahan Pelanggan MIM

  • Menambah sokongan untuk add-on MIM Outlook untuk dimuat ke dalam Outlook for Microsoft 365 Click-to-Run versi.

Perkhidmatan dan Portal

  • Menambah sokongan untuk MIM Service dan Portal untuk dipasang pada Windows Server 2019 dan menggunakan SQL Server 2017, Exchange Server 2019, SharePoint 2019, System Center Service Manager Data Warehouse 2019
  • Perkhidmatan MIM dan Portal yang diaktifkan di persekitaran TLS 1.2 sahaja.
  • Pemasangan yang diaktifkan untuk laman web Perkhidmatan MIM, Reset Kata Laluan dan Pendaftaran Kata Laluan, Perkhidmatan Pemantauan PAM, Perkhidmatan Komponen PAM untuk menggunakan akaun perkhidmatan yang dikendalikan secara berkumpulan.
  • Menambah parameter pemasang ‘keepSQLjobs’.
  • Pekerjaan sementara Ejen Pelayan MIM SQL tidak lagi dimulakan pada replika Kumpulan Ketersediaan Selalu Hidup SQL sekunder.
  • Atribut maya ‘ExplicitMember.Add’ dan ‘ExplicitMember.Remove’ diaktifkan untuk jenis objek tersuai pada borang RCDC untuk berfungsi dengan perubahan delta.

Perkhidmatan Penyegerakan

  • Menambah sokongan untuk MIM Synchronization Service yang akan dipasang pada Windows Server 2019, dan menggunakan SQL Server 2017, Exchange Server 2019
  • Diaktifkan pemasangan Perkhidmatan Penyegerakan MIM di persekitaran TLS 1.2 sahaja.
  • Pemasangan yang diaktifkan untuk Perkhidmatan Penyegerakan MIM menggunakan akaun perkhidmatan terurus kumpulan.
  • Menambah pilihan ‘Gunakan akaun MIMSync’ untuk Ejen Pengurusan Perkhidmatan MIM.

Pengurusan Akses Keistimewaan


Steamship NEW YORK, HUDSON RIVER DAY Line 1908 Naval Cover ROCKY MOUNT, NC

Steamship NEW YORK, HUDSON RIVER DAY Line 1908 Naval Cover ROCKY MOUNT, NC Ia dihantar pada 30 Jan 1908. Ia dilengkapkan dengan cap "Franklin". Ia dihantar dari Wright of Ashland, VA. Kad pos ini dalam keadaan baik, tetapi tidak sempurna. Sila lihat i. Baca Lagi

Item Spesifik
Penerangan Item

Steamship NEW YORK, HUDSON RIVER DAY Line 1908 Naval Cover ROCKY MOUNT, NC

Ia dihantar pada 30 Jan 1908. Ia dilengkapkan dengan cap "Franklin". Ia dihantar dari Wright of Ashland, VA.

Kad pos ini dalam keadaan baik, tetapi tidak sempurna. Sila lihat imbasan dan buat penilaian anda sendiri.

Ahli USCS # 10385 (Saya juga memperoleh cap mengumpulkan lencana merit semasa kecil!). Sila hubungi saya jika anda mempunyai keperluan perlindungan khusus. Saya mempunyai ribuan untuk dijual, termasuk angkatan laut (USS, USNS, USCGC, Coast Guard, kapal, Maritim), pos tentera, acara, APO, hotel, sejarah pos, memorabilia, dan lain-lain. Saya juga menawarkan perkhidmatan kelulusan dengan PENGHANTARAN PERCUMA untuk mengulangi USA pelanggan.

Artikel diterbitkan dalam berita daerah hijau dari bulan Disember 1963 hingga April 1966 dan ditulis oleh f. Van loon ryder.

Ditranskripsikan oleh Sylvia Hasenkopf
14 JANUARI 1965

Bot Fulton
Gambar fulton dan paragon dari "sejarah steamboating on the hudson river", oleh charles hallenbeck, yang terletak di perpustakaan negeri new york, albany

Iklan surat khabar dari perekam kucingkill, maret 1815, perpustakaan penyelidikan vedder

Untuk meneruskan kapal fulton. Mengikuti richmond terdapat beberapa feri, yang akan saya bahas dalam artikel yang berasingan, dan kemudian - permaisuri Rusia! Berjaya dengan kapal uapnya di negara ini, pada tahun 1811 dia memulai rundingan untuk mendapatkan hak eksklusif di Rusia, dengan syarat bahawa dalam tiga tahun dia menjalankan kapal antara st. Petersburg (leningrad) dan kronstadt, melalui lengan terlindung dari jurang finland. Untuk tujuan ini, dia mulai membangun permaisuri Rusia, tetapi dia mati sebelum kapal selesai dan skema jatuh menurut seymour bullock (jurnal sejarah Amerika, jilid 1, 1907, nombor 8, halaman 34), "walaupun tidak selesai sehingga setelah kematian fulton, kapal ini kemudiannya menjadi penghubung, yang beroperasi di jalan-jalan suara pulau panjang hingga dibongkar pada tahun 1836. "

Cabang zaitun (tidak boleh dikelirukan dengan feri dengan nama itu) dibina pada tahun yang sama, tahun 1816, di mana penghubungnya selesai. Kapal ini, sepanjang 124 'menghabiskan sebahagian besar kariernya di laluan new york - brunswick baru dan ditinggalkan pada tahun 1827.

Washton yang disiapkan pada tahun 1813, dibina untuk perkhidmatan sungai potomac, panjangnya 165 kaki dan dibongkar pada tahun 1828.

Ketika kengerian perang tahun 1812 menjadi kenyataan, Fulton mengecut untuk membina kapal perang wap pertama di dunia dengan anggaran kos $ 320,000. Para demelog, juga dikenal sebagai fulton yang pertama, adalah kubu terapung untuk pertahanan pelabuhan. Takut dan propaganda perang sama seperti sekarang. Penjaga malam edinburgh melaporkan ukurannya panjang 800 kaki dengan rasuk 200 kaki! Lebih jauh lagi, bahawa "untuk mengganggu musuh yang berusaha menaiki dia dapat mengeluarkan 100 gelen air mendidih dalam satu menit dan dengan mekanisme mengacungkan tiga ratus kacamata dengan keteraturan paling tinggi di atas pistol." Sebenarnya ukurannya panjang 150 kaki, balok 56 kaki dan kedalaman 20 kaki. Kapasiti, 2.475, adalah yang terbesar beratus-ratus tan daripada kapal pengukus yang dibina hingga tahun itu. Persenjataan terdiri daripada 44 senapang di mana empat daripadanya 100 paun. Paddlewheel yang dilindungi besar dipasang di telaga tengah di tengah kapal. Kapal itu membuat tiga perjalanan percubaan yang berjaya dan perang yang telah berakhir, kemudian disiapkan di halaman tentera laut brooklyn. Pada malam 4 Juni 1829, lima belas tahun setelah keelnya dibaringkan, dia diletupkan secara tidak sengaja atau sengaja, membunuh 24 lelaki, seorang wanita dan mencederakan banyak yang lain.

