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36 Bilik Kematian: Pusat Tenaga Seni Mempertahankan Diri Shaolin Purba

36 Bilik Kematian: Pusat Tenaga Seni Mempertahankan Diri Shaolin Purba


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Masukkan Wu-Tang (36 Bilik) adalah nama album debut tahun 1993 oleh kumpulan rap Amerika Wu-Tang Clan, yang tidak hanya menetapkan standard baru untuk hip hop tegar selama tahun 1990-an, tetapi membawa adegan rap New York City ke pentas antarabangsa. Tajuk album, 36 ruang , merujuk filem Kung Fu 1978-Shaw bersaudara, Dewan Shaolin ke-36, juga dikenali sebagai Pembunuh Induk , yang mengikuti sami San Te, yang diperankan oleh Gordon Liu, berjuang melalui 35 persekitaran pembelajaran (ruang), akhirnya membentuk ruang '36' yang baru; sebuah akademi seni mempertahankan diri yang mengajar golongan muda, bukan monastik, bertani untuk mempertahankan diri dalam pemberontakan yang akan datang untuk menggulingkan Dinasti Qing yang menindas (1644 - 1912).

Peta Dinasti Qing pada tahun 1820. (Termasuk sempadan wilayah dan sempadan China moden untuk rujukan ( CC BY-SA 3.0)

Walaupun filem Kung Fu klasik ini umumnya terkenal kerana adegan aksi dan latihannya yang berterusan, angka '36' adalah simbol keturunan Cina dalam seni mempertahankan diri dan nombor khas ini dikaitkan dengan rahsia terdalam sistem pertempuran tertua dan paling mematikan Shaolin .

Asal-usul 36 Serangan Kematian Shaolin

Walaupun banyak gaya pertempuran di selatan dan utara China menggunakan nama 'Shaolin' gaya pertempuran yang asli diciptakan pada tahun 495 Masihi Shàolín s ì, juga dikenal sebagai Kuil Shaolin, terletak di sebelah utara Shaoshi, puncak tujuh puncak Gunung Lagu, di wilayah Henan, Chinaduring. Kuil Shaolin adalah kuil utama sekolah agama Buddha Shaolin hingga hari ini dan di sinilah Shaolin Kung Fu atau Wushu dibuat. Konsep dari Buddhisme Zen yang dikenali sebagai ‘ Chan ’, menjadi agama Shaolin, dan ini dikahwinkan dengan seni mempertahankan diri yang disebut ' Quan.’ Dalam buku sarjana Jeffery Broughton tahun 1999, Antologi Bodhidharma: Rekod Terawal Zen kita mengetahui bahawa Shaolin Monks mengabdikan hidup mereka untuk penyatuan falsafah dan fizikal Chan dan Quan, fikiran dan badan.

Shuce Cliff adalah semula jadi yang terkenal mercu tanda o n Mount Song, Henan, China, di mana perkataan 'Shuce' bermaksud 'buku' dalam bahasa Cina. Th tegak tegak dibentuk kira-kira 1.8 bilion tahun yang lalu oleh suatu yang kuat orogeni - Pergerakan Zhongyue, dan para bhikkhu akan naik dan turun batu di tangan dan lutut mereka menguji dan mengembangkan stamina, daya tahan dan daya tahan mereka terhadap kesakitan. ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )


Masukkan Wu-Tang (36 Bilik)

Masukkan Wu-Tang (36 Bilik) adalah album studio sulung oleh kumpulan hip hop Amerika Wu-Tang Clan, yang dikeluarkan pada 9 November 1993, oleh Loud Records. Sesi rakaman berlangsung pada awal hingga pertengahan 1993 di Firehouse Studio di New York City, dan album ini dihasilkan oleh pemimpin de facto kumpulan RZA. Tajuknya berasal dari filem seni mempertahankan diri Masukkan Naga (1973) dan Dewan Shaolin ke-36 (1978). [2]

  1. "Lindungi Leher Ya"
    Dikeluarkan: 3 Mei 1993
  2. "Kaedah Manusia"
    Dikeluarkan: 3 Ogos 1993
  3. "C.R.E.A.M."
    Dikeluarkan: 31 Januari 1994
  4. "Bolehkah Semua Ini Sangat Sederhana"
    Dikeluarkan: 22 Februari 1994

Suara kasar dan khas dari Masukkan Wu-Tang (36 Bilik) membuat cetak biru untuk hip hop tegar semasa tahun 1990-an, dan membantu mengembalikan hip hop New York City ke peringkat nasional. Suaranya juga sangat berpengaruh dalam produksi hip hop moden, sementara lirik eksplisit, humor, dan pergaulan bebas anggota kumpulan telah menjadi templat untuk banyak rakaman hip hop berikutnya. Berkhidmat sebagai pelepasan mercu tanda di era hip hop yang dikenali sebagai East Coast Renaissance, pengaruhnya membantu memimpin beberapa rapper Pantai Timur yang lain, termasuk Nas, The Notorious B.I.G., Mobb Deep, dan Jay-Z.

Walaupun terdengar kasar, bawah tanah, album ini berjaya meraih kejayaan yang mengejutkan, memuncak di nombor 41 di AS Papan iklan 200 carta, menjual 30,000 salinan pada minggu pertama dijual. Menjelang tahun 1995 ia disahkan Platinum oleh Persatuan Industri Rakaman Amerika, dan pada bulan Oktober 2018 ia diperakui tiga platinum. [1] Mula-mula menerima ulasan positif dari kebanyakan pengkritik muzik, Masukkan Wu-Tang (36 Bilik) secara meluas dianggap sebagai salah satu album paling penting pada tahun 1990-an, dan juga salah satu album hip hop terhebat sepanjang masa.


RZA Wu-Tang mengenai pengaruh Bruce Lee

Mungkin itu tidak lebih daripada kebetulan. 11 Ogos 1973, diakui secara meluas sebagai hari hip-hop dilahirkan pada jam belakang sekolah yang dilemparkan oleh DJ Kool Herc di Bronx, New York. Lapan hari kemudian, pada 19 Ogos, Bruce Lee & rsquos Masukkan Naga dilancarkan di pawagam, hit box-office yang membantu melancarkan daya tarikan nasional dengan seni mempertahankan diri campuran. Oleh itu, jika tidak ada yang lain, kedua tsunami budaya dilahirkan di udara musim panas yang lembab dan kacau.

& ldquoSaya tidak & # 39; Perkara berlaku seperti itu, & rdquo RZA, tukang besi Wu-Tang yang legenda, memberitahu The Undefeat. & ldquoBruce Lee menggabungkan begitu banyak gaya seni mempertahankan diri dengan gerakan dari Muhammad Ali, falsafah dari Taoisme dan Buddhisme, tetapi dia juga menyedari [orang-orang seperti] Malcolm X dan perjuangan Amerika hitam. Ini menunjukkan semua pekerjaan dan keperibadiannya. & Rdquo

Gelombang itu terhempas bersama dua dekad kemudian, ketika Klan Wu-Tang menggunakan filem Lee & rsquos sebagai inspirasi sebahagian untuk tajuk album studio debutnya yang berpengaruh, Masukkan Wu-Tang (36 Bilik). Di luar Lee & rsquos magnum opus, konglomerat Staten Island, New York, sembilan orang, adalah omnivor dalam inspirasi seni mempertahankan diri. Semua anggota Klan Wu-Tang, tetapi terutama RZA, mengagumi Lee & rsquos ketakutan dan pemikiran abstrak serta kreativiti dan disiplin yang disertakan dengan falsafah Timur.

& ldquoSebagai kecil, anda membayangkan diri anda berada dalam filem, & rdquo RZA mengatakan tentang & ldquoBe Like Water, & rdquo trek baru yang turun pada hari Jumaat dengan filem ESPN 30 untuk 30 yang ditayangkan pada hari Ahad. & ldquoUntuk menjadi sebahagian daripada budaya dan seseorang yang dibenarkan membuat unsur budaya itu, ia akan menjadi berkat. Bobby Diggs muda [RZA & rsquos legal name] pasti akan & rsquove hanya melihatnya sebagai khayalan. & Rdquo

RZA dari Wu-Tang Clan membuat persembahan semasa perayaan ulang tahun ke-36 Chambers ke-25.

Selain rapper dan produser RZA, Wu-Tang Clan & rsquos asli sembilan ahli termasuk MCs Method Man, Ghostface Killah (dinamakan watak dari 1979 & rsquos Da Mystery of Chessboxin), Raekwon, U-God, Cappadonna, Masta Killa (dinamakan sempena Tuan Pembunuh, filem 1978 juga dikenali sebagai Dewan Shaolin ke-36), Inspectah Deck dan Ol & rsquo Dirty Bastard (O.D.B.) yang tidak dapat ditandingi, yang meninggal dunia pada tahun 2004.

Kumpulan itu sendiri bertanggungjawab untuk lapan album antara tahun 1993 dan 2017, termasuk album dunia & rsquos paling berharga, 2015 & rsquos kontroversial Suatu ketika di Shaolin. Ramai ahli kumpulan & rsquos, seperti O.D.B., GZA dan Raekwon, juga berjaya secara solo menerusi projek seperti Kembali ke 36 Chambers: The Dirty Version, Liquid Swords dan Hanya Dibina 4 Linx Cuba. Ghostface Killah, dalam kerjanya dengan Wu-Tang Clan dan pada album peribadi seperti Ironman, Pelanggan Tertinggi dan Skala ikan, adalah salah satu genre & rsquos arkitek lisan terbaik. Method Man juga terkenal dengan penampilan sulung & rsquo94 Tical & mdash dan kerjaya yang hebat di Hollywood dalam filem seperti Perut dan Berapa tinggi, dan siri TV seperti HBO & rsquos Wayar dan kemudian The Deuce, Netflix & rsquos Luke Cage, TBS & rsquo O.G Terakhir dan yang akan datang Buku Kuasa II: Hantu.

