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Bittern AM-36 - Sejarah

Bittern AM-36 - Sejarah



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Kepahitan

Bittern adalah burung dari keluarga bangau.

Saya

(AM-36; dp. 840; 1. 187'10 "; b. 35'6"; dr. 9'10 "; s. 14 k.
cpl. 72; a. 2 3 "; kl. Lapwing)

Bittern pertama (AM-36) dilancarkan pada 15 Februari 1919 oleh Alabama Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Co., Mobile, Ala .; ditaja oleh Puan C. R. Doll; dan ditugaskan pada 28 Mei 1919, Leftenan W. P. Bachmann dalam arahan.

Tugas pertama Bittern adalah lembut untuk kapal selam Jerman yang ditangkap U-88 ketika dia melakukan lawatan pameran ke pelabuhan Teluk dan pantai barat. Pada bulan Januari 1920 Bittern berlayar ke Par East di mana dia kekal sepanjang perkhidmatan aktifnya. Sepanjang 21 tahun berikutnya, dia musim sejuk di Cavite, Kepulauan Filipina, dan musim panas di Chefoo, China. Tetapi rutin itu kadang-kadang dipatahkan oleh penugasan ke ekspedisi ilmiah dan pada bulan September 1923 oleh pekerjaan bantuan berikutan gempa bumi Yokohama, Jepun.

Serangan udara Jepun di Cavite Navy Yard 10 Disember 1941 mendapati Bittern menjalani pembaikan. Meskipun tidak terkena, Bittern mengalami kerusakan yang besar dari api, nyaris meleset, dan puing-puing terbang dari Sealion (SS-195) berlabuh di sampingnya. Terlalu parah untuk diperbaiki, penyapu ranjau itu terseret di Teluk Manila setelah anak buahnya berpindah ke Puyuh (AM-15).

Bittern menerima satu bintang pertempuran untuk perkhidmatan pendeknya dalam Perang Dunia II.

Bittern (AM-352) dilancarkan oleh Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg., 21 Jun 1944 tetapi dibatalkan 1 November 1945 sebelum selesai.


Bittern AM-36 - Sejarah

BAHAGIAN DESTROYER TIGA PULUH LAPAN
Komander William A. Glassford

TRACY (DD-214) (F)
Cmdr. William A. Glassford
SMITH THOMPSON (DD-212)
Lt. Cmdr. V. L. Kirman
WHIPPLE (DD-217)
Cmdr. Frank Jack Fletcher
BORIE (DD-215)
Lt. Cmdr. L. C. Scheibla
BARKER (DD-213)
Lt. D. M. Steece
JOHN D. EDWARDS (DD-216)
Cmdr. W. H. Lee

STEWART (DD-224) (F)
Lt. Cmdr. H. B. McCleary

BAHAGIAN SUBMARINE LAPAN BELAS
Komander R. C. Needham

S-2 (SS-106)
Letnan William S. Popham, jr.
S-14 (SS-119)
Letnan J. J. Twomey
S-15 (SS-120)
Lt. (j.g.) C. C. Dyer
S-16 (SS-121)
Lt. L. W. Busby jr.
S-17 (SS-122)
Lt. R. S. Barrett

BAHAGIAN SUBMARINE DUA
Komander William L. Friedell

S-3 (SS-107) **
Letnan G. Hutchins
S-4 (SS-109)
Letnan Humbert W. Ziroli
S-6 (SS-111)
Lt. J. P. Penukaran
S-7 (SS-112)
Lt. R. T. S. Gladden
S-8 (SS-113)
Lt. B. S. Killmaster
S-9 (SS-114)
Letnan Herbert B. Knowles

BAHAGIAN DESTROYER FORTY LIMA
Kapten C. S. Freeman

PREBLE (DD-345) (F)
Kapten C. S. Freeman
HULBERT (DD-342)
Lt. Cmdr. Frank A. Braisted
NOA (DD-343)
Cmdr. R. A. Thebald
WILLIAM B PRESTON (DD-344)
Lt. Cmdr. Willis A. Lee, jr.
SICARD (DD-346)
Lt. Cmdr. L. W. Comstock
PRUITT (DD-347)
Cmdr. H. W. McCormack

BAHAGIAN DESTROYER FORTY-TIGA
.

PEARY (DD-226) (F)
Cmdr. J. S. Abbott
JOHN D. FORD (DD-228)
Lt. Cmdr. H. H. Frost
PILLSBURY (DD-227)
Lt. Cmdr. H. V. McKittrick
POPE (DD-225)
Lt. Cmdr. H. M. Lammers
TRUXTUN (DD-229)
Lt. Cmdr. T. H. Winters
PAUL JONES (DD-230)
Lt. Cmdr. Howard A. Flanigan

RIZAL (DM-14) (F)
Cmdr. W. E. Dewan
HART (DM-8)
Lt. Cmdr. G. C. Barnes
BITTERN (AM-36)
Letnan E. H. Geiselman
KEMUDIAN (AM-9)
Lt. L. F. Safford


Bittern AM-36 - Sejarah


1941 1942
Keel dibaringkan Dilancarkan oleh Dr. Aurelia H. Reinhardt


Januari Februari Mac April Mungkin Jun
Julai Ogos September Oktober November Disember


Januari Februari Mac April Mungkin Jun
Julai Ogos September Oktober November Disember



KAWASAN PASIFIK WW II
SEJARAH 1941-42

TERIMA KASIH KRONOLOGI NAVAL NEGERI UNIT, PERANG DUNIA II

Saya telah mengedit fail di atas untuk kawasan Pasifik Selatan sahaja. Teks yang diedit ditunjukkan dalam HITAM.

SEJARAH TEKS OAKLAND USS DALAM BIRU

02/01 Sabtu. Navy mengumumkan penyusunan semula Armada Amerika Syarikat: nama lama Atlantic Fleet dan Pacific Fleet dihidupkan semula Asiatic Fleet tetap tidak berubah. TYT Kimmel melegakan Laksamana JO Richardson sebagai Panglima di Armada Pasifik Amerika Syarikat, dengan tugas tambahan sebagai Komando dalam Pasukan Peronda Armada Amerika Syarikat, Armada Amerika Syarikat, menjadi Armada Atlantik dan Laksamana Raja EJ menjadi Komandan di Ketua Amerika Syarikat Atlantik Fleet Adm. TC Hart berlanjutan sebagai Panglima di AS Asiatic Fleet.

04/09 Rabu Battleship NORTH CAROLINA (BB-55) ditugaskan di Philadelphia, Pa.

06/02 Isnin PULAU LONG (AVG-1), syarikat penerbangan pengiring pertama, ditugaskan di Newport News, Va.

Tentera Laut. 284,427 Kor Marin. 54,359

07/15 KEEL USS OAKLAND CL-95 diletakkan di jalan Bethlehem Steel Company, San Francisco, California.

09/27 Sabtu. Kapal Liberty Pertama, SS PATRICK HENRY, dilancarkan di Baltimore, Md.

10/20 Isnin Carrier HORNET (CV-8) ditugaskan di Norfolk, Va.

Tentera Laut. 2,004 Kor Marin. 108 Tentera. 222

[Statistik korban personel untuk serangan Pearl Harbor telah disemak beberapa kali setelah penilaian data baru. Angka-angka yang disajikan di sini dikumpulkan pada tahun 1955 dari sumber rasmi.] Jepun kehilangan 5 kapal selam midget, 28 pesawat, dan kurang dari 100 orang. Pulau Midway dihujani oleh dua kapal pemusnah Jepun. Presiden memerintahkan mobilisasi. Pengisytiharan perang Jepun sampai di Washington, D. C. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam oleh serangan udara: Kapal perang OKLAHOMA (BB-37). Kapal perang ARIZONA (BB-39). Kapal Perang CALIFORNIA (BB-44). Kapal perang VIRGINA BARAT (BB-48). [Semua kapal tenggelam, kecuali ARIZONA, OKLAHOMA, dan UTAH, dinaikkan, diperbaiki, dan kemudian kembali berfungsi.] MinelayerOGALA (CM-4). Kapal sasaran UTAH (AG-16). Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Battleship NEVADA (BB-36). BANGSA PENNSYLVANIA (BB-38). Kapal Perang TENNESSEE (BB-43). Kapal Perang MARYLAND (BB-46). Penjelajah ringan RALEIGH (CL-7). Penjelajah ringan HONOLULU (CL-48). Penjelajah ringan HELENA (CL-50). Destroyer CASSIN (DD-372). Destroyer SHAW (DD-373). Destroyer DOWNES (DD-375). CURTISS tender kapal terbang laut (AV-4). Membaiki kapal VESTAL (AR-4). Kapal tentera laut Jepun hilang: 5 kapal selam midget.

12/08 Isnin Amerika Syarikat mengisytiharkan perang terhadap Jepun. Striking Force, Armada Asiatik (Laksamana Muda W. A. ​​Glassford) berlepas dari Iloilo, P. I., ke Selat Makassar, Hindia Belanda. Pesawat Jepun dalam operasi yang tersebar luas mengebom Guam, Wake, Hong Kong, Singapura, dan Kepulauan Filipina. Kerosakan yang meluas berlaku pada pesawat Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat di Clark Field, Luzon, P. I. Pasukan Jepun mendarat di Pulau Batan, utara Luzon, P. I., dan di pantai timur Semenanjung Tanah Melayu. Jepun melatih Marinir dan warga negara Amerika Syarikat di Shanghai dan Tientsin, China.

12/09 Sel. Jepun menduduki Bangkok, Thailand. Tanah Jepun di Tarawa dan Makin, Kepulauan Gilbert. China mengisytiharkan perang terhadap Jepun, Jerman, dan Itali.