Terdapat satu lagi fulton yang membawa bentuk keperibadian seperti pembangunnya, fulton dibina pada tahun 1813. Kapal uap ini, sloger rigged, berukuran 134 kaki dan mempunyai tonase 327, sebahagian besar kariernya adalah di new york - new surga dan rezeki berjalan. Bertahan lebih lama daripada kebanyakan pendahulunya, akhirnya dia dibongkar pada tahun 1838.

Pada tahun 1811, fulton mengalihkan perhatiannya ke arah barat dan mendirikan sebuah galangan kapal kecil di pittsburgh. New orleans adalah kapal pertamanya dengan cepat diikuti oleh aetna, vesuvius dan kerbau. New orleans diletakkan di natchez - new orleans berlari dan merupakan kapal uap pertama di perairan barat. Semua pembuat wang terbukti. Pada tahun 1814 orleans baru melanda natchez, penuh, tenggelam, menjadi kerugian total.

Tidak termasuk kapal feri, fulton yang dibina atau yang telah dibina, tidak kurang dari enam belas steamboat - yang dibina dengan jelas untuk perkhidmatan sungai hudson adalah clermont, 1807 kereta neptune, 1809 paragon, 1811 fly fly, 1812 dan richmond, 1812. Canselor Livingston, walaupun dibina untuk perkhidmatan lama di pulau, menghabiskan hampir sepanjang kariernya di hudson.

Replika paragon clermont, kemudian dinamakan semula sungai utara

21 Januari 1965

Kapal Feri Fulton
Steamboat fulton diliputi dalam siri ini dan kami sekarang datang ke kapal feri-nya.

Pada 2 julai 1812, kapal feri pertama fulton, jersi, telah beroperasi antara paulus hook (jersey city) dan new york. Kapal itu jenis catamaran, mempunyai dua lambung dengan roda di antara. Dalam spesifikasi paten AS, 1809 fulton menggambarkan kapal ini sebagai berikut: ". Kapal feri terdiri dari dua kapal yang masing-masing adalah segmen bulatan. Mereka dipisahkan sepuluh kaki dan mempunyai platform yang dibina di atas, roda dan mesin berada pusat, kereta dan penumpang memasuki atau mendarat dari setiap hujung, melewati ke kanan atau kiri mesin. Terdapat dua kemudi di setiap hujungnya, anakan dua di kedua hujungnya disatukan oleh bar, sehingga mereka bertindak oleh satu gerakan. Oleh kerana perahu tidak dirancang untuk berjalan, kedua-dua ujungnya dapat berjalan paling utama, dalam hal ini ujung yang berfungsi sebagai busur memiliki kemudi disematkan. "

Dalam surat kepada dr. David hosack dia memberikan keterangan lebih lanjut: "dia terbuat dari dua dengan masing-masing balok 10 kaki, panjang 80 kaki, kedalaman lima kaki di mana perahu jauh satu sama lain 10 ', dikurung oleh lutut kuat dan pendakap pepenjuru, membentuk geladak setebal 30 ', panjang 80'. Dengan meletakkan roda air pendorong di antara kapal-kapal itu terlindung dari kecederaan dari ais atau kejutan ketika mendekatinya memasuki dermaga. Keseluruhan jentera yang diletakkan di antara kedua-dua kapal meninggalkan 10 kaki di setiap sisi di geladak setiap kapal untuk kereta, kuda, dan lembu, dan lain-lain yang lain mempunyai bangku yang rapi dan ditutup dengan awning, adalah untuk penumpang, dan ada juga laluan dan tangga ke kabin yang rapi, yang panjangnya 50 kaki dan lima kaki jelas dari lantai ke balok, dilengkapi dengan bangku dan kompor pada musim sejuk. Walaupun kedua-dua kapal dan ruang di antara mereka lima balok 30 kaki, namun mereka menunjukkan busur tajam ke air, dan hanya mempunyai ketahanan di air satu perahu berukuran 20 kaki, yang berkurang dari rintangan memberikan kepantasan dalam melintasi. "

Pada tahun 1813 jersi berjaya, diikuti oleh kapal saudara, york. Kedua-dua jersi iklan york mempunyai mesin jenis crank bell fulton khas dengan kekuatan 20 kuda masing-masing dengan silinder berdiameter 20 inci dengan pukulan empat kaki. Masing-masing mengendarai roda dayung tunggal, berdiameter 12 kaki dengan baldi atau dayung sepanjang empat kaki dan lebar dua kaki. Steam dibekalkan oleh dandang yang panjangnya 20 kaki, tinggi sembilan kaki dan dengan depan 9 kaki.

Walaupun feri-feri ini seharusnya beroperasi setiap setengah jam dari matahari terbit hingga matahari terbenam, sering diperlukan satu jam untuk melakukan perjalanan. Dikatakan bahawa ketika mereka saling melintas di sungai, penumpang di kedua kapal itu dapat melakukan perbualan yang panjang sebelum mereka berada di luar jarak berbicara.

Feri ini merupakan peningkatan hebat berbanding kapal feri kuda atau pasukan lama, dalam "kelajuan" dan juga dalam keselesaan. Satu melakukan perjalanan di seberang sungai yang penuh dengan lapan kereta roda empat, 29 kuda dan 100 penumpang, yang dianggap cukup prestasi pada masa itu.

Tidak lama kemudian, fulton dan william cutting, adik iparnya, membentuk persatuan feri steamboat new york & brooklyn, kapal pertama mereka menjadi nassau, dibina pada tahun 1813. Pembantu dipercayai fulton, jurutera utama syarikat , dengan nama louis rhoda, hancur mati di mesin nassau di persimpangan brooklyn 10 Mei 1814, ketika feri itu melakukan perjalanan pertamanya. Perjalanan ini, di seberang sungai timur rata-rata 10 minit dan sebanyak 30 perjalanan dilakukan setiap hari. Kapal ini juga sering digunakan selepas waktu perniagaan oleh pihak keseronokan dalam lawatan ke sungai. Sekitar tahun 1840, nassau sebagai feri mengakhiri kariernya. Kapal itu diperoleh oleh masyarakat teman pelaut, untuk bethel terapung di kaki pike street di new york.