Kita boleh berdebat sama ada Wu-Tang Clan adalah rap faksi terbesar yang pernah dihasilkan. Walau bagaimanapun, apa yang boleh diperdebatkan adalah kumpulan & rsquos yang suka dipelajari di seluruh dunia. Yang masuk akal, kerana di Wu-Tang Clan kehidupan pengaruh meliputi dunia, dari Bangsa Islam dan Lima Peratus hingga mitologi buku komik hingga mitos dan tradisi seni mempertahankan diri Timur.

RZA & rsquos pengenalan seni mempertahankan diri datang melalui ciri berganda 1976 & rsquos Kemarahan Naga (yang kemudian melahirkan Lee, yang meninggal dunia akibat edema serebrum pada 20 Julai 1973) dan serangan blaksploitasi Samurai Hitam, menampilkan Jim Kelly. RZA terpaku pada ideologi, kesabaran, disiplin dan kepemimpinan yang digambarkan dalam filem-filem ini.

Lima filem seni mempertahankan diri terbaiknya adalah 36 Dewan Shaolin, Five Venoms Deadly, The Eight Diagram, Pole Fighter, The Mystery of Caturboxing dan, ketika dia memberitahu orang ramai di New York City pada tahun 2016, & ldquoany Bruce Lee [filem]. & rdquo Apa yang dia pelajari dalam filem-filem ini menjadi kerangka bagaimana dia mendekati industri muzik dan kehidupan.

Klan Wu-Tang menggunakan filem Bruce Lee & rsquos sebagai inspirasi sebahagian untuk tajuk album studio debutnya yang berpengaruh, Masukkan Wu-Tang (36 Bilik).

Yang membantu menjelaskan kesan 1993 & rsquos Masukkan Wu-Tang (36 Bilik). Pada intinya, 36 Bilik sama dengan rekod rap yang pernah ada, mendahului cap masa Big Apple lain seperti Nas & rsquo Tidak logik dan The B.I.G. & rsquos yang terkenal Bersedia untuk mati setahun kemudian. Sama seperti N.W.A, Klan Wu-Tang menempatkan pengeluar maniacal di RZA dan kru MC yang berpengaruh. Seperti watak-watak dalam filem-filem yang telah membentuk rangka kerja kreatif dan falsafah RZA & rsquos, setiap artis sangat unik.

Dari New York & rsquos lima borough, Staten Island tidak mempunyai identiti hip-hop yang sah sehingga 1993. Queens sudah mempunyai LL Cool J, Kool G Rap dan Rev. Run dari Run-DMC. Manhattan mempunyai Kurtis Blow, Biz Markie dan Teddy Riley. DJ Kool Herc, KRS-One, D-Nice, Slick Rick, Grandmaster Caz dan Melle Mel semuanya berasal dari Bronx. Big Daddy Kane, MC Lyte, Jeru the Damaja dan Jam Master Jay membalas Brooklyn. Malah Long Island membanggakan Public Enemy, Bumpy Knuckles dan Rakim. Masukkan Wu-Tang mengubah legasi hip-hop selamanya di Staten Island.

Estetika dari 36 Bilik memendam kemarahan yang ditimbulkan oleh Klan Wu-Tang sejak bertahun-tahun rasisme di pulau itu. Dan filem seni mempertahankan diri adalah portal ke dunia yang tidak terasa secara fizikal, tetapi RZA sangat ingin meneroka. & ldquo [Filem-filem itu] menjadi pelarian sepenuhnya pada penghujung hari. Saya benar-benar bermain curang dari sekolah di dalam pawagam, & rdquo katanya sambil ketawa. & ldquoHanya minda muda yang seharusnya menyerap pendidikan dunia dan di sini saya menyerap pelbagai jenis pendidikan. Dan ia sama berguna, jika tidak lebih. & Rdquo

Pengaruh Lee dan filem seni mempertahankan diri bernilai Legion & rsquos dan pengaruh Timur berdarah ke dalam DNA projek & rsquos. Paling jelas, Masukkan Wu-Tang adalah penghormatan langsung kepada filem akhir Lee & rsquos, Masukkan Naga. Dan 36 Bilik, tentu saja, pemeriksaan nama Dewan Shaolin ke-36.

Filem mempunyai kekuatan untuk menangkap dan membuat dunia, katanya. Dan apabila minda muda menguraikan dunia dengan betul, filem ini lebih banyak daripada maksud asalnya. Yang bagaimana Shaolin berakhir di Staten Island.

& ldquoFilem-filem itu bersama-sama menjadi sumber inspirasi penting bagi saya, & rdquo RZA. & ldquoPikirkan tentangnya. [Dalam Masukkan Naga], ada & # 39; penggabungan lelaki karate putih dengan John Saxon, saudara seni mempertahankan diri hitam dengan Jim Kelly dan Asia dengan Bruce Lee. Mereka semua bekerja sama melawan penindas yang meracuni rakyat. Sekiranya anda menambah beberapa elemen lain, itu & rsquos negara kita, bro! & Rdquo

Sebuah poster untuk filem aksi seni mempertahankan diri 1973 yang dikeluarkan oleh Inggeris Masukkan Naga, dibintangi (dari bawah ke atas) Bruce Lee, Jim Kelly, John Saxon dan Ahna Capri.

Gambar Seni Poster Filem / Getty Images

Album ini juga mengambil contoh dari atau termasuk penghormatan lirik hingga 1976 & rsquos Sarjana Fill Guillotine dan Pelaksana Shaolin (& ldquoWu-Tang Clan Ain & rsquot Nuthin & rsquo to F Wit & rdquo), 1978 & rsquos Lima Zat yang Mematikan (& ldquoDa Misteri Chessboxin & rsquo & rdquo), 1979 & rsquos Sepuluh Harimau Kwangtung (& ldquoBring da Ruckus & rdquo) dan 1983 & rsquos Shaolin dan Wu Tang (& ldquoMalu pada N & mdasha & rdquo).

Klan Wu-Tang & tarikan rsquos dengan seni bela diri tidak memberi penghormatan sekali. Lee dan banyak bintang lain dari genre ini menjadi sebahagian daripada siapa mereka dan, dengan proksi, merupakan bahagian budaya hip-hop yang tidak dapat diganti. Kaedah Man dan Raekwon & rsquos 1994 & ldquoMeth vs. Chef & rdquo on Tical, O.D.B. & rsquos & ldquoIntro & rdquo dari debutnya 1995 dan filem 2012 yang diarahkan RZA Lelaki dengan Penumbuk Besi semua mengandungi sampel dari tahun 1978 & rsquos Dewan ke-36. RZA juga menghasilkan skor untuk aksi & thriller aksi 2003 & rsquos Bunuh Bil: Vol. 1. Sepuluh Harimau mengetuai kepalanya pada Method Man & rsquos 1994 & ldquoSaya Mendapatkan Thang In Action. & rdquo Pada tahun yang sama, Raekwon & rsquos & ldquoGuillotine (Swordz) & rdquo intro sampel 1983 & rsquos Shaolin lwn Lama. GZA & rsquos 1995 & ldquo4th Chamber & rdquo memaparkan petikan dari tahun 1980 & rsquos Pembunuh Shogun. Ghostface Killah & rsquos 1996 & rsquos & ldquoPartisonous Darts & rdquo mendapat inspirasi dari Misteri Kotak Catur.

Cerita Berkaitan

& ldquoSaya menghidupkan Ghost ke filem itu, tetapi dia selalu menyukai satu pemandangan di mana lelaki itu seperti, & lsquoAwannya tinggi, langit rendah, & rsquo & rdquo RZA teringat. & ldquoSetiap kali dia & # 39; s menonton filem itu merokok, dia & # 39; akan & # 39; seperti & # 39; Sebagai pengeluar, saya selalu mengekalkan apa yang disukai oleh seseorang. & Rdquo

Menggunakan filem seni mempertahankan diri ini sebagai intro dan outro, layang-layang atau contoh lirik, dan pengabdian yang mendalam terhadap budaya asing menjadikan kumpulan ini sebagai wira kontra budaya di seluruh dunia. Dan dalam sejarah yang panjang dan sering terselit antara A.S. dan China, orang-orang di kedua-dua negara memperjuangkan Klan Wu-Tang.

& ldquoJika kita menarik kulit kembali lebih jauh, kita & rsquoll melihatnya & rsquos lebih banyak kesamaan, & rdquo RZA mencatat. & ldquoBruce Lee adalah seorang yang mewakili apa yang diwakili oleh kedua-dua kuasa besar ini. Dia mempunyai kepelbagaian dalam dirinya dan dia masih murni untuk budayanya! Kita sebagai manusia, kemungkinan besar kita sudah mempunyai penyebut yang sama, yang merupakan kemanusiaan kita. Tetapi orang-orang dalam kedudukan kepemimpinan, mereka meletakkan manusia sebagai pembakar belakang. & Rdquo

Dia meneruskan: & ldquoFaktanya ialah ia & rsquos banyak perkara dari budaya mereka yang & rsquos membengkak budaya kita dan begitu banyak perkara dari budaya kita yang & rsquos membengkak ke dalam budaya mereka. Ini selalu menjadi pendebungaan silang. & Rdquo

Klan Wu-Tang berpose untuk potret pada 8 Mei 1993, di Staten Island, New York. Dari kiri ke kanan: Raekwon, GZA, Ol & rsquo Dirty Bastard, RZA dan Method Man.