12/10 Rabu. Cavite Navy Yard, P. I., rosak teruk oleh serangan udara musuh. Guam menyerah kepada pasukan pendaratan Jepun. Darat Jepun di Pulau Camiguin dan di Gonzaga dan Aparri, Luzon, P. I. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Destroyer PEARY (DD-226), oleh pengebom mendatar. Kapal selam SEADRAGON (SS-194), oleh pengebom mendatar. SEALION Kapal Selam (SS-195), oleh pengebom mendatar. Minesweeper BITTERN (AM-36), oleh pengebom mendatar. Kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Kapal selam I-170, dengan kapal terbang berdasarkan kapal terbang, wilayah Kepulauan Hawaii, 23 d. 45 'N., 155 d. 35 'W. Minesweeper No. 10, dengan pesawat tentera, wilayah Kepulauan Filipina, 17 d. 32 'N., 120 d. 22 'E. Minesweeper No. 19, dirosakkan oleh pesawat tentera dan didarat oleh pasukan sendiri (jumlah kerugian), wilayah Kepulauan Filipina, 18 d. 22, N., 121 d. 38 '. E.

12/11 Khamis. Jerman dan Itali mengisytiharkan perang ke atas Amerika Syarikat. Amerika Syarikat mengisytiharkan perang terhadap Jerman dan Itali. Orang Jepun membuat pendaratan di Legaspi, Luzon, P. I. Marinir di Pulau Wake menolak usaha pendaratan Jepun dan menenggelamkan dua kapal pemusnah musuh. Kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Destroyer HAYATE, oleh bateri Marine shore. Destroyer KISARAGI, dengan kapal terbang Marine.

12/17 Rabu. Laksamana Muda C. W. Nimitz diperintahkan untuk melepaskan Laksamana H. E. Kimmel sebagai Panglima di Armada Pasifik, dengan pangkat Laksamana Muda Wakil Laksamana W. S. Pye menjadi Pemangku Panglima Armada Pasifik, sementara menunggu kedatangan Laksamana Nimitz. Tanah Jepun di Miri, Sarawak, Borneo.

12/20 Sabtu. Laksamana E. J. King dilantik sebagai Komandan di Armada Amerika Syarikat yang beribu pejabat di Jabatan Tentera Laut, Washington, D. C.

12/23 Sel. Pulau Wake, yang telah mengalami pengeboman musuh yang berpanjangan, menyerah pada kekuatan pencerobohan Jepun.

12/24 Rabu Tanah Jepun di Lamon Bay, Luzon, P. I.

12/25 Sel. Laksamana T. C. Hart menyerahkan semua angkatan laut yang tersisa di Kepulauan Filipina kepada Laksamana Muda F. W. Rockwell Laksamana Hart berangkat di kapal selam ke Jawa untuk mendirikan markas baru Armada Asiatik. British menyerahkan Hong Kong.

12/29 Isnin. Corregidor, P. I., dibom pertama kali oleh pesawat Jepun. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal selam tender CANOPUS (AS-9), oleh pengebom mendatar, wilayah Kepulauan Filipina, 14 d. 25 'N., 120 hari. 20 'E.

12/30 Sel. Laksamana E. J. King memikul tugas sebagai Panglima di Armada Amerika Syarikat.

12/31 Rabu Laksamana C. W. Nimitz mengambil alih arahan Pacific Fleet.

Terima kasih kepada Kronologi Tentera Laut Amerika Syarikat, Perang Dunia II

01/01 Sel. Laksamana R. E. Ingersoll menggantikan Laksamana E. J. Raja sebagai Panglima di Armada Atlantik.

01/02 Jumaat. Manila dan Cavite, P. I., jatuh kepada orang Jepun.

01/06 Sel. Pasukan amfibi Jepun menguasai Teluk Brunei, Borneo.

01/11 Matahari. Jepun memulakan pencerobohan Hindia Belanda dengan mendarat di Tarakan dan Jesselton, Borneo Menado dan Kema, Celebes. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Carrier SARATOGA (CV-3), oleh torpedo kapal selam, 500 batu di barat daya Oahu, T. H.

01/21 Rabu. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Light cruiser BOISE (CL-47), dengan mendarat, Selat Sape, Hindia Belanda.

01/23 Jumaat. Tanah Jepun di Balikpapan, Borneo. Jepun menduduki Rabaul, New Britain, dan mendarat di Kieta, Bougainville, Kepulauan Solomon.

01/24 Sabtu. Pertempuran Balikpapan (Pertempuran Selat Makassar): Konvoi serangan Borneo Jepun mengalami serangan torpedo malam di Balikpapan, Borneo, oleh bahagian pemusnah (Cdr P. H. Talbot) yang terdiri daripada PARROTT (DD-218), POPE (DD-225), JOHN. D. FORD (DD-228), dan PAUL JONES (DD-230) empat pengangkutan musuh dan kapal peronda tenggelam. Tanah Jepun di Kendari, Celebes Kavieng, New Ireland Subic Bay, P. I. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Destroyer JOHN D. FORD (DD-228) oleh tembakan tentera laut, wilayah Hindia Timur Belanda, 12 d. 00 'S., 117 hari. 01 'E.

01/28 Rabu. Tanah Jepun di Pulau Rossel di luar New Guinea.

01/29 Sel. Tanah Jepun di Pulau Badoeng dan Mampawan, Celebes. Tanah Jepun di Pulau Amboina, Hindia Belanda.

02/01 Matahari. Dua pasukan petugas pengangkut (Wakil Laksamana WF Halsey dan Laksamana Muda FJ Fletcher) dan kumpulan pengebom (Rear Adm. RA Spruance), berjumlah 2 kapal induk, 5 kapal penjelajah, dan 10 kapal pemusnah, menyerang Kwajalein, Wotje, Maloelap, Jaluit, dan Mili di Kepulauan Marshall dan Makin, Kepulauan Gilbert. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Carrier ENTERPRISE (CV-6), oleh pengebom bunuh diri, serangan Marshall-Gilberts. 10 d. 33 'N., 171 d. 53 'E. Kapal penjelajah berat CHESTER (CA-27), oleh pengebom penyelam, serbuan Marshall-Gilberts. 08 d. 45 'N., 171 d. 33 'E. 02/04 Rabu Pasukan Jepun mengebom pasukan bersekutu (Laksamana KWFM Doorman, Tentera Laut Diraja Belanda) dari 4 kapal penjelajah dan kapal pemusnah yang mengiringi percubaan transit Selat Madoera untuk menyerang armada pencerobohan Borneo Jepun: Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal Pengangkut Berat HOUSTON (CA-30), oleh pengebom mendatar. Kapal penjelajah ringan MARBLEHEAD (CL-12), oleh pengebom mendatar. 07 d. 23 'S., 115 hari. 47 'E. Pasukan Jepun mendarat di Gasmata, New Britain. Pasukan Jepun mendarat di Sumatera, Hindia Belanda.

02/19 Khamis. Bali, Hindia Belanda, diserang oleh orang Jepun. Pertempuran Selat Badoeng bermula pada waktu malam dan berterusan pada keesokan harinya. Pasukan tentera laut bersekutu (Laksamana Muda K. W. F. M. Doorman, Tentera Laut Diraja Belanda) yang terdiri daripada tiga kapal penjelajah dan kapal pemusnah yang diserang menyerang pasukan penjajah Bali yang bersara di Selat Badoeng.

02/20 Jumaat. Jepun menyerang Pulau Timor di Hindia Belanda. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Destroyer STEWART (DD-224), oleh tembakan tentera laut, Battle of Badoeng Strait. 07 d. 18 'S., 112 d. 46 'E. 02/27 Jum. Pertempuran Laut Jawa diperjuangkan sebagai pasukan tentera laut Bersekutu (Baca Laksamana K. W. F. M. Doorman, Tentera Laut Diraja Belanda) yang terdiri dari 5 kapal penjelajah dan 11 kapal pemusnah di Laut Jawa berhampiran Surabaya menyerang pasukan musuh yang meliputi konvoi pencerobohan Jawa. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Heavy Cruiser HOUSTON (CA-30), oleh tembakan tentera laut.

03/01 Matahari. Pertempuran Selat Sunda yang bermula tidak lama sebelum tengah malam 28 Februari 1942 berlanjutan. Selepas Pertempuran Laut Jawa (lihat 27 Februari 1942) Kapal sekutu yang menuju ke Selat Sunda diserang oleh pasukan permukaan Jepun yang unggul. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Heavy Cruiser HOUSTON (CA-30), oleh torpedo dan tembakan. 05 d. 50 'S., 105 D. 55' E. Destroyer POPE (DD-225), oleh pengebom selam, dan tembakan permukaan. 04 d. 00 'S., 111 d. 30 'E. Destroyer EDSALL (DD-219), oleh tembakan tentera laut, di selatan Pulau Krismas, Destroyer PILLSBURY (DD-227), oleh tembakan tentera laut, di selatan Pulau Krismas, 14 d. 30 'S., 106 hari. 30 'E. Oiler PECOS (AO-6), oleh pengebom penyelam, selatan Pulau Krismas, 14 d. 27 'S., 106 hari. 11 'E.

03/08 Matahari. Pasukan Jepun menyerang Lae dan Salamaua, New Guinea.

03/10 Sel. Pesawat dari syarikat penerbangan LEXINGTON (CV-2) dan YORKTOWN (CV-5) mengebom penghantaran Jepun di Salamaua dan Lae, New Guinea. Jepun menyerang Finschhafen, New Guinea. (Lihat 26 Mac 1942).

03/20 Jumaat. Battleship South Dakota (BB-57) ditugaskan di New York, N. Y.

03/29 Matahari. Marinir tiba di Efate, Hebrides Baru.

03/30 Isnin Pulau Krismas diduduki oleh tentera Jepun.

04/01 Rabu Jepun menduduki Pulau Buka, Kepulauan Solomon.

04/03 Jumaat. Laksamana C. W. Nimitz, USN, dinamakan Komandan di Wilayah Lautan Pasifik Besar (CINCPOA) Laksamana Nimitz juga Komandan di Armada Pasifik Panglima (CINCPAC).