Pada tahun 1827 (setelah kematian fulton) feri baru dibina dan diletakkan di persimpangan dengan nassau. Ini adalah pemotongan william, yang serupa dalam pembinaan dengan nassau, yang beroperasi hingga tahun 1840 ketika dibongkar.

Steamboat hanyalah satu minat fulton. Penambahbaikan terusan, perang torpedo dan kapal selam adalah yang lain. Minat awalnya adalah lukisan minyak mini dan semasa di london belajar di benjamin barat. Salah satu penemuan kecilnya adalah urusan ponton dari dermaga jambatan terapung yang naik dan turun dengan pasang surut dan memungkinkan kereta dan gerabak untuk menaiki dan mematikan kapal feri yang dirancangnya. Jalan slip feri ini, yang sebenarnya ada, tidak banyak berubah selama bertahun-tahun.

Terdapat satu lagi "penemu" kapal uap yang mendahului fulton dan clermontnya selama 17 tahun. Ini adalah john fitch yang akan menjadi tajuk artikel minggu depan.

28 Januari 1965

John Fitch dan Steamboat-nya
Bahagian 1

Sejarawan bersetuju bahawa kapal uap berjaya dikendalikan di sungai delaware 16 tahun sebelum clermont robert fulton mengukir hudson.

Steamboat ini adalah duri, dibina oleh john fitch. Setelah beberapa usaha penting tetapi sebahagian besarnya tidak membuahkan hasil, termasuk kapal yang dibina dan dilancarkan pada tahun 1787 di mana mesin memanipulasi set dayung, kapal uapnya pada tahun 1790 berjaya.

Dinamakan thornton sebagai penghormatan kepada rakan fitch dan penyokong utama, dr. William thornton, kapal itu dibina di philadelphia. Tetapi tidak seperti pendahulunya, thornton didorong oleh tiga dayung berbentuk sekop besar di buritan. Bahagian ketiga kapal itu dihiasi dan disokong kabin kecil, tepat di belakangnya dandang dan timbunan tinggi. Dari sini ke buritan transom terdapat telaga terbuka yang mengandungi mesin dan mesin tambahan. Enjin ini mempunyai silinder berdiameter 18 inci, pemutus yang pada masa itu merupakan keajaiban kecil itu sendiri.

Kapal 1787 panjang 60 kaki dengan balok sembilan kaki dan draf empat kaki. Tidak ada dimensi yang tersedia untuk kapal 1790 tetapi dilihat dari lakaran kontemporari ia sedikit lebih panjang dengan balok yang cukup besar. Kelajuan "fenomenal" enam hingga tujuh mph dicapai secara konsisten dengan lapan mph dalam keadaan ideal.

Selepas perjalanan percubaan thornton pada 16 April 1790, fitch menulis:

"walaupun angin bertiup sangat segar di timur laut kami memerintah tuan-tuan yang maha tinggi dari orang-orang delaware dan tidak ada kapal di sungai yang dapat menampung kami, tetapi semua jatuh terdampar, walaupun beberapa kapal layar yang sangat ringan dengan layar yang berat yang menurunkan senjata api mereka ke air, keluar untuk mencuba kami. "

Masalah terbesar Heretofor fitch adalah dalam membiayai percubaannya tetapi selepas ini kumpulan pemegang saham yang lebih baru dengan persetujuan bersama disatukan dalam satu syarikat. Langkah-langkah segera diambil untuk menempatkan kapal uap tersebut dalam operasi komersial, dan mulai 14 Jun 1790, iklan disiarkan di warta persekutuan dan paket filadelphia seperti berikut:

"kapal uap sekarang siap untuk membawa penumpang dan dimaksudkan untuk berangkat dari feri arch street di philadelphia, setiap isnin, rabu dan jumaat untuk burlington, bristol, bordentown dan trenton untuk pulang selasa, Kamis dan Sabtu. Harga untuk penumpang 2-6 ke burlington dan bristol, 3-9 ke bordentown dan 5s ke trenton. "

Buat pertama kalinya dalam sejarah, kapal uap melakukan perjalanan biasa dengan membawa penumpang mengikut jadual yang diterbitkan dan selama musim operasi yang singkat meliputi jarak antara 2000 hingga 3000 batu, prestasi yang tidak dapat diragukan lagi apabila menyedari bahawa ini adalah 16 tahun lebih awal daripada clermont.

Pada 16 Jun 1790, dalam salah satu perjalanan biasa Thornton, gabenor miflin dan dewan eksekutif tertinggi pennsylvania, mengambil jalan keluar tanpa pemberitahuan dan sangat gembira dengan kecekapan kapal sehingga satu set bendera berwarna-warni, berharga lebih dari 5 paun dipersembahkan kepada syarikat steamboat.

Terdapat banyak sebab mengapa thornton hanya beroperasi satu musim. Mungkin faktor utama adalah ketakutan dan konservatisme yang melekat pada orang-orang yang lebih suka kaedah perjalanan tradisional dan yang kurang percaya diri sehingga menjadi inovasi baru sebagai kapal uap. Kemudian, orang-orang sungai memulai permusuhan yang sengit terhadap kedua-dua fitch dan kapal uapnya, melihat dengan banyak logik pada kapal uap sebagai ancaman tersendiri bagi keberadaan ekonomi mereka, masalah yang sama yang dihadapi oleh fulton kemudian dengan clermontnya. Sebab yang lebih jauh adalah bahawa pelatih panggung umumnya membuat masa yang lebih baik daripada kapal uap, walaupun penumpang sering tiba "semua terguncang".

Sebelum menilai sepenuhnya fakta-fakta yang mengecewakan ini, syarikat telah memproyeksikan pembinaan kapal baru dan lebih besar di mana fitch telah memulakan pembinaan. Walaupun tidak pernah selesai kapal ini dilancarkan dan mengukuhkan ketekunan. Semasa kabin sedang disiapkan dan mesin dipasang sebuah timur laut yang ganas merobek kapal dari dermaga di delaware dan mengendarainya menyeberangi sungai yang berdiri di pulau kecil, bertentangan dengan philadelphia. Sebelum diaktifkan semula, perubahan pada pam udara dan bahagian mesin yang lain dilakukan atas desakan pihak stok tertentu terhadap penilaian fitch yang lebih baik. Kerosakan yang tidak dapat diperbaiki berlaku dan syarikat itu segera mengalami hutang. Tidak dapat membiayai usaha lebih lanjut, keseluruhan projek itu terbengkalai. (bersambung minggu depan)

4 Februari 1965

Fitch Steamboat
(Bersambung Dari Minggu Lalu)
Fitch yang tidak dapat dikalahkan enggan menyerah dan menghabiskan beberapa tahun dalam usaha sia-sia untuk menarik minat pemerintah dalam navigasi stim di mississippi. Akhirnya pada tahun 1793 ia pergi ke Perancis tetapi negara itu masih dalam pergolakan sosial dan politik, lebih tertarik pada lubang meriam daripada silinder mesin. He met with equally discouraging results in england and the following year returned to america.