Arkib Al Pereira / Michael Ochs / Getty Images

Selama bertahun-tahun, filem seni mempertahankan diri tidak mendapat penghormatan Hollywood & rsquos sepenuhnya. Sebagai contoh, industri ini menolak untuk memilih orang terkemuka di Asia. Itulah sebabnya mengapa legasi Lee dan legenda pelakon Asia sebelum dan sesudahnya tetap menjadi penentu dalam hip-hop. Pengaruh mereka dirasakan sehingga hari ini. Kendrick Lamar & rsquos DAMN Tour memaparkan 90 minit video yang diilhamkan oleh seni mempertahankan diri dengan MC pemenang Hadiah Pulitzer mengenakan seragam serba hitam dalam semangat kerajinan.

Kesediaan Wu-Tang Clan & rsquos untuk memeluk budaya itu memperluas pengaruh mereka dan mempengaruhi pekerjaan mereka. & ldquoI & rsquom pasti berbangga kerana Wu-Tang dan pertunjukan seni kita menunjukkan contoh penyerbukan budaya ini, & rdquo RZA. & ldquoSaya & # 39; gembira kerana kami & # 39; telah mencari contoh yang baik dan saya harap muzik dan warisan kami terus mewakili hal itu. & rdquo

Jangan salah, warisan yang akan ditinggalkan Wu-Tang dari dunia ini sudah terbentuk. Tidak ada cara untuk membincangkan keturunan hip-hop tanpa membincangkan blok ini dari Staten Island. Namun, mereka menang & rsquot membiarkan kisah mereka diceritakan tanpa mengakui kesan seorang lelaki yang mencabar kebijaksanaan hiburan konvensional di Amerika. Mungkinkah kisah Klan Wu-Tang diceritakan tanpa Bruce Lee? RZA & rsquos hampir menyinggung soalan seperti itu bahkan boleh diajukan.

& ldquoNah, & rdquo katanya, & ldquothat dunia bahkan tidak ada. Bruce Lee adalah seorang nabi. & Rdquo

Lee memberitakan apa yang diberi judul dokumentari ESPN, 47 tahun selepas kematiannya: Jadilah Air. Klan Wu-Tang melakukan begitu sahaja. Kecuali dalam hip-hop, mereka adalah gelombang pasang surut.


36 Bilik Kematian: Pusat Tenaga Seni Mempertahankan Diri Shaolin Purba - Sejarah

One-Finger Zen adalah ciri khas Shaolin Kungfu

Umumnya dikatakan ada 72 seni Shaolin Kungfu. 72 seni ini kadang-kadang dibahagikan kepada dua kumpulan, iaitu 36 seni luaran dan 36 seni dalaman, atau 36 seni "keras" dan 36 seni "lembut".

Harus diingat bahawa seni luaran sering tetapi tidak semestinya "keras", dan seni dalaman sering tetapi tidak semestinya "lembut". Ini adalah salah tanggapan yang dimiliki oleh banyak orang, termasuk pengamal kungfu. Seni Kelenturan, misalnya, bersifat luaran, tetapi "lembut". Sinam Metamorphosis bersifat dalaman, tetapi "sukar".

Juga bermanfaat untuk mengetahui bahawa "keras" dan "lembut" di sini bukanlah apa yang dapat dilakukan oleh kebanyakan orang, terutama mereka yang tidak terdedah kepada kungfu, konsep apa yang mereka maksudkan. Kedua istilah ini, "keras" dan "lembut", diterjemahkan dari "geng" Cina dan "rou", atau "kong" dan "yau" dalam bahasa Kanton. Kekuatan "lembut" mungkin lebih kuat daripada kekuatan "keras", konsep kungfu yang mungkin sukar difahami oleh banyak orang.

Perlu juga diketahui bahawa kekuatan dalaman tidak semestinya lebih kuat daripada kekuatan luaran, walaupun sering berlaku. Tetapi sudah pasti bahawa kekuatan dalaman lebih bermanfaat. Ia juga tidak bergantung pada usia, saiz dan jantina.

Tidak pasti bila konsep 72 seni Shaolin pertama kali digunakan, tetapi saya percaya mungkin semasa Dinasti Ming (abad ke-14 hingga ke-17), yang agak lewat ketika Shaolin Kungfu bermula sekitar abad ke-6 semasa Dinasti Sui. Walaupun masuk ke Shaolin Kungfu yang agak lewat, ia masih mempunyai sejarah panjang ratusan tahun, memandangkan banyak seni mempertahankan diri pada masa ini baru berusia sekitar seratus tahun. Oleh itu, terdapat versi yang berbeza dari 72 seni Shaolin, dengan beberapa versi sangat berbeza dengan yang lain.

Terdapat lebih daripada 72 seni di Shaolin Kungfu, tetapi istilah seperti 36, 72 dan 108 biasanya digunakan dalam istilah Shaolin. Ini adalah untuk menghormati Bodhidharma dan Lapan belas Tangan Lohan, set latihan pertama yang diajarkan oleh Bodhidharma, yang dianggap sebagai Patriark pertama seni Shaoin, kepada para bhikkhu Shaolin di Biara Shaolin di Henan selama sembilan tahun bermula pada tahun 527. Oleh itu, banyak istilah Shaolin, seperti set dan seni kungfu, mengambil kelipatan 18, seperti 36 Teknik Kaki Shaolin, dan Esensi 108-Corak Set Shaolin.

Mari kita lihat tiga set 72 Seni Shaolin yang berbeza. Yang pertama adalah dari buku popular yang terdapat di internet, "Kaedah Latihan 72 Seni Shaolin", oleh Jin Jing Zhong yang kedua adalah dari buku Cina moden yang diedit oleh sekumpulan biksu Shaolin moden dari Biara Shaolin di China, berdasarkan klasik masa lalu, "Seni Asli Shaolin 72" dan yang ketiga adalah dari 72 Seni Shaolin yang diamalkan di sekolah kami yang disarankan oleh ahli keluarga Shaolin Wahnam kami di Forum Perbincangan kami dan dipilih oleh saya.


72 Seni Shaolin disebut oleh Jin Jing Zhong

Oleh kerana sebilangan seni itu diterjemahkan secara harfiah dari bahasa Cina, yang mungkin tidak dapat difahami oleh orang yang tidak berbahasa Cina, saya telah mengubah beberapa istilah, tanpa mengubah makna.

Sebilangan latihan agak kejam, dengan kesakitan dan kecederaan bukan faktor yang tidak biasa. Sebagai contoh, dalam latihan "Memukul dengan Kaki", para praktisi diminta untuk menendang batu dengan jari kaki hingga menghantar batu-batu yang terbang agak jauh.

    1. Jari Berlian
    2. Kunci Berkembar
    3. Memukul dengan Kaki
    4. Mencabut Kuku
    5. Memeluk Pokok
    6. Seni Empat Bahagian
    7. Zen Satu Jari
    8. Kepala Besi
    9. Baju Besi
    10. Seni Mengambil Pukulan

    Grandmaster Wong memperagakan Seni Harimau Cakar


    72 Seni Shaolin disebut dalam klasik Shaolin

    Sebilangan besar 72 seni yang disebutkan di sini sama dengan yang disebutkan dalam buku di atas, tetapi tidak mengikut urutan yang sama. Ada kemungkinan penulis buku di atas mengambil senarai dari Shaolin klasik.

    Klasik Shaolin menekankan bahawa seni ini harus dipelajari dari tuan, bukan dari buku. Pengamal harus mempunyai latihan asas sebelum mencuba seni khusus ini, menunjukkan (walaupun tidak dinyatakan secara eksplisit) bahawa maklumat asas yang seharusnya diketahui oleh pengamal, tidak disebutkan.

      1. Lengan Besi
      2. Keupayaan untuk menerima pukulan
      3. Kaki Menyapu Besi
      4. Kaki Menembak
      5. Menendang Kaki
      6. Tangan Tinggalkan Buluh
      7. Berharap Lipan
      8. Mengangkat Ribuan Pound
      9. Seni Lohan
      10. Kepala Besi


      72 Seni Shaolin dipraktikkan di Shaolin Wahnam

      Dalam topik di Forum Perbincangan Shaolin Wahnam, 72 Seni Shaolin Kungfu dimulakan oleh Ray pada tahun 2005, dan dihidupkan semula oleh Sifu Markus Kahila pada tahun 2015, ahli keluarga kami menyebut lebih daripada 72 seni yang dipraktikkan di sekolah kami. David Langford memberikan senarai 72 seni yang mengagumkan, dengan seni tambahan, "Art of Being a Cheeky Monkey", yang dipraktikkan oleh beberapa orang.

      Untuk mengesahkan dengan nombor ajaib 72, saya telah memilih 72 Seni Shaolin yang dipraktikkan di sekolah kami seperti berikut. Beberapa seni, seperti Eighteen Lohan Hands dan Bone Marrow Cleansing, bersifat kolektif, iaitu terdapat banyak seni di bawah satu tajuk. Beberapa versi dari 72 Shaolin Arts, misalnya, menyenaraikan "Lifting the Sky" dan "Pushing Mountain" sebagai seni yang terpisah.