04/09 Sel. Pasukan Amerika Syarikat-Filipina di Bataan, P. I., menyerah kepada Jepun.

04/18 Sabtu. Wakil Laksamana WF Halsey dalam kapal induk HORNET (CV-8) melancarkan 16 Army B-25 (Letnan Kolonel JH Doolittle) pada jarak lebih dari 650 batu di timur Honshu, pengebom Jepun menyerang Tokyo, Yokosuka, Yokohoma, Kobe, dan Nagoya, Jepun.

04/30 Thu.Battleship INDIANA (BB-58) ditugaskan di Newport News, Va.

05/02 Sabtu. Tanah Jepun di Pulau Florida, Kepulauan Solomon.

05/04 Isnin Pertempuran Laut Karang (4-8 Mei) dimulakan dengan serangan udara di Tulagi, Kepulauan Solomon, oleh pesawat yang berpangkalan di Amerika Syarikat. Pasukan tentera laut bersekutu (Adm. F. J. Fletcher, USN) terdiri:

Kumpulan Serangan (Laksamana TC Kinkaid, USN) kapal penjelajah Amerika Syarikat CHESTER (CA-27), ORLEAN BARU (CA-32), PORTLAND (CA-33), ASTORIA (CA-34), MINNEAPOLIS (CA-36) . Pemusnah FARRAGUT (DD-348), DEWEY (DD-340), MONAGHAN (DD-354), AYLWIN (DD-355) dan PHELPS (DD-360).

Kumpulan Sokongan (Laksamana Muda J. G. Crace, RN) dengan kapal penjelajah Amerika Syarikat CHICAGO (CA-29), kapal penjelajah Australia AUSTRALIA dan HOBART. Amerika Syarikat Destroyers PERKINS (DD-377) dan WALKE (DD- 416).

Carrier Group (Laksamana Belakang A. W. Fitch, USN) yang terdiri daripada syarikat penerbangan Amerika Syarikat LEXINGTON (CV-2) dan YORKTOWN (CV-5). Pemusnah ANDERSON (DD-411), HAMMANN (DD-412), RUSSELL (DD-414), dan MORRIS (DD-417).

Fueling Group (Kapten J. S. Phillips, USN) termasuk syarikat minyak Amerika Syarikat TIPPECANOE (AO-21) dan NEOSHO (A0-23). Destroyers WORDEN (DD-352) dan SIMS (DD-409).

Kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Destroyer KIKUZUKI, dengan kapal terbang berasaskan kapal terbang, Tulagi, Kepulauan Solomon.

05/05 Sel. Angkatan Bersekutu Laksamana Muda J. J. Fletcher, setelah melakukan pengisian, menukar arah untuk memintas Kumpulan Pelabuhan Pelabuhan Moresby Jepun (Battle of Coral Sea, 4-8 Mei). Pasukan Jepun mendarat di Corregidor, P. I.

05/06 Rabu. Angkatan Bersekutu Laksamana Muda J. J. Fletcher sedang bergerak untuk memintas Kumpulan Pencerobohan Pelabuhan Moresby Jepun (Battle of Coral Sea, 4-8 Mei). Benteng Corregidor dan Manila Bay, P. I., menyerah kepada Jepun.

05/07 Sel. Laksamana Muda F. J. Pasukan Sekutu Fletcher membelok ke utara untuk melibatkan Kumpulan Serangan Jepun. Kumpulan Sokongan (Rear Adm. Crace, RN) terpisah untuk memintas musuh Port Moresby Invasion Group. Kapal Laksamana Crace diserang oleh pengebom torpedo musuh dan pengebom darat dan, disalah anggap sebagai Pasukan Pelabuhan Port Moresby Jepun, dibom oleh pesawat Army B-26. Pesawat pengangkut menyerang Kumpulan Sokongan Jepun dan kapal induk tenggelam SHOHO (Battle of the Coral Sea, 4-8 Mei). Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Destroyer SIMS (DD-409), oleh pengebom penyelam. 15 d. 10 'S., 158 d. 05 'E. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Oiler NEOSHO (AO-23), oleh pengebom penyelam, dan tenggelam oleh pasukan Amerika Syarikat 11 Mei 1942. 15 d. 10 'S., 158 d. 05 'E., kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Carrier SHOHO, dengan kapal terbang berasaskan kapal terbang, 10 d. 29 'S., 152 d. 55 'E. Hollandia, New Guinea, diduduki oleh tentera Jepun.

05/08 Jumaat. Carrier LEXINGTON (CV-2) mencari pesawat melihat pengangkut Jepun SHOKAKU dan ZUIKAKU. Laksamana Muda F. J. Fletcher kapal induk merosakkan SHOKAKU dan memaksa dia bersara. Pada masa yang sama, pesawat Jepun menghantam kapal induk YORKTOWN (CV-5) dan LEXINGTON (CV-2), sehingga merosakkan pesawat tersebut sehingga PHELPS pemusnah (DD-360) diperintahkan untuk menenggelamkannya. (Pertempuran Laut Karang 4-8 Mei.) [Ini adalah pertempuran pertama dalam sejarah tentera laut moden di mana kapal perang yang bertentangan tidak bertukar tembakan semua kerosakan yang ditimbulkan oleh pesawat pengangkut. Coral Sea adalah kemenangan Amerika Syarikat yang strategik. Sejauh ini, dorongan Jepun yang tidak terganggu ke arah tenggara dihentikan.] Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Carrier LEXINGTON (CV-2), rosak teruk oleh pengebom torpedo berasaskan kapal induk dan, dalam keadaan tenggelam, tenggelam oleh pasukan Amerika Syarikat. 15 d. 12 S., 155 d. 27 'E. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Carrier YORKTOWN (CV-5), oleh pengebom selam berasaskan kapal induk. 14 d. 35 'S., 155 d. 15 'E.

05/12 Sel. MASSACHUSETTS Battleship (BB-59) ditugaskan di Boston, Mass.

05/28 Sel. Pasukan Amerika Syarikat tiba di Espiritu Santo, Kepulauan Hebrides Baru.

06/02 Sel. Dua pasukan petugas pengangkut (Adm. F. J. Fletcher dan Adm. Rear A. A. Spruance) bertemu sekitar 350 batu di timur laut Pulau Midway. [Komposisi pasukan tentera laut Amerika Syarikat pada Pertempuran Midway adalah seperti berikut:]

Laksamana Muda F. J. Fletcher (Pasukan Petugas 17) - Carrier YORKTOWN (CV-5), kapal penjelajah Berat PORTLAND (CA-33) dan ASTORIA (CA-34). Pemusnah HUGHES (DD-410), ANDERSON (DD-411), HAMMANN (DD-412), RUSSELL (DD-414), MORRIS (DD-417), dan GWIN (DD-433)

Rear Adm. RA Spruance (Task Force 16) - Carrier ENTERPRISE (CV-6) dan HORNET (CV-8), Heavy cruiser PENSACOLA (CA-24), NORTHAMPTON (CA-26), NEW ORLEANS (CA-32), MINNEAPOLIS (CA-36), dan VINCENNES (CA-44), Light cruiser ATLANTA (CL-51), Destroyers DEWEY (DD-349), WORDEN (DD-352), MONAGHAN (DD-354), AYLWIN (DD- 355), PHELPS (DD-360) BALCH (DD-363), CONYNGHAM (DD-371), BENHAM (DD-397), ELLET (DD-398), MAURY (DD-401), dan MONSSEN (DD-436) ), Oilers CIMARRON (AO-22), dan PLATTE (AO-24).

Kapal selam yang menjalankan tugas rondaan dan pengakap NARWHAL (SS-167), NAUTILUS (SS-168), DOLPHIN (SS-169), CACHALOT (SS-170), CUTTLEFISH (SS-171), PIKE (SS-173), TARPON ( SS-175), PLUNGER (SS-179), TAMBOR (SS-198), TROUT (SS-202), GRAYLING (SS-209), GRENADIER (SS-210), GUDGEON (SS-211), GATO (SS -212), GROUPER (SS-214), GROWLER (SS-215), FLYING FISH (SS-229), FINBACK (SS-230), dan TRIGGER (SS-237).]

06/03 Rabu Pesawat berasaskan pertengahan mencari dan menyerang pengangkutan Armada Gabungan Jepun (Laksamana Yamamoto) kira-kira 600 batu di sebelah barat Pulau Midway.

06/04 Sel. Battle of Midway (4-6 Jun) dibuka ketika pesawat dari empat kapal induk Jepun menyerang pemasangan Pulau Midway, yang dipertahankan oleh pesawat Marine dan Army. Pasukan petugas pembawa (Laksamana Muda F. J. Fletcher dan Laksamana Muda R. A. Spruance) melancarkan pesawat dari syarikat penerbangan ENTERPRISE (CV-6), HORNET (CV-6), dan YORKTOWN (CV-5) yang melanda empat syarikat penerbangan Jepun. YORKTOWN dilumpuhkan oleh kapal terbang Jepun. Laksamana Yamamoto meninggalkan rancangan Midway dan berundur ke arah barat. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Carrier YORKTOWN (CV-5), oleh pesawat berasaskan kapal induk. 33 d. 51 'N., 177 d. 01 'W. Kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Carrier KAGA, dengan kapal terbang berasaskan kapal terbang. 30 d. 23 'N., 177 d. 01 'W. Carrier SORYU, dengan kapal terbang berasaskan kapal terbang dan kapal selam NAUTILUS (SS-168). 30 d. 42 'N., 179 d. 37 'W.

06/05 Jumaat Pasukan petugas pengangkut (Adm. R. A. Spruance) mengejar armada Jepun ke arah barat (Battle of Midway, 4-6 June). Kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Pembawa AKAGI, rusak oleh pesawat berasaskan kapal induk, Battle of Midway, tenggelam oleh pasukan sendiri, 30 d. 30 'N., 179 d. 40 'W. Carrier HIRYU, dirosakkan oleh pesawat berdasarkan kapal induk, Battle of Midway, tenggelam oleh pasukan sendiri, 31 d. 28 N., 179 d. 24 'E.