Thoroughly disheartened he left new york in 1794 for kentucky where early in his career as a surveyer he had invested in land warrants. Arriving there he discovered that much of his thirteen hundred acres had been preempted by squatters and now, further discouraged, he went to the home of his friend, alexander mccowan, at bardstown, kentucky. Yet even toward the end of his career and in failing health, fitch continued to carry on the steamboat experiments and at bardstown built a three foot model with side paddlewheels and a brass cylindered engine, which he operated on beech fork, a branch of the salt river.

A number f books state that fitch built and experimented with a small steamboat on collet pond, new york city, in 1796. The vessel had both side wheels and a screw at the stern, this claim is based upon a broad side, with wood cuts, published in 1846 -- nearly fifty years after fitch's death -- and by john hutchins entitled "honor to whom honor is due". The author states that as a boy he rode with fitch in this boat and that fulton and livingston were aboard. The fact that fulton was in england at this time studying painting under the great benjamin west, rather discredits this story and modern scholars are inclined to believe hutchin's memory erred and that the vessel described was one built by samuel morey. It is known that morey and was in new york in 1796 and in a letter to his friend william duer, relative to his latest experiment says, ". Having made sundry improvements in the engine i went again to new york and applied the power to a wheel in the stern by which the boat was impelled by a speed of about five miles an hour." the affadavit of two other individuals quoted by hutchins speak of seeing the boat, but do not mention fitch's name. Not a shred of evidence other than this broadside, exists to substantiate hutchin's statement.

Following the termination of fitch's delaware river venture there is a vast hiatus of steamboat chronology. More than 16 years passed during which period no steamboats operated despite numerous attempts, all were abortive and failed universally. Then, in 1807, robert fulton triumphed in the hudson with his steamboat commonly called the clermont, this was quickly followed by colonel john and robert steven's phoenix and the stable advancement of the steamboat from this time onward was assured.

John fitch was born on his father's farm in windsor township, hartford, connecticut, and led an eventful life, although frequently tormented by misfortune. In turn, he became a surveyor, silversmith, watchmaker, and in the revolution a gunsmith at valley forge. In 1782, while a trader on the ohio river, he was captured by the indians, delivered to the british in detroit and later released in exchange of prisoners.

It was not until 1785 that he became obsessed with the idea of propelling a boat by steam and devoted the rest of his life toward this achievement. After a long illness his death occurred at bardstown on july 1st, 1798. In his autobiography he states this touching and prophetic thought: " the time will come when all our great lakes, rivers and oceans will be navigated by vessels propelled by steam when some more powerful man will get fame and riches from my invention but nobody will believe that poor john fitch can do anything worthy of attention."

In the state capitol at hartford, a tablet dedicated to fitch reads: "this tablet erected by the state of connecticut commemorates the genius, patience and perseverance of john fitch a native of the town of windsor and first to apply steam successfully to the propulsion of vessels through water."

There is little doubt that if john fitch's steamboat of 1790 had continued in operation, the name fitch rather than fulton would have gone down in history books as the "inventor" or the steamboat.

February 11, 1965

Chauncey Vibbard: 1864-1900

Pictures from the new york state library in albany, william elmendorf collection

The third steamboat to join the fleet on the hudson river day line, the chauncey vibbard, began her career june 18, 1864, on the new york to albany run.

The appearance of this new steamboat on the river excited much favorable comment. Her graceful proportions and beauty of structure made a pleasing picture against the backdrop of the hudson highlands as she cruised the river. The vessel was at its graceful best when steaming at full speed. Having a very narrow beam for her length, the chauncey vibbard cut the water as a knife blade with scarcely a ripple breaking from her stem to her paddle wheels. Hull and engine were balanced to perfection to eliminate vibration and the vessel seemed to move through the water with dignified ease.

Captain van santvoord was understandably proud of his new steamboat and spared nothing to make her the finest on the river. Her speed was not illusory either, as in the case of some boats in her era, for she was about as fast as any steamboat that ever plied the hudson. This was amply proved on april 18th, 1876, when she ran from new york to albany without making any landings in six hours and 20 minutes, easily the best time on record at that period for a through passage.

Captain dave hitchcock, the vibbard's commander at this time, had steadily maintained that she could beat the record and would do it, too, if he ever got a chance to let her but which he could not do so long as she was on a scheduled run. His opportunity finally came when the vibbard's owners decided to send her to albany to be painted before the opening of the regular season.

She left new york at 5:20am having on board a party of excursionists, who had been promised the fastest trip they had ever taken on a steamboat. The promise was fully kept for the vibbard glided up to her pier at albany at 11:40am. It was favored with a flood tide as far as rhinebeck, but that this was more than offset by a heavy freshet in the upper hudson, the effect of which was felt from catskill to albany.

The record established by the vibbard caused much discussions among the steamboat fraternity, and the old question as to whether a day boat had the advantage over a night boat, or vice versa in making the run from new york to albany gave rise to much argument.

Changes Made
Two seasons after her launching the chauncey vibbard was lengthened 16 feet and changes made to her engine. Those familiar with the vessel conceded that alterations to have an unfavorable effect on her speed. She also had the reputation of being one of the hardest of any of the fast day boats to drive before the wind. The only satisfactory explanation given for this was the width of the square front of her joiner work. She had long, high hog-framing as did all the large boats.

In 1880, the vessel's boilers were removed from the guards and three new ones installed in the hold with three stacks placed athwartships, considerably changing the appearance of the steamboat. It also had the effect of causing the vessel to lose the fine balance it had formerly possessed.

For some time the chauncey vibbard ran with the daniel drew and later the albany before being withdrawn from service and used as a spare boat. In 1896 she was sold and taken to the delaware river for service between philadelphia and lincoln park on excursion runs.