        1. Tersenyum dari Hati
        2. Seni Memasuki Senyap
        3. Seni Aliran Chi
        4. Mesej Art of Point
        5. Seni Gendang Syurgawi
        6. Lapan belas Permata
        7. Main Lima Haiwan
        8. Lapan belas Tangan Lohan
        9. Seni Mengurut Organ Dalaman
        10. Lapan belas-Lohan Seni

        "Lifting Bronze Vessel" adalah latihan latihan kekuatan yang kuat dalam Eighteen-Lohan Art


        Burung gagak

        Anak Karate (2010)

        Tujuh Samurai

        "Panorama yang tidak akan anda lupakan" Baca Lagi

        Naga Tersembunyi Harimau

        "Filem yang sangat menghiburkan." Baca Lagi

        Bunuh Bil, Jilid 1

        "Saya sangat menggemari filem ini. Ia mempunyai banyak keseronokan." Baca Lagi


        Kandungan

        Kung fu dan wushu adalah kata pinjaman dari Kantonis dan Mandarin masing-masing yang, dalam bahasa Inggeris, digunakan untuk merujuk kepada seni mempertahankan diri Cina. Walau bagaimanapun, istilah Cina kung fu dan wushu (dengar (Mandarin) (bantuan · maklumat) Yale Kantonis: ya seuht ) mempunyai makna yang berbeza. [1] Bahasa Cina yang serupa dengan istilah "seni mempertahankan diri Cina" adalah Zhongguo wushu (Bahasa Cina: 中國 武術 pinyin: zhōngguó wǔshù ) (Bahasa Mandarin).

        Dalam bahasa Cina, istilah kung fu merujuk kepada sebarang kemahiran yang diperoleh melalui pembelajaran atau latihan. Ini adalah kata majmuk yang terdiri dari kata 功 (gōng) yang bermaksud "kerja", "pencapaian", atau "pahala", dan 夫 (fū) yang merupakan akhiran partikel atau nominal dengan makna yang beragam.

        Wushu secara harfiah bermaksud "seni mempertahankan diri". Ia terbentuk dari dua watak Cina 武術: 武 (), bermaksud "tentera" atau "tentera" dan 術 atau 术 (shù), yang diterjemahkan menjadi "seni", "disiplin", "kemahiran" atau "kaedah". Istilah wushu juga telah menjadi nama untuk sukan moden wushu, pameran dan sukan penuh dengan bentuk tangan kosong dan senjata (套路), disesuaikan dan dinilai berdasarkan satu set kriteria estetik untuk poin yang dikembangkan sejak 1949 di Republik Rakyat China. [2] [3]

        Quanfa (拳法) adalah istilah Cina yang lain untuk seni mempertahankan diri Cina. Ia bermaksud "kaedah penumbuk" atau "hukum penumbuk" (quan bermaksud "tinju" atau "penumbuk", dan fa bermaksud "undang-undang", "cara" atau "kaedah"), walaupun sebagai istilah majmuk biasanya diterjemahkan sebagai "tinju" atau "teknik bertarung." Nama kempo seni mempertahankan diri Jepun diwakili oleh watak hanzi yang sama.

        Genesis seni mempertahankan diri China dikaitkan dengan keperluan mempertahankan diri, teknik memburu dan latihan ketenteraan di China kuno. Latihan pertempuran tangan dan senjata adalah penting dalam melatih tentera China kuno. [4] [5]

        Pengetahuan terperinci mengenai keadaan dan perkembangan seni bela diri Cina tersedia sejak dekad Nanjing (1928-1937), ketika Institut Guoshu Pusat yang ditubuhkan oleh rejim Kuomintang berusaha untuk menyusun tinjauan ensiklopedik sekolah seni bela diri. Sejak tahun 1950-an, Republik Rakyat China telah menganjurkan seni mempertahankan diri Cina sebagai pameran dan sukan penuh di bawah tajuk "Wushu".

        Asal legenda Edit

        Menurut legenda, seni mempertahankan diri China berasal dari Dinasti Xia semi-mitos (夏朝) lebih dari 4.000 tahun yang lalu. [6] Dikatakan Kaisar Kuning (Huangdi) (tarikh legenda kenaikan 2698 SM) memperkenalkan sistem pertempuran paling awal ke China. [7] Kaisar Kuning digambarkan sebagai jeneral terkenal yang, sebelum menjadi pemimpin China, menulis risalah panjang mengenai perubatan, astrologi dan seni mempertahankan diri. Salah satu lawan utamanya ialah Chi You (蚩尤) yang dikreditkan sebagai pencipta jiao di, pendahulu seni moden gusti Cina. [8]

        Sejarah awal Edit

        Rujukan paling awal mengenai seni mempertahankan diri Cina terdapat di Sejarah Musim Bunga dan Musim Luruh (Abad ke-5 SM), [9] di mana teori pertempuran tangan-ke-tangan, teori yang menggabungkan konsep "keras" dan "lembut", disebutkan. [10] Sistem gusti tempur yang dipanggil juélì atau jiǎolì (角力) disebutkan dalam Klasik Ritus. [11] Sistem tempur ini merangkumi teknik seperti serangan, lemparan, manipulasi sendi, dan serangan titik tekanan. Jiao Di menjadi sukan semasa Dinasti Qin (221-207 SM). The Bibliografi Sejarah Han catat bahawa, oleh Mantan Han (206 SM - 8 CE), terdapat perbezaan antara pertempuran tanpa senjata tanpa larangan, yang disebutnya shǒubó (手 搏), yang mana manual latihannya sudah ditulis, dan gusti sportif, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai juélì (角力). Gulat juga didokumentasikan dalam Shǐ Jì, Rekod Sejarah Besar, ditulis oleh Sima Qian (sekitar 100 SM). [12]

        Pada Dinasti Tang, deskripsi tarian pedang diabadikan dalam puisi oleh Li Bai. Pada dinasti Song dan Yuan, pertandingan xiangpu ditaja oleh mahkamah kerajaan. Konsep moden wushu dikembangkan sepenuhnya oleh dinasti Ming dan Qing. [13]

        Pengaruh falsafah Edit

        Idea-idea yang berkaitan dengan seni mempertahankan diri China berubah dengan evolusi masyarakat Cina dan dari masa ke masa memperoleh beberapa asas falsafah: Petikan dalam Zhuangzi (莊子), teks Tao, berkaitan dengan psikologi dan latihan seni mempertahankan diri. Zhuangzi, penulis eponimnya, dipercayai hidup pada abad ke-4 SM. The Tao Te Ching, sering dikreditkan ke Lao Zi, adalah teks Tao lain yang mengandungi prinsip yang berlaku untuk seni mempertahankan diri. Menurut salah satu teks klasik Confucianisme, Zhou Li (周禮), Memanah dan karioter adalah sebahagian daripada "enam seni" (Bahasa Cina: 六藝 pinyin: liu yi , termasuk upacara, muzik, kaligrafi dan matematik) Dinasti Zhou (1122–256 SM). Seni Perang (孫子兵 法), yang ditulis pada abad ke-6 SM oleh Sun Tzu (孫子), berkaitan secara langsung dengan perang ketenteraan tetapi mengandungi idea yang digunakan dalam seni mempertahankan diri China.

        Pengamal Tao telah berlatih Tao Yin (latihan fizikal yang serupa dengan Qigong yang merupakan salah satu keturunan T'ai chi ch'uan) sejak awal 500 SM. [14] Pada tahun 39–92 M, "Enam Bab Melawan Tangan", dimasukkan ke dalam Han Shu (sejarah Bekas Dinasti Han) yang ditulis oleh Pan Ku. Juga, doktor terkenal, Hua Tuo, menyusun "Five Animals Play" —tiger, rusa, monyet, beruang, dan burung, sekitar 208 CE. [15] Falsafah Taois dan pendekatan mereka terhadap kesihatan dan senaman telah mempengaruhi seni mempertahankan diri China hingga tahap tertentu. Rujukan langsung ke konsep Taois dapat ditemukan dalam gaya seperti "Eight Immortals," yang menggunakan teknik pertempuran yang dikaitkan dengan ciri-ciri setiap abadi. [16]

        Dinasti Selatan dan Utara (420-589 Masehi) Edit

        Kuil Shaolin ditubuhkan Edit

        Pada tahun 495 CE, sebuah kuil Shaolin dibangun di gunung Song, provinsi Henan. Bhikkhu pertama yang mengabarkan agama Buddha di sana adalah sami India bernama Buddhabhadra (佛陀 跋陀羅 Fótuóbátuóluó ), dipanggil Batuo (跋陀) oleh orang Cina. Terdapat catatan sejarah bahawa murid Cina pertama Batuo, Huiguang (慧光) dan Sengchou (僧 稠), kedua-duanya mempunyai kemahiran mempertahankan diri yang luar biasa. [ rujukan diperlukan ] Sebagai contoh, kemahiran Sengchou dengan staf timah bahkan didokumentasikan dalam kanun Buddha Cina. [ rujukan diperlukan ] Selepas Buddhabadra, seorang bhikkhu [17] India yang lain, bernama Bodhidharma (菩提 達摩 Pútídámó ), juga dikenal sebagai Damo (達摩) oleh orang Cina, datang ke Shaolin pada 527 CE. Murid keturunannya, Huike (慧 可), juga merupakan seorang ahli seni mempertahankan diri yang sangat terlatih. [ rujukan diperlukan ] Ada implikasi bahawa tiga bhikkhu Shaolin Cina pertama ini, Huiguang, Sengchou, dan Huike, mungkin merupakan tentera sebelum memasuki kehidupan monastik. [18]

        Shaolin dan seni mempertahankan diri berasaskan kuil

        Gaya kung fu Shaolin dianggap sebagai salah satu seni mempertahankan diri Cina pertama yang dilembagakan. [19] Bukti tertua mengenai penyertaan Shaolin dalam pertempuran adalah tugu peringatan dari tahun 728 M yang membuktikan dua kali: pertahanan Biara Shaolin dari penyamun sekitar tahun 610 M, dan peranan mereka seterusnya dalam kekalahan Wang Shichong pada Pertempuran Hulao pada tahun 621 CE. Dari abad ke-8 hingga ke-15, tidak ada dokumen yang ada yang membuktikan bukti penyertaan Shaolin dalam pertempuran.