06/06 Sabtu. Pesawat dari syarikat penerbangan ENTERPRISE (CV-6) dan HORNET (CV-8) menyerang pasukan Jepun yang bersara dari Midway. Setelah memulihkan pesawat, pasukan Amerika Syarikat mengubah arah ke timur untuk mengisi minyak dan memutuskan hubungan dengan musuh (Battle of Midway, 4-6 June). [Battle of Midway adalah salah satu pertempuran paling menentukan dalam sejarah tentera laut. Itu adalah titik perubahan Perang Pasifik. Selain kehilangan empat kapal induk yang melumpuhkan, orang Jepun mengalami kehilangan sebahagian besar juruterbang kapal terbang mereka yang paling terlatih dan berpengalaman dalam pertempuran. (Lihat 2 hingga 6 Jun 1942).] Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Destroyer HAMMANN (DD-412), oleh torpedo kapal selam. 30 d. 36 'N., 176 d. 34 'w. Kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Kapal penjelajah berat MIKUMA, oleh pesawat berasaskan kapal angkatan laut dan pesawat darat laut. 30 d. 00 'N., 173 d. 00 'E.

Tentera Laut. 640,570 Pasukan Marin. 143,528

07/21 Sel. Tanah Jepun dan menduduki Buna, New Guinea.

07/30 Sel. Rizab Tentera Laut Wanita (WAVES) ditubuhkan.

08/07 Jumaat. Marinir mendarat di Florida, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, dan Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon, dalam serangan pertama perang Amerika. Di bawah perlindungan tentera laut dan udara (Wakil Laksamana F. J. Fletcher), Bahagian Laut 1 (Jeneral Jeneral A. A. Vandegrift) diletakkan di darat oleh Amphibious Force, Pasifik Selatan (Laksamana Muda R. K. Turner). Pendaratan disokong oleh kapal terbang dan kapal terbang di darat (Rear Adm. L. Noyes dan Rear Adm. J. S. McCain). Komandan keseluruhan adalah Wakil Laksamana R. L. Ghormley, Komandan Pasifik Selatan, dan pegawai yang bertugas taktikal adalah Wakil Laksamana F. J. Fletcher. Kapal penjelajah dan pemusnah tentera laut (Laksamana Muda W. W. Smith) mengebom Kiska, Kepulauan Aleutian. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Destroyer MUGFORD (DD-389), oleh pengebom penyelam, wilayah Kepulauan Solomon, 09 d. 00 'S., 160 d. 00 'E.

08/08 Sabtu. Marinir menguasai Tulagi, Gavutu, dan Tanambogo, Kepulauan Solomon. Jalur udara musuh yang belum selesai di Guadalcanal ditangkap dan dinamakan semula sebagai Henderson Field. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Transport GEORGE F. ELLIOTT (AP-13), rosak oleh pengebom bunuh diri, wilayah Kepulauan Solomon, dan tenggelam oleh pasukan Amerika Syarikat, 09 d. 10 'S., 160, 10' E. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Destroyer JARVIS (DD-393), oleh torpedo pesawat, wilayah Kepulauan Solomon, 09 d. 10 'S., 160 d. 01 E.

08/09 Matahari. Pertempuran Pulau Savo bermula dalam kegelapan ketika pasukan Jepun terdiri dari 7 kapal penjelajah dan 1 kapal pemusnah menghampiri sebelah barat Pulau Savo, Kepulauan Solomon, tidak dapat dikesan. Musuh menenggelamkan 4 kapal penjelajah Bersekutu dan merosakkan 1 kapal penjelajah lain dan 2 kapal pemusnah dengan torpedo dan tembakan sebelum mengundurkan diri. Kapal bersekutu berangkat dari daerah Guadalcanal. Kapal Jepun mengawal sementara perairan di sekitar Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Kapal Pelayaran Berat ASTORIA (CA-34), QUINCY (CA-39), dan VINCENNES (CA-44), dengan tembakan tentera laut, [Kapal penjelajah keempat yang tenggelam adalah kapal Australia CANBERRA.] Destroyer JARVIS (DD- 393), dengan serangan pesawat, Kepulauan Solomon, 09 d. 42 'S., 158 d. 59 'E. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal penjelajah berat CHICAGO (CA-29), oleh pemusnah torpedo Destroyers RALPH TALBOT (DD-390) dan PATTERSON (DD-392), oleh tembakan tentera laut.

08/16 Matahari. Battleship ALABAMA (BB-60) ditugaskan di Portsmouth, Va.

08/17 Isnin. Batalion Raider Kedua ("Carlson's Raiders"), Korps Marinir, diangkut oleh kapal selam NAUTILUS (SS-168) dan ARGONAUT (APS-1) menyerbu Pulau Makin di Kepulauan Gilbert, tembakan Nautilus menyokong Marinir di darat.

08/24 Isnin. Pertempuran Sulaiman Timur bermula dan berterusan hingga keesokan harinya. Pesawat berasaskan kapal terbang Tentera Laut (Wakil Laksamana F. J. Fletcher) yang disokong oleh pesawat Marin dan Tentera Darat membalikkan percubaan besar Jepun untuk merebut kembali Guadalcanal dan Tulagi, Kepulauan Solomon. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Carrier ENTERPRISE (CV-6), oleh bomber penyelam. 08 d. 38 S., 163 d. 30 'E. Kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Pembawa RYUJO, dengan kapal terbang berasaskan kapal terbang. 06 d. 10 'S., 160 d. 50 'E.

08/25 Sel. Jepun menduduki Nauru, Kepulauan Gilbert, dan Pulau Goodenough, di lepas pantai tenggara New Guinea. Kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Destroyer MUZUKI, dengan pesawat tentera, Battle of Eastern Solomons.

08/30 Matahari. Pasukan Tentera Laut dan Tentera Amerika Syarikat menduduki Adak, Kepulauan Aleutian, untuk pangkalan udara dan tentera laut. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: CALHOUN pengangkutan berkelajuan tinggi (APD-2), oleh pengebom mendatar, kawasan Kepulauan Solomon, 09 d. 24 'S., 160 d. 01 'E.

08/31 Isnin. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Carrier SARATOGA (CV-3), oleh torpedo kapal selam, 260 batu tenggara Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon, 10 d. 34 'S., 164 d. 18 'E.

09/05 Sabtu. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Pengangkutan berkelajuan tinggi GREGORY (APD-3) dan LITTLE (APD-4), dengan tembakan kapal permukaan, wilayah Kepulauan Solomon, 09 d. 20 'S., 160 d. 01 'E.

09/06 Matahari. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal perang DAKOTA SELATAN (BB-57), dengan memukul terumbu karang, Lahai Passage, Kepulauan Tonga.

09/15 Sel. Pasukan petugas pembawa (Laksamana Muda L. Noyes) yang meliputi pengangkutan bala bantuan dari Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, ke Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon, diserang oleh 2 kapal selam Jepun yang menenggelamkan 1 kapal induk dan merosakkan kapal perang dan kapal pemusnah. Kapal perang Jepun mengebom Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Carrier WASP (CV-7), rosak teruk oleh torpedo kapal selam, berhampiran Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, yang tenggelam oleh pasukan Amerika Syarikat. 12 d. 25 'S., 164 d. 08 'E. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal perang CAROLINA UTARA (BB-55) dan kapal pemusnah O'BRIEN (DD-415), oleh torpedo kapal selam, berhampiran Espiritu Santo, pasukan Jepun Baru Hebrides mengosongkan Attu, Kepulauan Aleutian. (Lihat 30 Oktober 1942.)

09/18 Jumaat. Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon, diperkuat oleh Rejimen Laut ke-7.

09/24 Khamis. Tanah Jepun di Maiana, Kepulauan Gilbert.

09/25 Jumaat. Tanah Jepun di Beru, Kepulauan Gilbert.

09/27 Matahari. Tanah Jepun di Kuria, Kepulauan Gilbert. 10 d. 47 'S., 161 d. 16 'E.

09/30 Rabu Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal penjelajah berat SAN FRANCISCO (CA-38) dan kapal pemusnah BREESE (DD-122), akibat perlanggaran, kawasan New Hebrides, 15 d. 39 'S., 167 d. 39 'E.]

10/02 Jumaat. Marinir menduduki Funafuti, Kepulauan Ellice.

10/05 Isnin Pesawat berasaskan kapal induk (Laksamana Muda G. D. Murrary) mengebom kawasan Buin-Tonolei dan Faisi, Bougainville, Kepulauan Solomon.

10/11 Matahari. Battle of Cape Esperance bermula pada waktu malam dan berterusan pada 12 Oktober. Pasukan permukaan (Laksamana Muda N. Scott) menyerang kapal penjelajah musuh dan kapal pemusnah menuju ke Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon, di "Tokyo Express." Dua kapal penjelajah Amerika Syarikat dan dua kapal pemusnah rosak. Satu kapal pemusnah Jepun tenggelam dua kapal penjelajah dan satu kapal pemusnah rosak. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal penjelajah berat SALT LAKE CITY (CA-25), dengan tembakan tentera laut. Kapal penjelajah ringan BOISE (CL-47), dengan tembakan tentera laut. Destroyers DUNCAN (DD-485), dengan tembakan tentera laut. Destroyers FARENHOLT (DD-491), dengan tembakan tentera laut. Kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Destroyer FUBUKI, dengan kapal permukaan, di luar Pulau Savo.

10/12 Isnin. Kapal Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Destroyer DUNCAN (DD-485), dengan tembakan tentera laut, di luar Pulau Savo. Kapal tentera laut Jepun tenggelam: Cruiser FURUTAKA, dengan kapal permukaan, di luar Pulau Savo. Destroyer NATSUGUMO, dengan pesawat Naval dan Marine, di luar Pulau Savo. Destroyer MURAKUMO, dengan pesawat Naval dan Marine, di luar Pulau Savo.