Following the spanish american war in 1899, a "peace jubilee" with a naval parade was staged on the hudson with the vibbard participating. Crowded with celebrated passengers, the old steamboat began leaking badly and was beached on a sandbar. Prior to this incident no disaster or accident had marred the log book of the vibbard during her many years of service.

The vessel was later floated and towed to cramers hill, where, in 1900, she was partially dismantled. The skeleton of her hull remained there for many years, the last visible vestige of this fine old boat.

Statistics: - lawrence & foulks, builders, brooklyn, ny. Wood hull, 794 tons, length 265 feet beam 35 feet depth nine feet five inches. Fletcher & harrison vertical beam engine, no. 37, having 55 inch cylinder with 12 foot stroke. Two boilers on the guards. Paddlewheels 30 feet in diameter with nine foot five inch face. In 1866 the vessel was cut in two and 16 feet added amidship, increasing her length to 261 feet. And her tonnage to 1158. The cylinder diameter was increased to 62 inches. In 1880, the two boilers were replaced with three placed in the hold with three stacks placed athwartships.

February 18, 1965

the Kaaterskill and Adirondack
Postcard of the adirondack courtesy of melissa finch

Postcard of the kaaterskill courtesy of barbara bartley

Picture of the adirondack and the ship's pass from the new york state library, william elmendorf collection

Of these two old time night boats the kaaterskill is of the most interest as it was built in athens and was the largest steamboat built north of newburgh.

Built for the catskill new york evening line by van loon magee in athens, the kaaterskill made her maiden trip down the hudson in august 1882. She was christened upon launching by miss grace donahue, daughter of captain william donahue and her first commander was captain charles ru ton. Her sister ship was the city of catskill, built two years earlier.

The kaaterskill was the pride of the line and the flagship of the fleet. She was luxuriously furnished, was fast and could accommodate three hundred passengers, having 150 staterooms and 73 cabins plus a very large freight capacity.

A few weeks after her launching she had the only accident of note during her career of 32 years. While southbound near stony point the vessel was disabled by a broken strap on her walking beam. The added strain caused the connecting rod to break loose and drop on the main steam pipe, bursting it. As a result one man died and several others were seriously injured by the escaping steam.

The kaaterskill was later chartered by the hudson navigation company, and under command of captain benjamin hoff (of athens) and ran on the new york - albany route until december 12th, 1913. On this route her consorts were the onteora and the city of hudson. The following year the old steamboat was deemed unfit for further service and her superstructure dismantled and machinery removed at newburgh. On september 12th, 1914 the hull was towed to new london and converted in to a barge.

Statistics: van loon magee, builders, athens, ny. Wood hull. 1361 tons. Length 281 feet beam 38 feet depth 10 feet. Fletcher harrison vertical beam engine having 63 inch cylinder with 12 foot stroke. This engine, fletcher no. 100, was called the "centennial". Two lobster - back return tube boilers. Paddlewheels 31 feet in diameter with 10 foot face.

The adirondack built for the people's line, came out in 1896 and under command of captain s.J. Roe was placed on the new york - albany run. This magnificent steamboat succeeded the drew and was considerably more elaborate in her interior appointments than any night boat previously built. She also had greater power and speed than any vessel built for the line up to that time. She boasted five decks (main, saloon, promenade, done and hurricane) and a dining room seating 300 people also 350 staterooms, including twenty-four parlors and four suites of parlors. In addition to the staterooms the adirondack had 286 berths in the cabins and 120 berths for crew members. An electric generator supplied power for 2,000 lights and for a searchlight with a range of two miles, being the first night boat to have a powerful searchlight.

She was also the first hudson river steamboat to exceed one million dollars in cost.

There were few if any that could equal her speed. In may 1899, she made the new york to albany run in less than six and one half hours running time, carrying 400 passengers and 350 tons of freight.

The only serious accident in the career of the adirondack occurred on october 18th, 1906. On the evening of that date she was run down near tivoli by the steamboat saratoga. The saratoga sank and was later raised and rebuilt. The damage to the adirondack consisted of her foredeck being carried away, although she finished the season without a layup. Each vessel lost one man in the accident.

During world war 1 the adirondack was drafted and used as a barracks at the brooklyn nay yard. Shortly after the was she was laid up at the old brick row mooring in athens and on december 29th, 1925, ice opened her seams and she sank in shallow water. She was then sold for scrap for the reported sun of $14,00 (as written), was raised and then dismantled. So ended the career of the last and the largest wooden hull steamboat ever built for hudson river service. Statistics: john englis & son, builders, brooklyn. Wood hull. 3,644 tons. Length 440 feet, beam 50 feet - over guards 90 feet depth of hell (as written) 12 feet. W.A. Fletcher no. 158 vertical beam engine having 81 inch cylinder with 12 foot stroke.

February 25, 1965

the M. Martin and the Tremper
Yes, the two old work horses and there are many of us oldsters who still remember them. Though in the early part of their careers they were considered small, luxurious, night boats, later they primarily carried freight: produce brought down to the landings by farmers and their steady income from the breweries in albany and troy. How well many of us remember them with their entire forward decks stacked high with beer kegs!

The m. Martin stands alone in her historical background. Named after a prosperous hudson merchant and banker, she was one of the most beautifully proportioned of the medium sized steamboats that made hudson river history. Shortly after being launched she was drafted by civil war service. Due to her smart appearance and elegant furnishings as well as staunchness and speed, she was chosen as general grant’s dispatch boat on chesapeake bay troops and dispatch passengers and messages. During this period she was known as the “greyhound” of the federal government’s fleet on inland steamboats. After the confederate capitol fell to union forces, president lincoln and general grant visited richmond and held conferences aboard the m. Martin.

Upon her honorable discharge from service the martin returned “down east”. In 1867 she ran as an opposition boat on the bangor-portland (maine) route.

The m. Martin was then acquired by the romer & tremper steamboat company of rondout, new york, who placed her on the newburgh-albany run, having eagle as consort. In april 2, 1884, while near milton landing, fire was discovered on the eagle. Captain rogers, with the help of the john l. Hasbrouk, succeeded in landing the vessel at milton cock, where passengers and crew were discharged without loss of life. However, the eagle burnt to the water’s edge and became a total loss. In 1885 the new jacob h. Tremper was added to the line and became the martin’s consort. A peculiarity of the martin and the eagle was to announce their approach to a landing with a bell, instead of the customary whistle.

Near Collision
On the morning of may 19th, 1878, in a light fog, while near new hamburg, the martin narrowly missed a collision with the mary powell. When the martin’s whistle was heard on the powell, the latter’s pilot rang to stop the engine. Both pilots rang to go astern, but both had headway when the martin’s bow struck the powell’s paddlebox and an eight foot gash was made in her guard, but her hull was undamaged.

