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Ejaan Seks Mesir Purba Meminta Hantu untuk Memikat Lelaki

Ejaan Seks Mesir Purba Meminta Hantu untuk Memikat Lelaki


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Mantra penaklukan, cinta, dan seks purba yang ajaib seperti garis pembuka bagi dongeng dewasa, tetapi kejahatan beruap ini juga terdapat pada "mantera mengikat erotik" Mesir kuno berusia 1.800 tahun. Dibuat oleh seorang wanita bernama Taromeway yang berusaha menarik seorang lelaki di luar jangkauannya, bernama Kephalas, mantera seks itu menggambarkan dewa kepala serigala Mesir Anubis menembak anak panah ke arah Kephalas bogel yang digambarkan dengan zakar dan skrotum yang diperbesar.

Sejak November 1924 papirus yang mengandungi mantra kuno, yang belum pernah diterjemahkan hingga sekarang, telah diadakan dalam koleksi University of Michigan. Robert Ritner, seorang profesor Mesirologi di University of Chicago dan Foy Scalf, ketua arkib penyelidikan di Institut Oriental Universiti telah menerbitkan kajian baru mereka dalam jurnal Göttinger Miszellen. Menurut laporan Live Science, disyaki papirus itu dijumpai di daerah Fayum Mesir, kira-kira 100 kilometer (62 batu) barat daya Kaherah.

Mantra seks itu merangkumi gambar Anubis yang menembak anak panah ke Kephalas. ( Universiti Michigan )

Peranti Sihir untuk Meminta Bukan Cinta, Tetapi Nafsu

Pasangan penyelidik mengatakan mantra itu ditulis dalam Demotic, yang merupakan tulisan Mesir yang berasal dari bentuk utara hieratik yang digunakan di Delta Nil setelah Akhir Mesir dan sebelum Koptik. Mantra secara khusus meminta hantu, "semangat mulia lelaki nekropolis," untuk memberi Kephalas "kegelisahan pada tengah hari, malam, dan setiap saat" sampai dia mencari Taromeway dalam keinginan nafsu. Menurut Dr. Ritner, zakar dan skrotumnya yang ditekankan adalah "organ lelaki yang secara khusus ingin dikejarnya" dan anak panahnya adalah alat ajaib untuk membuat Kephalas tidak berdaya dengan nafsu untuk Taromeway.

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Di Mesir Kuno, asas asas astrologi adalah kepercayaan bahawa bintang, bahagian langit dan rasi bintang zodiak diatur oleh roh atau dewa yang berkuasa yang mempengaruhi peristiwa di bumi pada waktu-waktu tertentu, bergantung pada kedudukan mereka berkaitan dengan matahari dan lokasinya di langit. Mantra mengikat erotis memanggil Kephalas untuk "melintasi buruj utara Ursa Major sehingga dia mengembara setelah [Taromeway] sementara tidak ada wanita lain di Bumi yang dia inginkan, ketika dia mengejarnya dengan gila."

Bahagian papirus dengan mantera mengikat erotik. ( Universiti Michigan )

Menurut Alessandro Berio dari University of Pennsylvania dalam makalah 2014 ' Sungai Langit: Mengenal Buruj Mesir Purba , Bintang-bintang yang terdiri daripada Ursa Major adalah "metafora utama" dalam kehidupan agama dan pertanian kedua-dua orang Mesir Predynastik dan Dinasti. Ahli astronomi Mesir menyebut rasi bintang circumpolar utara sebagai "The Indestructibles," yang dianggap sebagai portal keabadian dan akhirat, dan Ursa Major adalah mangkuk kosmik bintang-bintang abadi yang tidak pernah berada di bawah cakrawala.

Seorang Imam dan Hantu Mengaktifkan Ejaan Nafsu

Ritner dan Foy mengatakan mantra mengikat erotis Mesir lebih sering digunakan oleh lelaki yang mencari wanita dan tidak jelas mengapa Taromeway bernafsu sangat buruk terhadap Kephalas, atau adakah dia benar-benar memenangkannya, tetapi mereka fikir Taromeway kemungkinan membayar seorang paderi untuk menulis mantra kepadanya bagi pihak. Setelah perangkap ajaib disusun, papirus mungkin ditempatkan di kubur di mana "hantu" si mati dipanggil untuk mengeja mantra, kata Ritner.

Penyelidikan baru ini dilakukan tiga tahun setelah Dr. Franco Maltomini dari University of Udine di Itali menguraikan dua papirus dari Mesir pada waktu yang sama, 1.700 tahun yang lalu, dengan satu mantra meminta para dewa untuk "membakar hati seorang wanita sehingga dia suka penyihir mantra "dan yang lain memaksa lelaki untuk melakukan" apa sahaja yang dikehendaki oleh kastor ", menurut laporan CBS News 2016.