10/13 Sel. Bahagian Laut Pertama diperkuat oleh Rejimen Infantri ke-164 Bahagian Amerika, Angkatan Darat Amerika Syarikat ini merupakan unit utama pertama yang sampai ke Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon.

10/14 Rabu. Perahu torpedo bermotor melibatkan kapal pemusnah Jepun yang memeriksa kapal perang dan kapal penjelajah yang mengebom Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Destroyer MEREDITH (DD-434), dengan torpedo pesawat, di luar San Cristobal, Kepulauan Solomon.

10/19 Isnin. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Destroyer O'BRIEN (DD-415), dalam perjalanan ke Amerika Syarikat untuk pembaikan pertempuran, dengan memecahkan dua, di luar Samoa, 13 d. 30 'S., 171 d. 18 'E.

10/20 Sel. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal penjelajah berat CHESTER (CA-27), oleh torpedo kapal selam, antara San Cristobal, Kepulauan Solomon dan Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, 13 d. 31 S., 163 d. 17 'E.

10/23 USS OAKLAND CL-95 dilancarkan, ditaja oleh Dr. Aurelia H. Reinhardt, Presiden Mills College, Oakland, California.

10/26 Isnin. Pertempuran Kepulauan Santa Cruz digabungkan sebagai pasukan petugas pengangkut (Laksamana TC Kinkaid dan Laksamana Tertinggi GD Murray) menutup pasukan Jepun yang berangka tinggi, kerosakan berat ditimbulkan kepada pasukan Amerika Syarikat tetapi pergerakan segera Jepun menuju Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon, diperiksa . Battle of Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon, berakhir ketika Marinir menangkis serangan darat dan udara Jepun. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Carrier ENTERPRISE (CV-6), oleh bomber penyelam. Carrier HORNET (CV-8), oleh serangan udara. Kapal perang DAKOTA SELATAN (BB-57), oleh pengebom penyelam. Kapal penjelajah ringan SAN JUAN (CL-54), oleh pengebom penyelam. Destroyer PORTER (DD-356), oleh torpedo kapal selam, dan tenggelam oleh pasukan Amerika Syarikat. Destroyer SMITH (DD-378), oleh pengebom bunuh diri. Destroyer HUGHES (DD-410), dengan perlanggaran.

10/27 Sel. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Carrier HORNET (CV-8), oleh pengebom selam, pengebom torpedo, dan torpedo pemusnah, 08 d. 38 'S., 166 d. 43 'E. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal perang DAKOTA SELATAN (BB-57) dan kapal pemusnah MAHAN (DD-364), dengan perlanggaran.

10/30 Jumaat. Pasukan pencerobohan kedua darat Jepun di Attu, Kepulauan Aleutian. (Lihat 16 September 1942.)

11/12 Sel. Pertempuran Angkatan Laut Guadalcanal (12-15 November) dibuka ketika pengangkutan (Laksamana Muda R. K. Turner) memunggah pasukan di Jalan Lunga, Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon, di bawah perlindungan kekuatan udara dan permukaan, diserang oleh pesawat Jepun. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal penjelajah berat SAN FRANCISCO (CA-38), oleh pesawat Jepun. Destroyer Buchanan (DD-484), secara tidak sengaja oleh tembakan tentera laut Amerika Syarikat. Kapal selam Jepun tenggelam: I-22, oleh PT-122, barat daya New Guinea, 08 d. 32 'S., 148 d. 17 'E.

11/13 Jumaat. Landing Support Group (Laksamana Muda D. J. Callaghan) bertemu dengan Kumpulan Raiding Jepun, termasuk dua kapal perang, mengebom Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, tindakan tentera laut yang menghancurkan terjadi dalam kegelapan di Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon. Kerosakan berat ditimbulkan oleh pasukan Amerika Syarikat sebelum Kumpulan Raiding Jepun berundur ke utara. Pasukan pembawa (Laksamana Muda T. C. Kinkaid) tiba hampir ke kawasan pertempuran dan melancarkan pencarian udara dan serangan terhadap musuh (Pertempuran Tentera Laut Guadalcanal, 12-15 November). Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat tenggelam: Kapal penjelajah ringan ATLANTA (CL-51), dengan tembakan tentera laut. Kapal penjelajah ringan JUNEAU (CL-52), dengan torpedo kapal selam, ketika dia meninggalkan wilayah Kepulauan Solomon untuk menuju ke Espiritu Santo, Hebrides Baru, setelah Pertempuran Guadalcanal. Destroyer CUSHING (DD-376), dengan tembakan tentera laut. Destroyer MONSSEN (DD-436), dengan tembakan tentera laut. Destroyer LAFFEY (DD-459), dengan tembakan dan torpedo dari kapal permukaan. Kapal tentera laut Amerika Syarikat rosak: Kapal penjelajah berat PORTLAND (CA-33), oleh torpedo dari kapal permukaan. Kapal penjelajah ringan HELENA (CL-50), dengan tembakan tentera laut. Destroyer STERETT (DD-407), dengan tembakan tentera laut. Destroyer O'BANNON (DD-450), secara tidak sengaja oleh tembakan tentera laut Amerika Syarikat. Destroyer AARON WARD (DD-483), by naval gunfire. Japanese naval vessels sunk: Battleship HIEI, by naval gunfire, carrier-based aircraft, and Marine land-based aircraft. Destroyer AKATSUKI, by naval gunfire. Destroyer YUDACHI, by naval gunfire.

11/14 Sat. Japanese cruisers and destroyers engaged in night bombardment of Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, area attacked by motor torpedo boats. In the morning this enemy force, while retiring, is struck by Marine and Naval aircraft from Henderson Field, and aircraft from carrier ENTERPRISE (CV-6). The same aircraft sink seven Japanese transports during the afternoon. Beginning shortly before midnight and continuing on 15 November, battleship force (Rear Adm. W. W. Lee) composed of 2 battleships and 3 destroyers engages and turns back large Japanese Naval Group (Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 12-15 November). United States naval vessels sunk: Destroyer PRESTON (DD-379) , by naval gunfire. Destroyer WALKE (DD-416) , by gunfire and torpedo from surface vessel. Japanese naval vessels sunk: Heavy cruiser KINUGASA, by Naval and Marine aircraft.

11/15 Sun. Naval Battle of Guadalcanal ends. [Although the United States suffered greater loss in warships, the Japanese withdrew and never again sent large naval forces into the waters around Guadalcanal the ultimate outcome of the struggle for the island was decided.] United States naval vessel sunk: Destroyer BENHAM (DD-397) , damaged by torpedo and sunk by United States forces . United States naval vessels damaged: Battleship SOUTH DAKOTA (BB-57), by naval gunfire. Destroyer GWIN (DD-433), by naval gunfire . Japanese naval vessels sunk: Battleship KIRISHIMA, by naval gunfire. Destroyer AYANAMI, by naval gunfire.

11/16 Mon. Army forces land south of Buna, New Guinea.

11/24 Tue. Japanese forces land at Munda Point, New Georgia, Solomon Islands.

11/30 Mon. Battle of Tassafaronga, occurs at night when cruiser and destroyer force (Read Adm. C. H. Wright) engages Japanese destroyers (Rear Adm. Tanaka) off Tassafaronga Point, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands enemy torpedoes do heavy damage. United States naval vessels damaged: Heavy cruiser PENSACOLA (CA-24), NORTHAMPTON (CA-26), NEW ORLEANS (CA-32), and MINNEAPOLIS (CA-36), by torpedoes from Japanese destroyers. Japanese naval vessel sunk: Destroyer TAKANAMI, by surface craft.


Kandungan

Bittern was launched 15 February 1919 by Alabama Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Co., Mobile, Alabama sponsored by Mrs. C. R. Doll and commissioned 28 May 1919, Lieutenant William P. Bachman in command. Bittern ' s first duty was as tender to the captured German submarine SM UB-88 while she made an exhibition tour of the U.S. Gulf Coast and U.S. West Coast ports.

In January 1920 Bittern sailed for the Far East where she remained for the rest of her active service. Throughout most of the next 21 years she wintered at Cavite, Philippine Islands, and summered at Chefoo, China. But the routine was broken occasionally by assignment to scientific expeditions and in September 1923 by relief work following the Yokohama, Japan, earthquake.

Fate [ edit ]

The Japanese air raid on Cavite Navy Yard on 10 December 1941 found Bittern undergoing repairs. Although not hit, Bittern suffered extensive damage from fire, near misses, and flying debris from USS Sealion moored alongside. Too badly damaged for repair, the minesweeper was scuttled in Manila Bay after her crew had transferred to USS Quail.


U.S. Navy Amphibious Ships

40 x Landing Ship, Tank (LST)

USS LST-6 sunk by a mine in the Seine River while en route from Rouen, France, to Portland, England, 18 November 1944.

USS LST-43 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

USS LST-69 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

USS LST-158 sunk by aircraft off Licata, Sicily, 11 July 1943.

USS LST-167 stricken after being damaged beyond repair by Japanese aircraft off Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, 25 September 1943.

USS LST-179 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

USS LST-203 destroyed by grounding near Nanumea, Ellice Islands, 2 October 1943.

USS LST-228 destroyed by grounding near Bahia Angra Island, Azores, 21 January 1944.

USS LST-282 sunk by a glider bomb off St. Tropez, France, 15 August 1944.

USS LST-313 sunk by German aircraft off Gela, Sicily, 10 July 1943.

USS LST-314 sunk by German motor torpedo boats off Normandy, France, 9 June 1944.

USS LST-318 sunk by aircraft off Caronia, Sicily, 10 August 1943.

USS LST-333 sunk by German submarine U-593 off Dellys, Algeria, 22 June 1943.

USS LST-342 sunk by Japanese submarine RO-106 west of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 18 July 1943.