Then again, may 5, 181 (as written), in mid-morning, martin figured in another incident with the powell, then lying in rondout creek. The ferryboat transport was bound out the creek while the martin was entering to make her landing. The transport’s pilot put his wheel over hard to change course but the vessel steered over to port and he was unable to check her. He then ran full speed astern but was unable to prevent her (the transport) from running into the powell.

The powell which was docked lurched over and her guard coming up snapped five piles off along the dock. More serious damage included about 50 feet of her joiner work stove in. Captain a.E. Anderson, standing on the dock, was an amazed spectator.

The central hudson steamboat company of newburgh purchased the martin in 1889. Although then 36 years old, she was in excellent condition. Because of her success in combating ice, martin was often the first vessel to make the trip in the spring and the last to leave the hudson when winter set in.

Serious Accident
Throughout her long and varied career of nearly 60 years she had only one serious accident. Laden with freight and carrying 20 passengers the mishap occurred near esopus island as the martin was southbound from albany on the morning of june 16, 1919. Captain george hadley noticed smoke curling from the pilothouse and immediately headed the vessel for the shore east of the island near staatsburg. The passengers were quickly removed in small boats to safety. Then captain hadley got the firehose playing on the flames and within 10 minutes the incident was over with only a blackened pilot house as a reminder. The martin then picked up her passengers and proceeded to newburgh, little the worse for the experience.

The m. Martin continued on the newburgh albany route until laid up in the fall of 1919.

Her last commander was captain h. Fairbacks her last chief engineer fred requa. The following summer in 1920, she was dismantled after 56 years of service. The hull was bought by pat doherty for use as a dock at eavesport, near malden. The career of the steamboat that had once carried the president of the united states, abraham lincoln, to ties: m.S. Allison, builder, jersey city. Wood hull, 570 tons, length 191’, beam 28’ depth 8’. Fletcher & harrison vertical beam engine no. 35 having 44” cylinder with nine foot stroke. One iron boiler on the deck.

Jacob Tremper
Jacob h. Tremper. In the spring 1858 the jacob h. Tremper made her maiden trip up the hudson. This wooden vessel was built for the romer & tremper steamboat company and designed for both freight and passenger service to operate as a day boat between newburgh and albany. She was built to replace the eagle which had burned at milton dock the previous year, 1848. The tremper’s consort for many years was the m. Martin, which she resembled in many ways.

The new boat was admirably fitted for the run having apas (as written) and a large freight capacity. Because of these qualifications her value was quickly recognized.

In the winter of 1898 romer & tremper fleet of steamboats was purchased by the central hudson steamboat company of newburgh. This transaction included the jacob h. Tremper, m. Martin, william f. Romer and the james b. Baldwin.

The following description of the tremper appeared in the newburgh daily journal may 9, 1885, on the occasion of the vessel’s maiden trip up the river.

“this boat is very admirably fitted up. The ladies room aft is furnished with cherry furniture upholstered in blue velvet. The floor is covered with a wiltshire carpet and the lambrequins above the windows are blue and gold. The toilet rooms connected with the ladies saloon are fitted with the latest improvements. The main saloon extending along the upper deck is very handsome. The wood work is very ornamental with cherry and ash, the paneling in blue and gold. An elegant brussels carpet covers the floor and upholstered arm chairs are arranged along either side. The main or grand stairway from the main deck to the saloon is of cherry, ash and mahogany, highly polished. A large french mirror meets the eye at the head of the forward stairway leading to the saloon. The captain’s office is located on the port side of the boat, and is very handsomely furnished. The pilot and engineer have quarters on the hurricane deck aft of the pilot house. The pilot house is first class, and is fitted up with all modern improvements. The dining cabin below the main deck is well lighted and roomy and is aft. It is paneled in hardwood, the same as other portions of the boat. Adjoining it on the starboard side is the kitchen which is supplied with a french range, and further forward, connected with the kitchen is a dining room for the crew. There is more open space on the decks of the new boat than there is on the martin, her companion boat, or the old eagle, whose place she takes on the line.

March 4, 1965

Chrystenah: 1866 - 1920

Picture of the chrystenah from the new york state library, william elmendorf collection

Although only a medium size sidewheeler, the chrystenah was a creation of beauty and one of the fastest single stack vessels ever to steam the hudson. Built for the new york-nyack route, her run was soon extended to peekskill when it was realized she had speed in abundance. She made one round trip a day from that city to new york. She was the last steamboat owned by the smith brothers of nyack who, for over 40 years, controlled the water transportation out of nyack.

Sold in 1907 to captain david c. Woolsey and captain nelson, she continued on the same route until later, when taken to newburgh, and used as a charter excursion boat during the summer months on the upper hudson. The hudson river day line also occasionally chartered her for use in carrying baggage for the day line vessels. In 1911 the chrystenah was in operation between that city and coney island, moving the following year to the new york - keanesburgh, n.J. Run where she ran opposition to the regular boats on this route. She continued on this run until 1917 when transferred to the new york - stamford (conn.) route. Still later she was in use as an excursion steamer, this time around new york harbor and long island sound.

Almost a twin in appearance to the jacob h. Tremper, chrystenah's excursions went as far as catskill, where she always aroused curiosity as to where she came from and where she was bound. Though she belonged down in peekskill she quite often made excursions to catskill during the summer months always with a jolly party aboard.

The chrystenah was sold in 1920 for cross sound service to oyster bay and in the fall of the same year, laid up at new rochelle. That winter she was wrecked by a severe storm and blown into the mouth of echo creek. She was so wedged between its rocky banks that the insurance company paid her owners for a total loss.

The city of rochelle then came into title and sold her at public auction for the price of one dollar. Frederick wenke, the new owner, floated her out on a high tide and towed her to oyster bay. Originally he planned to convert the hull into a ferryboat but instead dismantled her and ran the hull aground on the beach on long island sound. This ended the career of the once beautiful chrystenah.

Statistics: william dickey, builder, nyack. Wood hull: 571 tons. Length: 196'6" beam 30'2" depth 0'3". Chrystenah's vertical beam engine came from the broadway when that vessel was dismantled in 1865. Originally having a 46" cylinder with 10' stroke, this engine was completely rebuilt by mccurdy and warren in jersey city and given a 50" cylinder with 11' stroke. The original engine was built by the west point foundry company in 1837 for the arrow, later renamed broadway.

Postcards of the dewitt clinton courtesy of robert cummings and melissa finch.