Mantra Seks Kuno, Tanpa Lekapan

Gnostisisme adalah agama kuno yang menggabungkan unsur-unsur agama Kristian dan menurut laporan Sains Langsung, "mantra cinta" yang diuraikan 2016 ini memanggil beberapa dewa gnostik dan memerintahkan si mantera untuk membakar serangkaian persembahan di pemandian dan menulis mantra di dalamnya dinding. Maltomini menerjemahkan tome ajaib sebagai:

"Aku mengadili kamu, bumi dan perairan, oleh syaitan yang menetap di atasmu dan (aku merayu) kekayaan mandi ini sehingga, ketika kamu menyala dan membakar dan menyala, jadi bakarlah dia (wanita yang menjadi sasaran) siapa (ibu wanita yang disasarkan) menanggung, sehingga dia datang kepada saya ... "

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Selepas ini, mantra menyebut beberapa dewa Gnostik dan kumpulan kata-kata ajaib mengatakan "Nama-nama suci, menyala dengan cara ini dan membakar hati dia ..." sehingga dia jatuh cinta dengan orang yang memberikan mantra.

Dewa berwajah singa yang terdapat di permata Gnostik di tokoh 'L'antiquité expliquée et représentée en Bernard de Montfaucon'.

Di mana mantra seks Taromeway untuk menjerat Kephalas sangat berbeza dengan terjemahan 2016 ini adalah bahawa tidak ada yang menyebut tentang memikat hatinya atau memusingkan kepalanya dengan "cinta", dan hasil yang diinginkannya dibuat sangat jelas - untuk menjadi sasaran "zakarnya yang diperbesar" dan skrotum ”, dengan tidak merujuk kepada keluarga berikutnya. Ini, adalah perjanjian "perniagaan" yang jelas tanpa ada ikatan.


Pilihan halaman

Dalam mitos Mesir, sihir (heka) adalah salah satu kekuatan yang digunakan oleh pencipta untuk membuat dunia. Melalui heka, tindakan simbolik dapat memberi kesan praktikal. Semua dewa dan manusia dianggap memiliki kekuatan ini dalam beberapa tahap, tetapi ada peraturan tentang mengapa dan bagaimana ia dapat digunakan.

Pengguna sihir yang paling dihormati adalah pendeta lektor.

Para pendeta adalah pengamal sihir utama di Firaun Mesir, di mana mereka dilihat sebagai penjaga pengetahuan rahsia yang diberikan oleh para dewa kepada umat manusia untuk 'menangkis nasib yang tidak baik'. Pengguna sihir yang paling dihormati adalah pendeta lektor, yang dapat membaca buku sihir kuno yang disimpan di perpustakaan kuil dan istana. Dalam kisah-kisah popular lelaki seperti itu diberi kepercayaan untuk menghidupkan haiwan lilin, atau memutar balik perairan tasik.

Patung Sekhmet © Pendeta lektor sebenar melakukan ritual ajaib untuk melindungi raja mereka, dan untuk membantu orang mati untuk dilahirkan semula. Menjelang milenium pertama SM, peranan mereka nampaknya telah diambil alih oleh ahli sihir (hekau). Sihir penyembuhan adalah keistimewaan para imam yang melayani Sekhmet, dewi wabak yang menakutkan.

Dalam status yang lebih rendah adalah pemikat kalajengking, yang menggunakan sihir untuk membersihkan kawasan dari reptilia dan serangga beracun. Bidan dan jururawat juga memasukkan keajaiban di antara keahlian mereka, dan wanita yang bijaksana mungkin dimintai nasihat mengenai hantu atau dewa mana yang menyebabkan seseorang menyusahkan.

Jimat adalah sumber kekuatan sihir lain, yang dapat diperoleh dari 'pembuat perlindungan', yang boleh menjadi lelaki atau wanita. Tidak ada penggunaan sihir ini yang tidak disetujui - baik oleh negara atau imamat. Hanya orang asing yang kerap dituduh menggunakan sihir jahat. Tidak sampai pada zaman Rom terdapat banyak bukti bahawa penyihir individu mengamalkan sihir berbahaya untuk mendapatkan ganjaran kewangan.


10 Boneka Cinta Voodoo

Seperti doktor penyihir Voodoo, orang Yunani dan Rom mempunyai boneka ajaib. Walaupun begitu, mereka selalu digunakan untuk membuat orang menderita. Kadang-kadang, mereka & rsquod menjadikan sedikit boneka orang sebagai mantra cinta & malahan jika anda melihat seseorang membuat satu untuk anda, anda mungkin tidak akan tersanjung.