USS LST-348 sunk by German submarine U-410 off Anzio, Italy, 20 February 1944.

USS LST-349 sunk after running aground off Ponza, Italy, 26 February 1944.

USS LST-353 sunk by internal explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

USS LST-359 sunk by German submarine U-870 northeast of the Azores, 20 December 1944.

USS LST-376 sunk by German motor torpedo boats off Normandy, France, 9 June 1944.

USS LST-396 sunk by accidental fire and explosion off Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, 18 August 1943.

USS LST-447 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 7 April 1945.

USS LST-448 sunk by Japanese aircraft off Bougainville, Solomon Islands, 5 October 1943.

USS LST-460 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 21 December 1944.

USS LST-472 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 15 December 1944.

USS LST-480 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

USS LST-493 destroyed after grounding while attempting to enter Plymouth Harbor, England, 12 April 1945.

USS LST-496 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 11 June 1944.

USS LST-499 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 8 June 1944.

USS LST-507 sunk by German motor torpedo boats in Lyme Bay, England, 28 April 1944.

USS LST-523 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 19 June 1944.

USS LST-531 sunk by German motor torpedo boats in Lyme Bay, England, 28 April 1944.

USS LST-563 grounded off Clipperton Island, southwest Pacific, 22 December 1944, and abandoned, 9 February 1945.

USS LST-577 sunk by Japanese submarine RO-50 east of Mindanao, Philippine Islands, 11 February 1945.

USS LST-675 grounded off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 April 1945, and abandoned, 17 September 1945..

USS LST-738 sunk by Kamikaze aircraft off Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 15 December 1944.

USS LST-749 sunk by Kamikaze aircraft off Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 21 December 1944.

USS LST-750 sunk by Japanese aircraft off Los Negros, Leyte, Philippine Islands, 28 December 1944.

USS LST-808 grounded after being damaged by Japanese aircraft off Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 18 May 1945, and destroyed, 11 November 1945.

USS LST- 906 grounded off Leghorn, Italy, 18 October 1944, and scrapped, 22 June 1945..

USS LST-921 torpedoed by German submarine U-764 off the channel entrance to Bristol, England, 14 August 1944, and struck from the Navy list, 14 October 1944.

6 x Landing Ship, Medium (LSM)

USS LSM-12 foundered after being damaged by a Japanese suicide boat off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 April 1945.

USS LSM-20 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Ormoc, Leyte, Philippine Islands, 5 December 1944.

USS LSM-59 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 21 June 1945.

USS LSM-135 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 25 May 1945.

USS LSM-149 grounded off the Philippine Islands, 5 December 1944.

USS LSM-318 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Ormoc, Leyte, Philippine Islands, 7 December 1944.

3 x Landing Ship, Medium (Rocket) (LSMR)

USS LSMR-190 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 May 1945.

USS LSMR-194 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 May 1945.

USS LSMR-195 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 3 May 1945.

71 x Landing Craft, Tank (LCT)

LCT(5)-19 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 15 September 1943.

LCT(5)-21 sunk off Oran, Algeria, 1 January 1943.

LCT(5)-23 sunk at Algiers, Algeria, 3 May 1943.

LCT(5)-25 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-26 sunk, 25 February 1944, and stricken from the Navy List, 6 March 1944.

LCT(5)-27 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-28 sunk in the Mediterranean Sea, 30 May 1943.

LCT(5)-30 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-35 sunk off Anzio, Italy, 15 February 1944.

LCT(5)-36 sunk off Naples, Italy, 26 February 1944.

LCT(5)-66 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 12 April 1945.

LCT(5)-71 sunk, 11 September 1943.

LCT(5)-147 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(5)-154 sunk, 31 August 1943.

LCT(5)-175 sunk, 21 February 1945.

LCT(5)-182 sunk off the Solomon Islands, 7 August 1944.

LCT(5)-185 sunk off Bizerte, Tunisia, 24 January 1944.

LCT(5)-196 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 27 September 1943.

LCT(5)-197 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-200 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(5)-208 sunk off Algeria, 20 June 1943.

LCT(5)-209 sunk off northern France, 10 June 1944.

LCT(5)-215 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 1943.

LCT(5)-220 sunk at Anzio, Italy, 13 February 1944.

LCT(5)-241 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 15 September 1943.

LCT(5)-242 sunk off Naples, Italy, 2 December 1943.

LCT(5)-244 sunk off northern France, 8 June 1944.

LCT(5)-253 sunk on passage to Tarawa, 21 January 1945.

LCT(5)-293 sunk in English Channel, 11 October 1944.

LCT(5)-294 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-305 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-311 sunk off Bizerte, Tunisia, 9 August 1943.

LCT(5)-315 sunk at Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, 23 March 1944.

LCT(5)-319 sunk at Kiska, Aleutian Islands, 27 August 1943.

LCT(5)-332 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-340 sunk, 9 February 1944 and stricken from the Navy List, 6 March 1944.

LCT(5)-342 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 29 September 1943.

LCT(5)-352 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 12 April 1945.

LCT(5)-362 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-364 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-366 sunk, 9 September 1943.

LCT(5)-413 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(5)-458 sunk off northern France, 7 June 1944.

LCT(5)-459 sunk off western France, 19 September 1944.

LCT(5)-486 sunk off northern France, 7 June 1944.

LCT(5)-496 sunk in the English Channel, 2 October 1943.

LCT(6)-548 sunk at Portsmouth, England, October 1944.

LCT(6)-555 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-572 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(6)-579 sunk off Palau, Caroline Islands, 4 October 1944.

LCT(6)-582 sunk in the Azores Islands, 22 January 1944.

LCT(6)-593 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-597 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-612 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-703 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-713 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(6)-714 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(6)-777 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-823 sunk off Palau, Caroline Islands, 27 September 1944.

LCT(6)-961 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

LCT(6)-963 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

LCT(6)-983 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

LCT(6)-984 sunk, 15 May 1944, and stricken from the Navy List, 9 June 1944.

LCT(6)-988 sunk, 15 May 1944, ans stricken from the Navy List, 9 June 1944.

LCT(6)-995 sunk at Guam, Mariana Islands, 21 April 1945.

LCT(6)-1029 sunk at Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 2 March 1945.

LCT(6)-1050 sunk off Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 27 July 1945.

LCT(6)-1075 sunk off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 10 December 1944.

LCT(6)-1090 sunk off Luzon, Philippine Islands, 26 March 1945.

LCT(6)-1151 sunk, 26 January 1945.

LCT(6)-1358 sunk off California, 4 May 1945.

5 x Landing Craft, Infantry (Gunboat) (LCI(G))

USS LCI(G)-82 sunk by Japanese suicide boat off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 April 1945.

USS LCI(G)-365 sunk by Japanese suicide boat in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 10 January 1945.

USS LCI(G)-459 sunk off Palau, Caroline Islands, 19 September 1944.

USS LCI(G)-468 sunk, 17 June 1944.

USS LCI(G)-474 sunk off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 17 February 1945.

16 x Landing Craft, Infantry (Large) (LCI(L))

USS LCI(L)-1 sunk off Bizerte, Tunisia, 17 August 1943.

USS LCI(L)-20 sunk off Anzio, Italy, 22 January 1944.

USS LCI(L)-32 sunk off Anzio, Italy, 26 January 1944.

USS LCI(L)-85 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-91 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-92 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-93 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-219 sunk off northern France, 11 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-232 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-339 sunk off New Guinea, 4 September 1943.

USS LCI(L)-416 sunk off northern France, 9 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-497 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-553 sunk off Northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-600 sunk by undetermined explosion at Ulithi, Caroline Islands, 12 January 1945.

USS LCI(L)-684 sunk off Samar, Philippine Islands, 12 November 1945.

USS LCI(L)-1065 sunk off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 24 October 1944.

1 x Landing Craft, Infantry (Mortar) (LCI(M))

USS LCI(M)-974 sunk by Japanese suicide boat in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 10 January 1945.

7 x Landing Craft, Support (Large)(Mk. III) (LCS(L))

USS LCS(L)(3)-7 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-15 sunk by Kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 22 April 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-26 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-33 sunk by shore batteries off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 19 February 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-37 engines damaged beyond repair by a depth charge dropped under the fantail by a suicide boat off Nakagusuki Wan, Okinawa, 28 April 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-49 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-127 sunk off California, 5 March 1945, and stricken from the Navy List, 30 March 1945.


HMS Bittern (1897)

HMS Bittern (1897) was a C class destroyer that served in home waters for her entire career. She was part of the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla in 1914-1918, and was lost with her entire crew after she collided with SS Kenilworth in thick fog on 4 April 1918.

The Vickers 30-knotters had four Thornycroft boilers in two stokeholds, with the second and third boilers sharing a single funnel. They followed the standard general layout, with a turtleback foredeck, with a conning tower with gun platform and bridge above just behind the turtledeck. Two 6-pounder guns were on either side of the conning tower, two on the sides of the ship and one on the stern. On the three ships of the 1985-6 programme one torpedo tube was between the first and second funnel and the second behind the rear funnel. They were built with the chart table on the front of the bridge/ gun platform.

Pre-war Career

The Bittern was laid down on 18 February 1896 and launched on 1 February 1987.

On 21 October 1898 a navigating party was sent from Chatham to bring the Bittern from Vickers at Barrow.

Her official trials were ordered to begin off Sheerness on 16 November 1898. Trials in the North Sea were ordered to begin on 24 November, and her engines were expected to indicate 6,000hp.

On 6 January 1899 her steering gear began erratic while she was in the middle of a measured mile trial, and she narrowly avoiding running onto the Maplin Sands after her engines were thrown into reverse. She briefly hit the sands, sprang a leak and had to return to Chatham.

She carried out the same trial two weeks later, reaching just over 30 knots at 6,659hp.

In 1899 the Bittern took part in speed and fuel efficiency trials. She reached 30.354 knots at 6,366ihp, consuming 2.40 pounds of coal per iHP per hour and 30.403 knots at 6,627ihp

Brassey&rsquos Naval Annual of 1900 listed those results, and a faster speed of 30.408 knots at 6,627ihp.