        Antara abad ke-16 dan ke-17, sekurang-kurangnya empat puluh sumber ada untuk membuktikan bahawa para bhikkhu Shaolin mempraktikkan seni mempertahankan diri, dan bahawa latihan bela diri menjadi elemen integral kehidupan monastik Shaolin. Penampilan paling awal legenda yang sering disebut mengenai asas Bodhidharma yang dikatakan Shaolin Kung Fu bermula pada zaman ini. [20] Asal legenda ini ditelusuri pada zaman Ming Yijin Jing atau "Muscle Change Classic", teks yang ditulis pada tahun 1624 yang dikaitkan dengan Bodhidharma.

        Rujukan praktik seni mempertahankan diri di Shaolin muncul dalam pelbagai genre sastera pada akhir Ming: lambang rahib pahlawan Shaolin, manual seni mempertahankan diri, ensiklopedia tentera, tulisan sejarah, perjalanan, fiksyen, dan puisi. Namun, sumber-sumber ini tidak menunjukkan gaya khusus yang berasal dari Shaolin. [21] Sumber-sumber ini, berbeda dengan yang berasal dari zaman Tang, merujuk kepada kaedah pertempuran bersenjata Shaolin. Ini termasuk kemahiran yang menjadi rahib Shaolin menjadi terkenal: kakitangan (gùn, Kantonis gwan). Jeneral Ming Qi Jiguang menyertakan keterangan Shaolin Quan Fa (Bahasa Cina: 少林 拳法 Wade – Giles: Shao Lin Ch'üan Fa menyala. 'Teknik penumbuk Shaolin' Bahasa Jepun: Shorin Kempo) dan teknik kakitangan dalam bukunya, Ji Xiao Xin Shu (紀 效 新書), yang boleh diterjemahkan sebagai Teknik Berkesan Merakam Buku Baru. Ketika buku ini tersebar di Asia Timur, buku ini mempunyai pengaruh besar terhadap pengembangan seni mempertahankan diri di wilayah seperti Okinawa [22] dan Korea. [23]

        Edit sejarah moden

        Suntingan Republik

        Sebilangan besar gaya pertempuran yang dipraktikkan sebagai seni mempertahankan diri tradisional Cina hari ini mencapai popularitinya pada abad ke-20. Beberapa di antaranya termasuk Baguazhang, Tinju Mabuk, Cakar Eagle, Lima Haiwan, Xingyi, Hung Gar, Monyet, Bak Mei Pai, Mantis Berdoa Utara, Mantis Doa Selatan, Kren Putih Fujian, Jow Ga, Wing Chun dan Taijiquan. Peningkatan populariti gaya tersebut adalah hasil perubahan dramatik yang berlaku dalam masyarakat Cina.

        Pada tahun 1900–01, Tinju Benar dan Harmoni menentang penjajah asing dan mubaligh Kristian di China. Pemberontakan ini dikenali di Barat sebagai Pemberontakan Boxer kerana seni mempertahankan diri dan senaman yang diamalkan oleh pemberontak. Empress Dowager Cixi gained control of the rebellion and tried to use it against the foreign powers. The failure of the rebellion led ten years later to the fall of the Qing Dynasty and the creation of the Chinese Republic.

        The present view of Chinese martial arts is strongly influenced by the events of the Republican Period (1912–1949). In the transition period between the fall of the Qing Dynasty as well as the turmoil of the Japanese invasion and the Chinese Civil War, Chinese martial arts became more accessible to the general public as many martial artists were encouraged to openly teach their art. At that time, some considered martial arts as a means to promote national pride and build a strong nation. As a result, many training manuals (拳譜) were published, a training academy was created, two national examinations were organized and demonstration teams traveled overseas. [24] Numerous martial arts associations were formed throughout China and in various overseas Chinese communities. The Central Guoshu Academy (Zhongyang Guoshuguan, 中央國術館) established by the National Government in 1928 [25] and the Jing Wu Athletic Association (精武體育會) founded by Huo Yuanjia in 1910 are examples of organizations that promoted a systematic approach for training in Chinese martial arts. [26] [27] [28] A series of provincial and national competitions were organized by the Republican government starting in 1932 to promote Chinese martial arts. In 1936, at the 11th Olympic Games in Berlin, a group of Chinese martial artists demonstrated their art to an international audience for the first time.

        Istilah kuoshu (atau guoshu, 國術 meaning "national art"), rather than the colloquial term gongfu was introduced by the Kuomintang in an effort to more closely associate Chinese martial arts with national pride rather than individual accomplishment.

        People's Republic Edit

        Chinese martial arts experienced rapid international dissemination with the end of the Chinese Civil War and the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949. Many well known martial artists chose to escape from the PRC's rule and migrate to Taiwan, Hong Kong, [29] and other parts of the world. Those masters started to teach within the overseas Chinese communities but eventually they expanded their teachings to include people from other ethnic groups.

        Within China, the practice of traditional martial arts was discouraged during the turbulent years of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1969–1976). [3] Like many other aspects of traditional Chinese life, martial arts were subjected to a radical transformation by the People's Republic of China to align them with Maoist revolutionary doctrine. [3] The PRC promoted the committee-regulated sport of Wushu as a replacement for independent schools of martial arts. This new competition sport was disassociated from what was seen as the potentially subversive self-defense aspects and family lineages of Chinese martial arts. [3]

        In 1958, the government established the All-China Wushu Association as an umbrella organization to regulate martial arts training. The Chinese State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports took the lead in creating standardized forms for most of the major arts. During this period, a national Wushu system that included standard forms, teaching curriculum, and instructor grading was established. Wushu was introduced at both the high school and university level. The suppression of traditional teaching was relaxed during the Era of Reconstruction (1976–1989), as Communist ideology became more accommodating to alternative viewpoints. [30] In 1979, the State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports created a special task force to reevaluate the teaching and practice of Wushu. In 1986, the Chinese National Research Institute of Wushu was established as the central authority for the research and administration of Wushu activities in the People's Republic of China. [31]

        Changing government policies and attitudes towards sports, in general, led to the closing of the State Sports Commission (the central sports authority) in 1998. This closure is viewed as an attempt to partially de-politicize organized sports and move Chinese sport policies towards a more market-driven approach. [32] As a result of these changing sociological factors within China, both traditional styles and modern Wushu approaches are being promoted by the Chinese government. [33]

        Chinese martial arts are an integral element of 20th-century Chinese popular culture. [34] Wuxia or "martial arts fiction" is a popular genre that emerged in the early 20th century and peaked in popularity during the 1960s to 1980s. Wuxia films were produced from the 1920s. The Kuomintang suppressed wuxia, accusing it of promoting superstition and violent anarchy. Because of this, wuxia came to flourish in British Hong Kong, and the genre of kung fu movie in Hong Kong action cinema became wildly popular, coming to international attention from the 1970s. The genre underwent a drastic decline in the late 1990s as the Hong Kong film industry was crushed by economic depression.

        In the wake of Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000), there has been somewhat of a revival of Chinese-produced wuxia films aimed at an international audience, including Zhang Yimou's Wira (2002), House of Flying Daggers (2004) and Curse of the Golden Flower (2006), as well as Su Chao-pin and John Woo's Reign of Assassins (2010).

        China has a long history of martial arts traditions that includes hundreds of different styles. Over the past two thousand years, many distinctive styles have been developed, each with its own set of techniques and ideas. [35] There are also common themes to the different styles, which are often classified by "families" ( 家 jiā), "sects" ( 派 pai) or "schools" ( 門 lelaki). There are styles that mimic movements from animals and others that gather inspiration from various Chinese philosophies, myths and legends. Some styles put most of their focus into the harnessing of qi, while others concentrate on competition.

        Chinese martial arts can be split into various categories to differentiate them: For example, luaran ( 外家拳 ) and dalaman ( 內家拳 ). [36] Chinese martial arts can also be categorized by location, as in northern ( 北拳 ) and selatan ( 南拳 ) as well, referring to what part of China the styles originated from, separated by the Yangtze River (長江) Chinese martial arts may even be classified according to their province or city. [24] The main perceived difference between northern and southern styles is that the northern styles tend to emphasize fast and powerful kicks, high jumps and generally fluid and rapid movement, while the southern styles focus more on strong arm and hand techniques, and stable, immovable stances and fast footwork. Examples of the northern styles include changquan and xingyiquan. Examples of the southern styles include Bak Mei, Wuzuquan, Choy Li Fut, and Wing Chun. Chinese martial arts can also be divided according to religion, imitative-styles ( 象形拳 ), and family styles such as Hung Gar ( 洪家 ). There are distinctive differences in the training between different groups of the Chinese martial arts regardless of the type of classification. However, few experienced martial artists make a clear distinction between internal and external styles, or subscribe to the idea of northern systems being predominantly kick-based and southern systems relying more heavily on upper-body techniques. Most styles contain both hard and soft elements, regardless of their internal nomenclature. Analyzing the difference in accordance with yin and yang principles, philosophers would assert that the absence of either one would render the practitioner's skills unbalanced or deficient, as yin and yang alone are each only half of a whole. If such differences did once exist, they have since been blurred.