C) de witt clinton 1921 – 1942

D) col. Frederick johnson 1942 – 1948

The dewitt clinton, as noted above, was a ship of many names and changed ownership many times. This screw steamer was built in 1913 as part of a plan to establish a competition route between new york city and providence, rhode island. The grand turk (as wriiten) railroad and the central vermont railroad proposed to build a railroad fromprovidence up to canada and had two night boats constructed to connect new york and providence . The two vessels were the manhattan (later the dewitt clinton) and narrangansett designed for the emigrant trade and first class travel. Before the railroad could be completed, chairman hayes of the grand trunk railroad died and the venture was abandoned.

The manhattan and the narragansett, uncompleted and still without fittings, lay at anchor off washington, delaware, where they were built, and later were towed to new london and tied up.

The year 1917 marked the entry of the united states into the world war and the manhattan was purchased by the navy to be refitted, reinforced and renamed – this time the nopatin. The steamer was then sent to england under her own power and used to ferry troops across the channel from england to france. According to reports, she safely transported 150,000 troops across the channel before returning to the united states.

Following war duty she was purchased by the hudson river day line who rebuilt the vessel for its bear mountain route. Renamed the de witt clinton, she steamed the hudson from 1921 until laid up in 1932 when, due to the depression, one day excursions became unprofitable. During this period she was one of a fleet of seven vessels owned by the day line, three of which were propeller driven. Her commander during this period was captain roney magee.

The de witt clinton was again in service from june to september in 1939, making trips up the hudson before returning to an inactive status. In february 1942 she was again drafted by the government. The war shipping administration converted the vessel into a troop transport under the command of the army transportation core. Rechristened again, this time colonel frederick johnson, she was again plying the english channel following the invasion of allied troops into france. At the end of world war ii the war shipping administration returned the vessel to the maritime commission who laid her up in the james river.

It was assumed by all who knew her that the old steamer would never again sail but the vessel seemed to have an affinity for international crisis. She was purchased by samuel derecktor who operated a shipping firm in new york city. Again renamed, this time the derecktor, the steamer was refitted under the watchful eye of the coast guard, for it was suspected that her new owner might be planning to smuggle soldiers and arms to embattled israel and the coast guard was standing by to impound her should sufficient reason present itself.

But the derecktor, was then registered under the panamanian flag and her owners given as brownsam company of panama city. She flew the panamanian flag and was cleared for marseilles sailing “light” and without passengers, though fitted to carry 2,500 tons of cargo and 500 passengers. With a crew of 50 and under command of captain dominik romano her intended purpose was variously described as a de luxe passenger steamer between marseilles and north africa ports. However, few were surprised when the israeli maritime league in new york newspapers of january 17th, 1949, announced that the former hudson river steamer was carrying immigrants from marseilles to haifa for the israeli zim line.

Some time when under this ownership, supposedly in 1952, the vessel was rechristened still again (!), this time the galatin. And, as yet, i have been unable to find the final disposition of this old timer, which once flew the owner’s flag of the hudson river day line. And i am hoping the old timer is still going strong.


Для показа рекламных объявлений Etsy по интересам используются технические решения сторонних компани.

Мы привлекаем к этому партнеров по маркетингу и рекламе (которые могут располагать собранной фиеиии ифифифифии Отказ не означает прекращения демонстрации рекламы Etsy или изменений в алгоритмах персонализации Etsy, но может привести к тому, что реклама будет повторяться чаще и станет менее актуальной. Подробнее в нашей Политике в отношении файлов Cookie и схожих технологий.


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History and molecular genetics of lynch syndrome in family G : A century later. / Douglas, Julie A. Gruber, Stephen B. Meister, Karen A. Bonner, Joseph Watson, Patrice Krush, Anne J. Lynch, Henry T.

Research output : Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review

T1 - History and molecular genetics of lynch syndrome in family G

N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

N2 - Context: In 1895, Aldred Scott Warthin, MD, PhD, initiated one of the most thoroughly documented and longest cancer family histories ever recorded. The unusually high incidence and segregation of cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and endometrium in Dr Warthin's family G was later followed up by his colleagues, most recently by Henry Lynch, MD. Described today as a Lynch syndrome family, family G was last documented in 1971, prior to the modern era of molecular diagnostics. Objective: To update family G. Design, Setting, and Participants: Historical prospective cohort study of family G members from 1895 to 2000. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes were the frequencies and types of cancers, ages at diagnosis, and presence of the T to G transversion at the splice acceptor site of exon 4 of the mutS homolog 2, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 1 (E coli) (MSH2) gene in family G members. A secondary analysis compared cancerspecific incidence rates in family G with published national and regional cancer incidence rates through the standardized incidence ratio (SIR). Results: Family G now has 929 known descendants of the original progenitor first reported in 1913. Cancers of the colon and rectum (SIR, 3.20 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.39-4.19) and endometrium (SIR, 3.51 95% CI, 1.92-5.89) continue to predominate in family G. Five of 40 tested members of family G carry the MSH2 T to G mutation as a result, 15 of their living relatives are at increased risk of developing 1 or more colorectal or Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. In contrast, 97 living members of family G can now be excluded as mutation carriers. Conclusion: Within the last decade, molecular diagnostic testing has transformed the care of family G and other Lynch syndrome families in which a pathogenic mutation has been identified.

AB - Context: In 1895, Aldred Scott Warthin, MD, PhD, initiated one of the most thoroughly documented and longest cancer family histories ever recorded. The unusually high incidence and segregation of cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and endometrium in Dr Warthin's family G was later followed up by his colleagues, most recently by Henry Lynch, MD. Described today as a Lynch syndrome family, family G was last documented in 1971, prior to the modern era of molecular diagnostics. Objective: To update family G. Design, Setting, and Participants: Historical prospective cohort study of family G members from 1895 to 2000. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes were the frequencies and types of cancers, ages at diagnosis, and presence of the T to G transversion at the splice acceptor site of exon 4 of the mutS homolog 2, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 1 (E coli) (MSH2) gene in family G members. A secondary analysis compared cancerspecific incidence rates in family G with published national and regional cancer incidence rates through the standardized incidence ratio (SIR). Results: Family G now has 929 known descendants of the original progenitor first reported in 1913. Cancers of the colon and rectum (SIR, 3.20 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.39-4.19) and endometrium (SIR, 3.51 95% CI, 1.92-5.89) continue to predominate in family G. Five of 40 tested members of family G carry the MSH2 T to G mutation as a result, 15 of their living relatives are at increased risk of developing 1 or more colorectal or Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. In contrast, 97 living members of family G can now be excluded as mutation carriers. Conclusion: Within the last decade, molecular diagnostic testing has transformed the care of family G and other Lynch syndrome families in which a pathogenic mutation has been identified.