On Wednesday 13 December 1899 she completed her steam trials, and was placed on the effective list as ready for commission.

In 1900-1904 the Bittern was part of the Nore Flotilla, one of the three that contained all of the home based destroyers.

The Bittern took part in the 1900 naval manoeuvres, when she formed part of the Chatham division of Fleet B, the defensive fleet. Fleet A was smaller, but was expecting reinforcements from the Mediterranean, suggesting that the potential enemy at this stage was France.

The Bittern took part in the 1901 naval manoeuvres, which began in late July. These involved two fleets &ndash Fleet B began in the North Sea, and had the task of keeping the English Channel open to trade. Fleet X began off the north coast of Ireland, and had the task of stopping trade in the Channel. The Bittern was part of a force of destroyers from Chatham that joined Fleet X. This was the first time both sides in the annual exercises had been given an equal force of destroyers. The exercises ended with a victory for Fleet X. The destroyer forces didn&rsquot live up to expectations, either in torpedo attack or as scouts.

In November 1901 it was announced that her boilers were to be re-tubed, after some time operating with the Medway Destroyer Instructional Flotilla.

In 1904 the Bittern moved to the Devonport Flotilla.

In February 1904 her commanding officer, Lt Harrold, was sued by Mr James Piper, owner of the barge Rosebank. He claimed that Harrold had travelled up the Medway at excessive speed, causing his barge to hit the barge Eastern. However the Navy claimed that the Bittern had only being going at 8 knots, and Harrold was acquitted.

In mid-April 1904 she was released from the Sheerneess Dockyards, and judged to be fit to escort the King and Queen during their return voyage across the Irish Sea. This was a short duty, and on 2 May 1904 she was paid off at Chatham, she entered the Medway Reserve and her crew moved to the new destroyer Usk.

In the summer of 1904 she took part in the annual naval manoeuvres. On the morning of Monday 25 July she left Kingstown to join the destroyer flotilla, but instead had to come to the aid of the Codling Lightship, which had developed a problem with its engines.

On 3 January 1905 her crew was to be brought up to its full complement, so she could replace the Leven in the Devonport Instructional Flotilla.

In late March 1905 she was commissioned under the command of Lt. J. Kiddle, with the crew from the Sunfish, and replaced her in the Medway Flotilla.

In 1905 she was part of the 3rd Division, one of three destroyer divisions attached to the Channel Fleet

In 1909-1913 she was part of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla, part of the 3rd Division of the Home Fleet, which contained the older battleships.

In July 1914 she was in active commission at Devonport, with the 7th Destroyer Flotilla, one of the patrol flotillas.

First World War

Her commander at the outbreak of the First World War was Gordon Campbell. He was later awarded the Victoria Cross for sinking the German submarine U-83 on 17 February 1917, while in command of the Q Ship HMS Farnborough. At the time the reason for the award was kept secret, causing some interest in the press!

In August 1914 she wasn&rsquot listed in the Pink List, the Admiralty list of warship location. At that point no destroyers were listed as part of the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla, so this may just reflect a gap in the lists.

In November 1914 she was one of four destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla.

In June 1915 she was one of six destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla.

In January 1916 she was one of four destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla, but she was undergoing repairs that were expected to end on 15 January and was in the hands of a care and maintenance party.

In October 1916 she was one of six destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla

In January 1917 she was one of six destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla

On 11 February 1917 she was patrolling close to Plymouth when she sighted a mine, which she sank with rifle fire. This meant that the port was closed from 3.30pm while the approaches were checked, The Bittern and Sunfish were ordered to patrol off the Eddystone and divert any approaching shipping. However the message didn&rsquot reach the troop ship SS Afric, which was sunk by a German submarine early on 12 February.

On 25 April 1917 UB-32 torpedoed the troop ship SS Ballarat, carrying 1,760 troops from Melbourne to Plymouth. All of the troops onboard were rescued, and the Bittern was ordered to escort two tugs to her position to try and save the ship. In the dark they went past her, and didn&rsquot find her until 1.25am. They were then ordered to wait until dawn before attempting to take her in tow, but she sank at 4.30am on 26 April.

In June 1917 she was one of four active destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla

In January 1918 she was one of four destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla, but she was undergoing repairs.

The Bittern sank after she collided with SS Kenilworth in thick fog off Portland Bill on 4 April 1918. Seventy five men were lost and there were no survivors.

Commanding Officer
-January 1899-: Lt Blunt
-February 1904-: Lt Harrold
-July 1904-: Lt Hammond
March 1905-: Lt J. Kiddle
-August 1914-: Gordon Campbell


Forces At Other Locations In The Philippine Islands

Heavy Cruiser
CA-30 Houston, Iloilo PI

Light Cruiser
CL-47 Boise, Cebu, PI
Note Boise Belonged to the Pacific Fleet,
She had recently escorted a reinforcement convoy to the Philippines and was "Drafted" into the Asiatic Fleet.

Submarines
SS-141, S-36, on patrol off Lingayen, PI
SS-144, S-39, on patrol off Sarosogon Bay, Luzon PI

Seaplane Tenders
AVD-7 William B. Preston, Davao, PI
AVP-2 Huron, Palawan, PI


Company History

The EJ legacy dates back to 1883 when William E. Malpass and his father-in-law Richard W. Round established a foundry on the shores of Lake Charlevoix, in the town of East Jordan, Michigan, USA. This foundry was called Round and Malpass Foundry and originally produced cast parts for the lumber industry, machinery, ships, agricultural equipment, and railroads. In 1886, William&rsquos brother, James, joined the business and the company was renamed East Jordan Iron Works.

In the 1920s, when the lumbering era came to a close, the company welcomed the second generation to the business and expanded into new markets allowing continued success in changing times. Production shifted to street castings, water works valves, fire hydrants, and various industrial castings. Through World War II, the foundry produced castings for the war effort. In the 1950s, semi-automation was introduced into the foundry.

During the 1960s, the third generation automated the foundry with the addition of a high-pressure molding line. By integrating automatic sand processing and mechanized casting handling systems, the company was operating the largest automated molding line in the United States and maximized production capabilities.

Since the late 1980s, the business has been led by the fourth generation descendants of the Malpass family. They have transformed the Midwest business into an international leader of providing access solutions to infrastructure systems.

Beginning in the 1990s, acquisitions throughout the United States allowed the company to expand product lines, sales offices, distribution capabilities, and customer services across North America. In 2001, a new foundry was built in Oklahoma providing additional capacity to service growing markets in the United States, as well as Central and South America. The fifth generation of the Malpass family began joining the company in the late 1990s, continuing the strong family commitment to the company&rsquos success.

In the early 2000s, East Jordan Iron Works began turning its attention to expansion in other parts of the world, with the acquisition of Cavanagh Foundry in Ireland (2000), Norinco in France (2004), McCoy Construction Castings in Canada (2006), and HaveStock in Australia (2010).

In 2012, East Jordan Iron Works and its affiliated companies began doing business using the same name and brand, EJ. One global name and brand, supported by a single mission, vision, and set of values has unified the company. This action leverages all company resources to improve internal operations, as well as provide superior product offerings and services to its valued customers.

Increasing its global footprint, EJ continues to grow through acquisition and reinvestment with the addition of Bernard Cassart & Cie in Belgium (2012), Syracuse Castings Sales Corporation and Syracuse Castings West Corporation in the USA (2012), Etheridge Foundry & Machine Company in the USA (2012), E.A. Quirin Machine in the USA (2013), GMI Composites in the USA (2014), the municipal casting distribution of Mueller Canada Ltd., in Canada (2014), GAV GmbH in Germany (2015), Peter Savage Ltd. and Integrated Ducting Systems in the United Kingdom (2015), Schacht und Bautechnik Vertriebs GmbH (SBV) in Austria (2016), as well as the expansion of composite manufacturing in Birr, Ireland in (2018), the construction of a state-of-the-art manufacturing facility in Northern Michigan, USA (2018) and the construction of a new fabrication facility in New York, USA (2019).

Today, the company provides a full line of access solutions for the infrastructure systems of municipalities, utility companies, airport and port authorities, and private companies. Products include manhole covers and frames, catch basin and curb inlet grates and frames, trench grates, and tree grates. In addition to traditional materials of gray or ductile cast iron, a continuously expanding array of innovative solutions are offered in composites, fabricated steel, and fabricated aluminum. EJ also provides products for water supply systems including fire hydrants and valves, valve and service boxes, and various other water supply products. EJ supplies products to infrastructure projects in 6 of the 7 continents.

EJ continues to be 100% owned by descendants of William E. Malpass, and members of the family continue to be active in managing the business. The fourth and fifth generation remain dedicated to maintaining the company&rsquos long-established culture and values, setting strategies and priorities. This has allowed EJ to remain one of the most stable, progressive, and well-tooled manufacturing companies in the world. The corporate headquarters continues to remain in East Jordan, Michigan, USA.


Bittern AM-36 - History

AUGUSTA (CA-31) FF
Capt. John H. Magruder, Jr.
MARBLEHEAD (CL-12)
Cmdr. Thomas Moran

ASHEVILLE (PG-21)
Cmdr. Hobart A. Sailor
ISABEL (PY-10)
Lt. Cmdr. Henry W. Goodall
TULSA (PG-22)
Cmdr. Roswell H. Blair

DESTROYER DIVISION THIRTEEN
Commander Myron W. Hutchinson, Jr.