        Chinese martial arts training consists of the following components: basics, forms, applications and weapons different styles place varying emphasis on each component. [37] In addition, philosophy, ethics and even medical practice [38] are highly regarded by most Chinese martial arts. A complete training system should also provide insight into Chinese attitudes and culture. [39]

        Basics Edit

        The Asas ( 基本功 ) are a vital part of any martial training, as a student cannot progress to the more advanced stages without them. Basics are usually made up of rudimentary techniques, conditioning exercises, including stances. Basic training may involve simple movements that are performed repeatedly other examples of basic training are stretching, meditation, striking, throwing, or jumping. Without strong and flexible muscles, management of Qi or breath, and proper body mechanics, it is impossible for a student to progress in the Chinese martial arts. [40] [41] A common saying concerning basic training in Chinese martial arts is as follows: [42]

        Train both Internal and External. External training includes the hands, the eyes, the body and stances. Internal training includes the heart, the spirit, the mind, breathing and strength.

        Stances Edit

        Stances (steps or 步法) are structural postures employed in Chinese martial arts training. [43] [44] [ self-published source? ] They represent the foundation and the form of a fighter's base. Each style has different names and variations for each stance. Stances may be differentiated by foot position, weight distribution, body alignment, etc. Stance training can be practiced statically, the goal of which is to maintain the structure of the stance through a set time period, or dynamically, in which case a series of movements is performed repeatedly. The Horse stance ( 騎馬步/馬步 qí mǎ bù/mǎ bù) and the bow stance are examples of stances found in many styles of Chinese martial arts.

        Meditation Edit

        In many Chinese martial arts, meditation is considered to be an important component of basic training. Meditation can be used to develop focus, mental clarity and can act as a basis for qigong training. [45] [46]

        Use of qi Edit

        Konsep qi atau ch'i ( 氣 ) is encountered in a number of Chinese martial arts. Qi is variously defined as an inner energy or "life force" that is said to animate living beings as a term for proper skeletal alignment and efficient use of musculature (sometimes also known as fa jin atau jin) or as a shorthand for concepts that the martial arts student might not yet be ready to understand in full. These meanings are not necessarily mutually exclusive. [note 1] The existence of qi as a measurable form of energy as discussed in traditional Chinese medicine has no basis in the scientific understanding of physics, medicine, biology or human physiology. [47]

        There are many ideas regarding the control of one's qi energy to such an extent that it can be used for healing oneself or others. [48] Some styles believe in focusing qi into a single point when attacking and aim at specific areas of the human body. Such techniques are known as dim mak and have principles that are similar to acupressure. [49]

        Weapons training Edit

        Most Chinese styles also make use of training in the broad arsenal of Chinese weapons for conditioning the body as well as coordination and strategy drills. [50] Weapons training ( 器械 qìxiè) is generally carried out after the student becomes proficient with the basic forms and applications training. The basic theory for weapons training is to consider the weapon as an extension of the body. It has the same requirements for footwork and body coordination as the basics. [51] The process of weapon training proceeds with forms, forms with partners and then applications. Most systems have training methods for each of the Eighteen Arms of Wushu( 十八般兵器 shíbābānbīngqì) in addition to specialized instruments specific to the system.

        Application Edit

        Permohonan refers to the practical use of combative techniques. Chinese martial arts techniques are ideally based on efficiency and effectiveness. [52] [53] Application includes non-compliant drills, such as Pushing Hands in many internal martial arts, and sparring, which occurs within a variety of contact levels and rule sets.

        When and how applications are taught varies from style to style. Today, many styles begin to teach new students by focusing on exercises in which each student knows a prescribed range of combat and technique to drill on. These drills are often semi-compliant, meaning one student does not offer active resistance to a technique, in order to allow its demonstrative, clean execution. In more resisting drills, fewer rules apply, and students practice how to react and respond. 'Sparring' refers to a more advanced format, which simulates a combat situation while including rules that reduce the chance of serious injury.

        Competitive sparring disciplines include Chinese kickboxing Sǎnshǒu ( 散手 ) and Chinese folk wrestling Shuāijiāo ( 摔跤 ), which were traditionally contested on a raised platform arena Lèitái ( 擂台 ). [54] Lèitái represents public challenge matches that first appeared in the Song Dynasty. The objective for those contests was to knock the opponent from a raised platform by any means necessary. San Shou represents the modern development of Lei Tai contests, but with rules in place to reduce the chance of serious injury. Many Chinese martial art schools teach or work within the rule sets of Sanshou, working to incorporate the movements, characteristics, and theory of their style. [55] Chinese martial artists also compete in non-Chinese or mixed Combat sport, including boxing, kickboxing and Mixed martial arts.

        Forms Edit

        Bentuk atau taolu (Chinese: 套路 pinyin: tàolù ) in Chinese are series of predetermined movements combined so they can be practiced as a continuous set of movements. Forms were originally intended to preserve the lineage of a particular style branch, and were often taught to advanced students selected for that purpose. Forms contained both literal, representative and exercise-oriented forms of applicable techniques that students could extract, test, and train in through sparring sessions. [56]

        Today, many consider taolu to be one of the most important practices in Chinese martial arts. Traditionally, they played a smaller role in training for combat application and took a back seat to sparring, drilling, and conditioning. Forms gradually build up a practitioner's flexibility, internal and external strength, speed and stamina, and they teach balance and coordination. Many styles contain forms that use weapons of various lengths and types, using one or two hands. Some styles focus on a certain type of weapon. Forms are meant to be both practical, usable, and applicable as well as to promote fluid motion, meditation, flexibility, balance, and coordination. Students are encouraged to visualize an attacker while training the form.

        There are two general types of taolu in Chinese martial arts. Most common are solo forms performed by a single student. Terdapat juga sparring forms — choreographed fighting sets performed by two or more people. Sparring forms were designed both to acquaint beginning fighters with basic measures and concepts of combat and to serve as performance pieces for the school. Weapons-based sparring forms are especially useful for teaching students the extension, range, and technique required to manage a weapon.

        Forms in Traditional Chinese Martial Arts Edit

        Istilah taolu (套路) is a shortened version of Tao Lu Yun Dong (套路運動), an expression introduced only recently with the popularity of modern wushu. This expression refers to "exercise sets" and used in the context of athletics or sport.

        In contrast, in traditional Chinese martial arts alternative terminologies for the training (練) of 'sets or forms are:

        • lian quan tao (練拳套) – practicing a sequence of fists.
        • lian quan jiao (練拳腳) – practicing fists and feet.
        • lian bing qi (練兵器) – practicing weapons.
        • dui da (對打) and dui lian (對練) – fighting sets.

        Traditional "sparring" sets, called dui da (對打) or dui lian (對練), were an essential part of Chinese martial arts for centuries. Dui lian means, to train by a pair of combatants opposing each other—the character lian (練), refers to practice to train to perfect one's skill to drill. As well, often one of these terms are also included in the name of fighting sets (雙演 shuang yan), "paired practice" (掙勝 zheng sheng), "to struggle with strength for victory" (敵 di), match – the character suggests to strike an enemy and "to break" (破 po).

        Generally, there are 21, 18, 12, 9 or 5 drills or 'exchanges/groupings' of attacks and counterattacks, in each dui lian set. These drills were considered only generic patterns and never meant to be considered inflexible 'tricks'. Students practiced smaller parts/exchanges, individually with opponents switching sides in a continuous flow. Dui lian were not only sophisticated and effective methods of passing on the fighting knowledge of the older generation, but they were also essential and effective training methods. The relationship between single sets and contact sets is complicated, in that some skills cannot be developed with solo 'sets', and, conversely, with dui lian. Unfortunately, it appears that most traditional combat oriented dui lian and their training methodology have disappeared, especially those concerning weapons. Terdapat beberapa sebab untuk ini. In modern Chinese martial arts, most of the dui lian are recent inventions designed for light props resembling weapons, with safety and drama in mind. The role of this kind of training has degenerated to the point of being useless in a practical sense, and, at best, is just performance.

        By the early Song period, sets were not so much "individual isolated technique strung together" but rather were composed of techniques and counter technique groupings. It is quite clear that "sets" and "fighting (two-person) sets" have been instrumental in TCM for many hundreds of years—even before the Song Dynasty. There are images of two-person weapon training in Chinese stone painting going back at least to the Eastern Han Dynasty.

        According to what has been passed on by the older generations, the approximate ratio of contact sets to single sets was approximately 1:3. In other words, about 30% of the 'sets' practiced at Shaolin were contact sets, dui lian, and two-person drill training. This ratio is, in part, evidenced by the Qing Dynasty mural at Shaolin.

        For most of its history, Shaolin martial arts was mostly weapon-focused: staves were used to defend the monastery, not bare hands. Even the more recent military exploits of Shaolin during the Ming and Qing Dynasties involved weapons. According to some traditions, monks first studied basics for one year and were then taught staff fighting so that they could protect the monastery. Although wrestling has been as sport in China for centuries, weapons have been an essential part of Chinese wushu since ancient times. If one wants to talk about recent or 'modern' developments in Chinese martial arts (including Shaolin for that matter), it is the over-emphasis on bare hand fighting. During the Northern Song Dynasty (976- 997 A.D) when platform fighting is known as Da Laitai (Title Fights Challenge on Platform) first appeared, these fights were with only swords and staves. Although later, when bare hand fights appeared as well, it was the weapons events that became the most famous. These open-ring competitions had regulations and were organized by government organizations the public also organized some. The government competitions, held in the capital and prefectures, resulted in appointments for winners, to military posts.