They All Should Be Like Mike : Dodgers: Scioscia has many fans, but none greater than patients and staff at a rehabilitative hospital in Pomona.

As Mike Scioscia struggles through the early part of what could be his final season as the Dodgers’ catcher, the image appears unchanged.

He’s quiet, expressionless, until he has to block a runner. It is in those infamous collisions that he seems most immovable--and alone.

But during his fight to remain on a team and in a town he has loved for 12 seasons, Scioscia has found help.

Helen Van Beek, a middle-aged teacher, is on his side. She would block home plate for him, if she could.

When she sees Scioscia, she thinks of her son, Jason, a 6-foot-6 boy with blond hair and blue eyes. Jason is attending the University of Texas Arlington on a basketball scholarship, and is a nationally ranked tennis player.

He is also paralyzed from the waist down.

“Thanks to people like Mike Scioscia, things are happening that I never dreamed possible,” she said. “I never pictured my boy snow skiing. I never pictured him water-skiing. You should see him play tennis!

“Mike Scioscia leave Los Angeles? Gosh, no! I hope not.”

Jim Miller, an Olympic basketball player and coach, is also on Scioscia’s side. He would catch Tom Candiotti’s knuckleball for Scioscia, if he could.

As director of the junior wheelchair sports program at Casa Colina Hospital for Rehabilitative Medicine in Pomona, Miller has seen Scioscia’s many contributions become real-life success stories.

“Every two or three years, when Mike’s contract is up, we start thinking about it,” Miller said. “I don’t know what we would do without him. To see kids grow up and become confident in their abilities, it is a tremendous thing. Mike is a tremendous person.”

Finally, Nikki Gramatikos is also on Scioscia’s side. As a media consultant at Casa Colina, she has seen the hard figures on what Scioscia has contributed since he began their relationship in 1984.

Nearly $1 million in revenue, money that has reached nearly 1,000 disabled people, supplying them with the sports equipment and facilities to help them continue and better their lives.

“We would miss Mike incredibly,” Gramatikos said. “By now, it’s like he has become a part of this hospital.”

His impact on the hospital has been as heavy as his impact on the Dodgers, for whom he has caught 1,350 games, more than anybody.

He has sponsored a fund-raising golf tournament for seven years. He collects donations from his teammates whenever he blocks the plate. And he has made countless visits to the hospital and satellite summer camps.

‘I don’t know if proud is the right word, because I really haven’t done anything, but I do have a great sense of fulfillment there,” Scioscia said. “Second to my marriage and my family, it is the most fulfilling thing I do.”

That is one of the reasons Scioscia is working so hard to return to the Dodgers after his contract ends this fall.

“It’s no secret, I want to stay here,” he said. “I really feel a part of things here.”

Even with top prospect Mike Piazza just one level away, it seems probable that Scioscia will receive at least one more contract here.

Scioscia has not heard anything about a new contract, though, and won’t.

Even though Fred Claire, Dodger vice president, broke his policy by giving Scioscia a new deal before the end of the 1989 season, Claire has since toughened his stance of not holding contract discussions until the end of the season.

Claire is outspoken in his praise of Piazza and Dodger backup Carlos Hernandez, but there is a sense that he understands Scioscia’s value in a different light.

“Right now I would give Mike good marks as always,” he said. “He does a lot of things that people who don’t follow our games closely wouldn’t know.”

Scioscia was enjoying playing golf 11 years ago when Mickey Hatcher asked him to play in a new tournament for this unusual hospital.

It turned out to be the start of a relationship that peaked last year when he learned that Jason Van Beek had become one of the first athletes in the country to receive a wheelchair basketball scholarship.

And to think that when Van Beek, at 9, first visited Casa Colina, he was suffering from Guillian Barre Syndrome and was paralyzed from the neck down.

“To see people like that, that makes it all worth it,” Scioscia said. “I mean, one of the first scholarships in the whole country. Sekarang that’s an achievement.”

Bill Plaschke has been an L.A. Times columnist since 1996. He has been named national sports columnist of the year eight times by the Associated Press, and twice by the Society of Professional Journalists and National Headliner Awards. He is the author of five books, including a collection of his columns entitled, “Plaschke: Good Sports, Spoil Sports, Foul Ball and Oddballs.” Plaschke is also a panelist on the popular ESPN daily talk show, “Around the Horn.” For his community service, he has been named Man of the Year by the Los Angeles Big Brothers/Big Sisters, and has received a Pursuit of Justice Award from the California Women’s Law Center. Plaschke has appeared in a movie (“Ali”), a dramatic HBO series (“Luck”) and, in a crowning cultural moment he still does not quite understand, his name can be found in a rap song “Females Welcome” by Asher Roth. In case you were wondering – and he was – “Plaschke” is rhymed with “Great Gatsby.”

These trips will take you to priceless places, and our pro tips will help you dig deeper.

Californians can now access a digital copy of their COVID-19 vaccination record as part of a new system unveiled by the state, officials said.

Disneyland and Disney California Adventure have lifted rules about crowds and distancing. Fireworks are coming back. But some changes will stick.

Transportation officials and drivers are waiting to see traffic and transit patterns altered by the COVID-19 pandemic offer clues to the future of commuting or mark only a temporary change in L.A.'s gridlock.

A growing contingent of medical experts is questioning the conventional wisdom that healthy children should get COVID-19 shots as soon as possible.


Nopatin SP-2195 - History

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the code ( try block in your case) runs regardless of the if condition as the try block clears the scope of if block.
Either put try completely inside if block or surround both if,else statement by a single try block.

I don't know what is the need of multiple try/catch here :

You can add one more catch(Exception e) to the upper try/catch block and that will serve the same purpose. Secondly there is no else part to this if (root.RootAvailibility() && (root.checkRootMethod3())) . So, if it is false the program will simply move forward.

Well you're always going to see Text04 because there's no conditional that excludes it. Blok cubaan menangkapnya berada di tahap teratas.

Ada baiknya jika anda dapat memberikan contoh kod anda yang ringkas, mandiri, dan dapat disusun. Terdapat jelas kod lain yang mungkin berkaitan. Sebagai contoh, percubaan yang berlaku dengan blok tangkapan terakhir. Juga, ini dapat membantu anda memberi komen mengenai permulaan dan akhir blok kod anda supaya anda dapat mengetahui apa yang disertakan dalam pernyataan if if.

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