WHIPPLE (DD-217) (F)
Lt. Cmdr. Rupert M. Zimmerli
ALDEN (DD-211)
Lt. Cmdr. Stanley F. Patten
BARKER (DD-213)
Lt. Cmdr. Justin S. Fitzgerald
JOHN D. EDWARDS (DD-216)
Lt. Cmdr. William G. Fisher

SUBMARINE DIVISION FOURTEEN
Commander John Wilkes

PICKEREL (SS-177) (F)
Lt. Barton E. Bacon, Jr.
PERMIT (SS-178)
Lt. Cmdr. Adrian M. Hurst
PERCH (SS-176)
Lt. David A. Hurt
PIKE (SS-173)
Lt. William A. New
PORPOISE (SS-172)
Lt. Cmdr. Joseph A. Callaghan
TARPON (SS-175)
Lt. Cmdr. William W. Weeden, Jr.

SUBMARINE DIVISION TEN
Commander Paul R. Gluting

S-37 (SS-142) (F)
Lt. Thomas L. Greene
S-36 (SS-141)
Lt. Rob R. McGregor
S-38 (SS-143)
Lt. Roland F. Pryce
S-39 (SS-144)
Lt. Earle C. Hawk
S-40 (SS-145)
Lt. Richard C. Lake
S-41 (SS-146)
Lt. Charles O. Triebel

LANGLEY (AV-3)**
Commander Arthur C. Davis**

VP-21**
Commander Sam L. LaHache**

HERON (AVP-2)
Lt. Charles R. Carroll

Utility Unit - 3 VJ
Lt. (jg) F. W. Sheppard

DESTROYER DIVISION FOURTEEN
Commander Walter C. Ansel

STEWART (DD-224) (F)
Lt. Cmdr. Donald S. Evans
BULMER (DD-222)
Lt. Cmdr. James J. McGlynn
EDSALL (DD-219)
Lt. Cmdr. Abel C. J. Sabalot
PARROTT (DD-218)
Lt. Cmdr. Wilkie H. Brereton

DESTROYER DIVISION FIFTEEN
Commander Francis A. Smith

PEARY (DD-226) (F)
Lt. Cmdr. William G. Lalor
JOHN D. FORD (DD-228)
Lt. Cmdr. John D. Shaw
PILLSBURY (DD-227)
Lt. Cmdr. Arthur A. Ageton
POPE (DD-225)
Lt. Cmdr. Clarence L. C. Atkeson, Jr.

MINE DIVISION THREE
Lieutenant Tillett S. Daniel

BITTERN (AM-36) (F)
Lt. Tillett S. Daniel
FINCH (AM-9)
Lt. Benjamin May, 2nd


USS Lapwing (AM-1)

Authored By: JR Potts, AUS 173d AB | Last Edited: 07/18/2016 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

Leading up to 1917, the United States Navy had used sloops and tugs to locate and destroy enemy mines in harbors and on the seas. As American ships ventured ever closer to foreign shores, a special ship was needed to locate and remove such mines from the all-important sea lanes. The USS Lapwing (AM-1) was the lead ship of her class of a minesweepers becoming, the first minesweeper in United States Navy history. The class was named for birds, the lapwing a plover that was slow and in flight and seemed to display an uneven wing-flapping action. The navy built 49 of these ships to be used worldwide in much the same vein as her namesake bird ranging in abundance throughout Europe, Asia and Northern Africa. Lapwing was laid down in October of 1917 at the Todd Shipyard Company in New York and commissioned on June 12th, 1918 with Lieutenant (Junior Grade) William Fremgen in command. The Navy felt these ships could double in the training role and thusly stationed junior grade officers in command of them.

USS Lapwing, Minesweeper No.1, put to sea for normal sea trials with her new crew. The trials were not only needed to check the ships handling but to devise new minesweeping maneuvers for the Navy. Following several convoy escort cruises to Halifax, Lapwing departed New London, Connecticut on September 26th of 1918 for Europe. Assigned to the North Sea mine barrage, the USS Lapwing removed some 2,160 wartime mines from British waters between June and September of 1919.

During World War 1, the British and Germans mined such sea lanes in the North Sea and throughout the English Channel. There have always been three major uses for mine: offensive, defensive and psychological. Offensive mines were dropped in enemy waters, just outside the valuable harbors and in shipping routes with the intention of sinking unsuspecting ships. Defensive minefields could be congregated at strategic locations and use to protect a coast from enemy ships and submarines. Minefields also carried with them the inherent psychological effect and could be equally set along enemy shipping lanes. Just a few a mines along a major shipping route could delay enemy supply convoys for hours or days until the entire area was swept and cleared by mine sweepers.

Minesweepers of this time were only equipped with mechanical sweep devices used to detonate "contact" mines. The earliest mines were usually the contact type - a low cost alternative to any other anti-ship weapon of the day. Contact mines needed to be very close to a metal target before they could trigger detonation, limiting their damage to the immediate vicinity and usually affecting only the single vessel that had triggered the detonation. The first mine detonators that were used contained a vial filled with sulfuric acid surrounded by a mixture of potassium perchlorate and sugar. When the vial was crushed, the acid ignited a flame that - in turn - ignited the onboard gunpowder causing a spectacular localized detonation. Early in the 1870s, the Hertz Horn Mine was invented. These mines could remain active in the sea for several years after being laid down. The mine's upper half was studded with hollow lead spikes, each about 10 inches long and containing a glass vial filled with sulfuric acid. When the mine bumped against a ship's hull it would crush the metal spiked "horn" and crack the vial inside of it, releasing the acid. The acid would drain down through a tube to a lead acid battery to which the battery would then become energized and cause a quick electrical spark, leading to detonation and explosion. Many early mines were extremely fragile and unstable, making them quite dangerous to handle. Their glass containers were filled with nitro or mechanical devices that activated them when tilted. At any rate, it was a dangerous business and many mine laying ships were destroyed when their own cargo of live mines exploded.

A submarine could run at any depth down to the seabed and, as a result, the "antenna mine" was invented to combat them. This particular mine had a copper wire attached to a buoy that floated above the mine. The top and bottom part of the cable connecting the mine to the weight on the seabed that was also made of copper. If a submarine's steel hull touched the copper wire, the slight voltage produced from the contact between two different metals produced a charge that detonated the mine.

Mechanical sweeps became devices designed to cut the anchoring cables of moored mines and tow them behind the minesweeper. They utilized a towed body called oropesa floats, connected to a kite otter that was needed to maintain the sweep at the desired depth and position. A contact sweep used a wire that was dragged through the water by one or two ships to cut the mooring wire of floating mines or provided a distance sweep that mimicked a ship to purposely detonate such mines. Each run could cover between one and two hundred meters and the ships were required to move deliberately and slowly in a straight line. If a contact sweep hit a mine, the wire of the sweep rubbed against the mooring wire until it was fully cut. Sometimes the minesweeper towed explosive devices to cut the mine's wire and were used to lessen the strain on the sweeping wire. Mines that were cut free were then generally exploded with a blast from a 3-inch deck gun.

After World War 1, Lapwing returned to the United States and, after normal repairs and some re-crewing, she was dispatched to the West Coast, arriving in San Diego in October of 1920. USS Lapwing received orders to sail for Pearl Harbor in January of 1921. USS Lapwing was assigned to the Pacific Fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor and performed minesweeping operations in Hawaiian waters until she was decommissioned on April 11th, 1922 at Pearl.

The U.S. Navy now planned for "Small Seaplane Tenders" (AVPs), vessels requiring shallow drafts and capable of supporting one flight squadron. These vessels were cheaper to build or convert from other classes and were able to operate in shallow waters. These ships also had hangars for storing and maintaining aircraft without the need for a flight deck. Cranes were added to Lapwing to lower aircraft into the sea for take-off and to recover them after landing. The seaplane could only be operated in a smooth sea and the ship had to stop for launching or recovery of aircraft, and both actions could take around 20 minutes each. The tender was often stationed ten miles or so in front of the main battle fleet along with the cruiser screen for protection when it launched its aircraft. On September 1st, 1932, USS Lapwing was officially converted to a Small Seaplane Tender.

USS Lapwing, with Lieutenant R. J. Arnold in command, now had a new mission to serve and protect her seaplane aircraft. The ship's dimensions changed to support the new mission. The added weight of the aircraft crane and supporting aircraft supplies (along with 80,000 gallons of aviation fuel) increased her draught to 13 feet, 1 inch and the crew increased by the addition of seven airmen. Her new station was Coco Solo, Canal Zone and she arrived for duty in October of 1932.

From 1933 to 1941, Lapwing participated in various exercises with her aircraft, helping develop American naval aviation capability and formulate the seaplane tender role for future conflicts. USS Lapwing's participation in developing the tender's mission was important enough that she was reclassified as a Small Seaplane Tender on January 22nd, 1936. USS Lapwing (AVP-1) operated primarily with seaplanes in the Panama Canal Zone, along the West Coast, and in the Caribbean Sea, the latter basing her at Trinidad in the British West Indies.

Her World War 2 service saw Lapwing assigned to the North Atlantic with Patrol Wing 3. She departed the Caribbean in February of 1942 and arrived in Narsarssuak, Greenland in May of 1942. Lapwing remained in the North Atlantic, engaging in patrol and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) missions with her seaplanes until 1943.

She was assigned another tour in the Caribbean and arrived in Key West in June of 1943 for duty as a training ship. Operating out of the Fleet Sound School for 11 months, Lapwing's mission was to continue to develop tactics for air ASW technology. Lapwing's task force cruised to Recife, Brazil in August of 1944 looking for enemy submarines. The task force and the seaplane tender returned to Key West in early September and performed various training missions for the rest of the war. Lapwing steamed to Charleston, South Carolina on October 5th, 1945. Once there, she was officially decommissioned and struck from the naval roster on November 29th, 1945. She was sold on August 19th, 1946 to W. S. Sanders, Norfolk, Virginia by the War Shipping Administration (WSA), a World War 2 emergency war agency of the US government tasked to purchase and operate civilian shipping tonnage that was so desperately needed for the US war effort. Her ultimate fate beyond that was unknown.


Tonton videonya: How Lebron was when he found out James Harden Went to the Nets (Ogos 2022).