        Practice forms vs. kung fu in combat Edit

        Even though forms in Chinese martial arts are intended to depict realistic martial techniques, the movements are not always identical to how techniques would be applied in combat. Many forms have been elaborated upon, on the one hand, to provide better combat preparedness, and on the other hand to look more aesthetically pleasing. One manifestation of this tendency toward elaboration beyond combat application is the use of lower stances and higher, stretching kicks. These two maneuvers are unrealistic in combat and are used in forms for exercise purposes. [57] Many modern schools have replaced practical defense or offense movements with acrobatic feats that are more spectacular to watch, thereby gaining favor during exhibitions and competitions. [note 2] This has led to criticisms by traditionalists of the endorsement of the more acrobatic, show-oriented Wushu competition. [58] Historically forms were often performed for entertainment purposes long before the advent of modern Wushu as practitioners have looked for supplementary income by performing on the streets or in theaters. Documentation in ancient literature during the Tang Dynasty (618–907) and the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1279) suggests some sets, (including two + person sets: dui da juga dipanggil dui lian) became very elaborate and 'flowery', many mainly concerned with aesthetics. During this time, some martial arts systems devolved to the point that they became popular forms of martial art storytelling entertainment shows. This created an entire category of martial arts known as Hua Fa Wuyi. During the Northern Song period, it was noted by historians this type of training had a negative influence on training in the military.

        Many traditional Chinese martial artists, as well as practitioners of modern sport combat, have become critical of the perception that forms work is more relevant to the art than sparring and drill application, while most continue to see traditional forms practice within the traditional context—as vital to both proper combat execution, the Shaolin aesthetic as an art form, as well as upholding the meditative function of the physical art form. [59]

        Another reason why techniques often appear different in forms when contrasted with sparring application is thought by some to come from the concealment of the actual functions of the techniques from outsiders. [60] [ self-published source? ]

        Forms practice is mostly known for teaching combat techniques yet when practicing forms, the practitioner focuses on posture, breathing, and performing the techniques of both right and left sides of the body. [61]


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        Ulasan teratas dari Amerika Syarikat

        There are many Shaw movies that comprise my memories of growing up in the '80s. but this Gordon Liu flick is one, if not THE best of them all, even Clan of the White Lotus IMO (and apologies to all that think so -- it deserves to be up there :D).

        The best thing by far about this movie, is the storytelling. We see San Te go from nearly dying as a young rebel, rescued by Shaolin. his talent, determination, and hard work in the Chambers, each of his teachers giving him a unique style, perspective, or technique, strict but fair. then rejoining society and bringing down the leader of the evil Mings that killed his father -- all with some honestly *amazing* martial arts choreography through it all.

        Favorites are the Li Yoon Too Chi (head monk)'s two-swords vs. San Te's triple-section staff battles (oddly his name 'san-te' is actually 'three virtues' in hanzi, but the same pronunciation can mean 'three hands', like the weapon). the fight with Lo Tsing and his soldiers. and of course the final battle with General Tin. Gordon Liu has said many times, he laments that so many modern Hong Kong martial arts stars, never bother to practice actual gungfu. and this film is a perfect explanation why.

        The 36th Chamber of Shaolin (or 'Master Killer' as it was and is for me). satisfies much like the classic Steven Spielberg film -- all characters, even (or esp) the comic relief, seem fully-fleshed out and you *feel* as if you've been on San Te's long adventure alongside him. That seems a quality missing not only from a great majority of martial arts films past and present. but all films since Y2K esp -- coherent storytelling.

        Bonus: the lighting, color, soundtrack, and feel of this film. bring me right back to single/early dbl-digit age, Sundays after the beach. meat on the hibachi and Budweisers popping open as my uncles and cousins watched Kung Fu Theatre with us, late '70s/early '80s. This movie literally never fails to bring back a flood of memories from that age.

        And on top of that, it's a pretty good movie. Five stars, easy )

        PS: there's another Shaw movie about a mother and father (mom is an expert on Crane Style, father Tiger Style) who meet and have a child who is forced to learn Crane. and learns while training on a Brass Man energy-meridian training statue, the secret to how to kill the near-invicible man (a Pai-Mei-like long bearded guru) who killed them. Don't know if I'm smooshing together memories of two movies tbh. but am reasonably confident it's one movie. Anyone know the title?

        Honestly I think general audiences would rate this film a 1 or 2 star. The plot is there in the first 15 and last 15 minutes of the movie, the rest is a diversion. There's a lot of cheesy stuff, the dubbing is good for an old kung-fu movie but bad by today's standards. Kind of a movie you watch just to see what happens, not because there's a compelling story.

        For a kung-fu fan though, this movie is excellent. Lots of action. Scenes are fluid and fun. Half the film is training montages but they aren't like normal training montages, they do a much better job of conveying the depth of training the character goes through and the struggles he endures. I couldn't look away from the film, every scene had a little catch that made me want to see how things played out. I was so impressed by how much length they went to, to make every scene feel like it was really happening. Even though things are cheesy by today's standards and all the metal of all the weapons are obviously fake, the movie made it easy to suspend disbelief. There were a lot of "cute" parts in the training that were satisfying as well but i dont want to spoil them.

        36th Chamber of Shaolin is an all-time classic Shaw Brothers film featuring Gordon Liu. It plays upon a common trope of Hong Kong films of the Han Chinese struggling against the Manchus who ruled the country. That’s struck home by Liu’s teacher who talks about patriotic Chinese who are fighting to liberate their country. He inspires Liu to join the resistance which eventually forces him to flee to the Shaolin Temple where he learns martial arts. The story developed this theme more than others of the time which just took it for granted since they were for a Chinese audience that knew their history.

        The movie is known for its extensive training sequences which were always a mainstay of Kung Fu films. This one however had Liu and the others at Shaolin going through several levels hence the title. It’s one of the main draws even more than the fighting.

        It was also highly influential. The first scene where a Chinese resistance fighter jumps from a roof into the middle of a Manchu procession might be familiar to some as it was borrowed by Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Another time Liu has to carry water as part of his routine at Shaolin which was referenced in Kill Bill Vol. 2 which also had Liu in it. Finally it helped spread the myth of Shaolin Kung Fu around the world.


        Tentang kita

        36 Chambers Martial Arts & Fitness is a labor of love between Muay Thai fighters Josh and Alex (Stokman) Brackett. They feel strongly that every warrior has their own path, and are committed to helping each individual discover and thrive during their journey. The couple met during a Muay Thai class in Illinois, and realized they shared a common love for muay thai, fighting, and the culture of the sport. The couple later wed and honeymooned in Thailand, and have built their family and lives around Muay Thai.

        The name ‘36 Chambers’ is a reference to the 1978 movie, “The 36th Chamber of Shaolin”, a kung fu movie about a young student who seeks liberation for his people from the Manchu government. The student goes to train with the Shaolin monks, and embarks on a journey of rigor, discipline, and self-reflection. The monks train novices in Shaolin Kung Fu in 35 different temples, focusing on 35 different skills. The student advances so rapidly, and asks to create a single chamber for civilians to learn kung fu, so they may defend themselves against their oppressors. The temple does not agree, so the student goes off and creates his own training camp, the 36th Chamber. The movie was the inspiration for 36 Chambers Martial Arts & Fitness. at 3

        In 2014, Josh and Alex pursued their dream to own and operate their own successful gym, and opened Peoria Muay Thai. The gym was highly successful, producing 6 national champions in less than 3 years, and quickly grew a large membership.

        In 2017, the couple moved to North Carolina for Alex’s job, and sold PMT. with the intention of starting a gym again. Since the move, Josh has steadily built up a solid base of clients, and established a reputation as one of the premier Muay Thai Coaches in the area. Josh remains an active fighter, and most recently competed in the 2019 International Kickboxing Federation (IKF) tournament, and won the Men’s Junior Middleweight class. Since officially leaving competition in 2015, Alex still actively trains, but stays focused on coaching. Alex and Josh are joined by professional Mixed Martial Arts fighter, and top-ranked featherweight and lightweight in North Carolina, Adli “Sunshine” Edwards, who brings highly skilled instruction in MMA, Wrestling, Grappling and Strength & Conditioning. Find out more about our instructors, here


        The truth about Shaolin monks, from a Shaolin monk

        Most martial artists are familiar with the extraordinary powers of the Shaolin monks. They train in the use of 36 weapons, and each monk picks two animal movements and styles to specialize in.

        Considering their training since childhood, would Shaolin Monks make a worthy opponent against a seasoned champion in UFC? Probably not, since their goals are much different than a UFC fighter.

        This Shaolin monk moves like a movie character! – But does it work?

        Stacey Nemour from the Huffington Post, interviewed Sifu Wang Bo, an 11 year old Shaolin monk:

        Stacey Nemour: At what age is the student at the Shaolin Temple tested?

        Bo: From age three and up. When you first arrive at the temple there will be a test. The test is not determined by age, rather by when the master feels you are ready. The physical test is short. The biggest part of the test is on answering questions about one’s view of life.

        Stacey Nemour: The Shaolin Monks don’t eat meat but have boundless energy. What do you they eat for protein?

        Bo: Their protein comes from beans, tofu, milk and nuts.

        Stacey Nemour: What is the daily schedule for the monks growing up at the temple?

        Bo: A typical daily schedule, including the vegetarian diet served at each meal, is up at 5:30 a.m., chanting 6 a.m. breakfast, which consists of a soup made of beans called eight treasures then more chanting and a half-hour break, followed by two hours of kung fu training.

        During training, the monks switch what form or style they are practicing every 10 minutes. After practice, more chanting until at 11:30 a.m., lunchtime, which consists of five to six different vegetables, tofu and rice.

        We do not drink tea or liquids with our meals to aid in easy digestion. Lunch finishes at approximately 12:30. Now it is back to chanting, then comes a two-hour break. During this time the monks may meditate, relax or nap.

        At approximately 3:00 p.m., another two-hour kung fu practice session begins. This wraps up at 5 p.m. There is no chanting before dinner out of respect for the dead. At 5:30 p.m., noodles are served for dinner, with bread — the breads we eat are black or yellow wheat 6:30 p.m., Heart Sutra chanting for one hour — we call the heart the center of the Universe 8 p.m., quiet time for meditation 10 p.m., bedtime.

        Stacey Nemour: What method is used to teach the children to train properly and focus?

        Bo: harsh words can scar a person for life. Physical punishment is usually forgotten within a few days, and is much more effective at getting the student to perform at their best.

        Stacey Nemour: There are no illnesses or injuries during practice?

        Bo: Yes, all the time. We have our own hospital (Western medicine is not used, just the technology). We go every two weeks to monitor the progress in the brain that meditation produces by using EEG testing.

        Stacey Nemour: Are their still great kung fu masters at the temple today, as we have heard about the legends in the history of the temple?

        Bo: Masters are not as powerful today due to the electrical signals such as wi-fi, satellite, radio, television etc. As a result masters are 15 percent less powerful than in ancient times.

        Stacey Nemour: What can we all do daily to advance on our path?

        Bo: Love. Don’t be selfish. Do daily acts of kindness. Be nice. Pray a lot. Practice a lot. With practice comes wisdom. Wisdom brings advancement each day. And pain brings growth — that’s how we learn.

        Stacey Nemour: Why do you all seem to never get tired, even with your demanding daily training schedule?

        Bo: Because we don’t have a draining and meaningless program of thought running through our heads.

        There are many, many people at the Shaolin temple. Most are not monks, or at least not in the sense that you might think. Shaolin monks can be split up into different categories. Those at the Shaolin temple can be categorized in the following way.

        1. Abbott
        2. Shaolin Monks
        3. Shaolin Lay Monks

        1. Abbott
        The Abbott is the leader of the Shaolin Temple organization. Shaolin is now a corporation, making millions of dollars every year, with a very active interest from the Chinese government. The current Abbott, Shì Yǒngxìn, has been called the CEO monk and this could not be more true. Like many religious organizations around the world, Shaolin, being Buddhist, is cashing in. This has led to a lot of criticism from within the Chinese community and abroad.

        2. Shaolin Monks
        Shaolin monks can take different forms. Not every monk you see in and around the temple is a brilliant warrior. A Shaolin monk is simply a monk. They follow the life of a Buddhist monk. That is the key thing here. They give their life over to their religion, following strict rules, including celibacy, abstaining from meat and alcohol. Traditionally, monks would be given a bowl would have to beg for food as one of the rules was to only accept what was given.

        3. Shaolin Lay Monks
        Not everyone at the temple or those who have associations with the temple are cut out for the strict requirements of being a Shaolin monk. Those who decide the life is not for them are not cut off from the temple however. There are many schools in China teaching martial arts who say they have authentic Shaolin monks teaching. When people arrive and see the masters wearing jeans and a shirt, many feel at least slightly confused and even deceived.


        An Ode to 'Kung Faux'—the Show That Married Martial Arts and Hip-Hop

        In the early �s, cable channels such as BET, MTV, and CMT broke onto the scene and established their dominance in the music television space. By the time MuchMusic USA became Fuse in 2003, music videos began migrating to the internet, and so the channel inaugurated itself with a curious program entitled Kung Faux, a unique and transgressive comedy composed entirely from pre-existing footage. 

        Kung Faux&aposs immediate hip-hop connection came via the voice cast, which featured a rotating roster of legends such as Guru, Queen Latifah, Masta Ace, Afrika Bambaataa, and members of De La Soul, and culturally aligned figures such as KAWS, Steve Powers, and Harold Hunter.਎nglish dubs were laid atop old martial arts films, which were re-edited into contemporary American stories using sound, comic-esque transitions, and the written word.

        While the show could lazily be described as "reverse Wu-Tang"—which would be a fair diagnosis—there’s more to Kung Faux and hip-hop’s longstanding martial arts infatuation than RZA’s loving pastiches, Kung Fu Kenny, and Lupe’s brushing up on his sword styles. Whether they know it or not, all these artists have contributed to the cultural crossover.

        Chinese martial arts and hip-hop first became intertwined in the mid-�s when both crafts began to seep into the American cultural consciousness. The advent of hip-hop, which occurred on a hot summer night in 1973, happened against a backdrop of increased interest in kung fu. Inner city cinemas began showing the films𠅎xotic, foreign and cheap—immediately attracting an audience taken by the perplexing customs and physically impressive feats within.

        The early disciples of hip-hop, raised on both block parties and mystical fighting styles, found ways to fuse their interests. South Bronx native Joseph Sadler was nicknamed 𠇏lash” for his dexterous hands and innovative turntable techniques, but it wasn’t until his career took off that he prefaced his moniker with "Grandmaster," a title inferring proficiency. Interestingly, "master" was a mistranslation of "teacher," a word that took hold in the States following the Korean War, which film distributors capitalized on for the promotion of their films.

        Hip-hop pioneer Grandmaster Caz, the de facto leader of the Cold Crush Brothers, was an early fan of the term, which appeared in the rhymes Big Bank Hank stole from Caz for the first hit rap single, “Rapper’s Delight.” For good measure, Hank also mentioned karate on 1981’s 𠇈th Wonder.”

        This novel collision truly came to the forefront in 1993, with the blockbuster debut from the Wu-Tang Clan. Much of the group&aposs mythos was directly inspired by and lifted from the films of Shaw Brothers Studios: Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers) was named for The 36th Chamber of Shaolin, a 1978 film in which the titular chamber is 𠇊 special martial arts class for laypeople to learn kung fu.” 

        One of RZA’s foremost honorifics, The Abbot, was obtained from the same film, which the legendary producer used to flip superficial references into full-on samples, pulling elements from these films and using their familiar tropes to better furnish the world of the Wu. The group might be named after a fighting style, but their kung fu affection runs far deeper than just references the clashing of swords cut through the English dubs. When sampling was seen as tantamount to theft, RZA furnished his sonic world with the sounds of his childhood, uplifting an otherwise languishing phenomenon and re-injecting it into the zeitgeist.

        The first generation of the Wu-Tang Clan, from 1992 to 1997, found this movement reaching critical mass. Almost every solo record from the camp featured some element of fantastical Wu-Tang combat. While the most prominent was Method Man’s Tical (“Tical,” “Meth Vs. Chef”), fleeting references also appeared on more crime-oriented efforts Only Built 4 Cuban Linx… (“Guillotine (Swordz)”), and Ironman (“Poisonous Darts”). GZA’s Pedang Cecair was steeped in Japan’s Jidaigeki genre, invoking the exploits of samurai and Shogun, while Ol’ Dirty Bastard’s Return to the 36 Chambers (The Dirty Version) was named for the 1980 sequel to The 36th Chamber of Shaolin.

        “This is the first generation of African Americans [to] not be extending the range of music,” R&B legend James Mtume lamented in the late �s. Indeed, though hip-hop was bringing in a wider audience with each passing year, it was taking and re-purposing elements of other cultural phenomena—soul, funk, disco, rock, films, speeches and so on—more than ever before. Tingkah laku ini memberi inspirasi kepada kemarahan pemuzik pendirian, termasuk, terutama, Mark Volman dari The Turtles, yang terkenal berpendapat bahawa & # x201Seseorang yang boleh dengan jujur ​​mengatakan pengambilan sampel adalah semacam kreativiti tidak pernah melakukan sesuatu yang kreatif. & # X201D

        Mic Neumann, jurutera budaya & # x201 & # x201D di belakang Kung Faux, mula mengusahakan program ini pada akhir & # x201890an. Neumann & # xA0menerangkan prosesnya sebagai memperlakukan filem asal & # x201Seperti seorang DJ memperlakukan rakaman, & quot dengan fokus khusus pada & # x201Peleburan muzik & # x201D yang muncul dalam setiap episod. & # XA0

        Apa hip-hop jika bukan perlanggaran suara dan palet, yang dipasang oleh pengeluar dan dilengkapi oleh pensampel?

        Walaupun program ini menggabungkan unsur budaya buku komik & # x2013namun, teks yang ditumpangkan dan hiasan supernatural & # x2013it diedit dalam gaya potong dan tampal yang mengingatkan pada teknik produksi hip-hop. Sekiranya filem asalnya adalah rakaman, maka suntingan 30 minit adalah contoh yang koheren: walaupun terdiri daripada unsur-unsur semata-mata, filem itu tetap menceritakan kisah yang padu, seperti sandaran terbaik. & # XA0

        Peralihan yang diilhami dan bingkai yang dilapisi adalah calar pada lilin tanda baca yang mendebarkan yang memecah sampel. Dubbing adalah sajak itu sendiri, sarat dengan rujukan bahasa dan budaya serantau, dan disampaikan dalam undian khas.


        Tonton videonya: Dynamic Fighting Basics 1 Tenaga Kembar (Julai 2022).


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