Apa yang harus anda lakukan untuk membuat seorang wanita jatuh cinta kepada anda, menurut sihir Yunani kuno, adalah membentuk patung lelaki dan wanita dari tanah liat. Patung jantan kelihatan seperti Apollo, dan patung betina harus berlutut. Oh, dan sosok lelaki semestinya memotong kepala wanita & rsquos. [1]

Seterusnya, ambil beberapa jarum gangsa dan tusuk salah satu daripadanya untuk menyerupai otak cinta sejati & otak anda sambil menjerit, & ldquoSaya menusuk otak anda! & Rdquo Kemudian tusukan mereka di setiap bahagian badannya, katakan di mana anda & # 39; t menusuknya setiap kali, tutup dengan , & ldquoSaya menusuk dubur anda! & rdquo

Akhirnya, ambil tablet utama dan tulis mesej kepada Pluto, memintanya untuk melakukan perkara seperti & mencegahnya makan dan minum & rdquo sehingga dia datang kepada anda dan untuk & menyeretnya dengan rambutnya, perutnya, oleh jiwanya kepada saya. & Rdquo Cukup ikat tablet ke angka dan letakkan di kubur seseorang yang dibunuh.

Ikuti langkah-langkah ini, dan cinta sejati anda akan datang kepada anda dan memujamu selama-lamanya. Atau dia & rsquoll memfailkan perintah pengekangan. Pasti salah satu daripada dua perkara itu.


Rawatan Perubatan Mesir

Orang-orang Mesir kuno mengalami pelbagai penyakit yang sama dengan orang-orang pada masa kini, tetapi tidak seperti kebanyakan orang di era moden, mereka mengaitkan pengalaman itu dengan sebab-sebab supranatural. Sebagai contoh, selesema biasa, tetapi gejala-gejala seseorang tidak akan disembuhkan dengan ubat-ubatan dan rehat di tempat tidur, atau tidak sendirian, tetapi dengan mantera dan mantra ajaib. The Papirus Ebers (bertarikh sekitar 1550 SM), teks perubatan terpanjang dan terlengkap yang ada, dengan jelas menyatakan pandangan Mesir mengenai rawatan perubatan: "Sihir berkesan bersama dengan ubat. Perubatan berkesan bersama dengan sihir." Sihir yang dimaksudkan itu berupa mantra, mantra, dan ritual, yang meminta kekuatan ghaib yang lebih tinggi untuk menyembuhkan pasien atau mengobati gejala.

Heka adalah dewa sihir dan juga perubatan, tetapi ada sejumlah dewa yang dipanggil untuk penyakit yang berlainan. Serket (Selket) dipanggil untuk menggigit kalajengking. Sekhmet dipanggil untuk pelbagai masalah perubatan. Nefertum akan diinginkan dalam memberikan terapi aroma. Bes dan Tawreret melindungi wanita hamil dan kanak-kanak. Sobek akan campur tangan dalam pembedahan. Akan tetapi, seseorang dapat meminta tuhan untuk meminta pertolongan, dan Isis dan Hathor juga dipanggil, seperti juga dewa iblis Pazuzu. Bahkan Set, dewa yang dikaitkan dengan kekacauan dan perselisihan, kadang-kadang muncul dalam mantra sihir kerana sifat pelindung dan kekuatannya yang luar biasa. Semua dewa ini, bagaimanapun, tidak peduli seberapa kuatnya, harus dipanggil oleh seorang praktisi yang berpengalaman dan ini adalah doktor ahli sihir Mesir kuno, sebahagian imam, dan sebahagian doktor.

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Kecederaan & Penyakit

Kecederaan fizikal adalah biasa dalam budaya yang tidak hanya terlibat dalam projek bangunan monumental tetapi harus menghadapi serangan binatang buas dari singa, kuda nil, serigala, dan lain-lain. Kecederaan mudah dikenali dan diubati dengan cara yang sama seperti hari ini: pembalut, serpihan, dan pelakon. Oleh kerana orang Mesir tidak mempunyai konsep bakteria atau teori kuman, namun penyebab penyakit ini kurang jelas. Dewa-dewa dianggap hanya yang terbaik bagi penduduk negeri ini, dan penyebab penyakit seperti barah adalah misteri bagi orang-orang Mesir kuno sebagai asal usul kejahatan dan penderitaan bagi orang-orang yang beragama pada masa ini.

Sebab-sebab penyakit yang paling umum dianggap dosa, roh jahat, hantu yang marah, atau kehendak para dewa untuk mengajar seseorang pelajaran penting. Walaupun pembalsem yang membedah mayat ketika mati mengetahui organ-organ dalaman dan hubungan mereka antara satu sama lain secara spasial dalam rongga badan, mereka tidak berkongsi maklumat ini dengan doktor, dan doktor tidak berunding dengan pembalsem, kedua-dua profesion tersebut dianggap berbeza tanpa sebarang catatan untuk saling menyumbang.

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Doktor menyedari bahawa jantung adalah pam dan bahawa urat dan arteri membekalkan darah ke badan, tetapi mereka tidak tahu caranya. Mereka menyedari penyakit hati tetapi bukan fungsi hati. Otak dianggap sebagai organ yang tidak berguna semua pemikiran, perasaan, watak seseorang, dipercayai berasal dari hati. Rahim wanita dipercayai organ terapung bebas yang boleh mempengaruhi setiap bahagian badan yang lain. Namun, walaupun pemahaman mereka tentang fisiologi terbatas, doktor Mesir nampaknya cukup berjaya dalam merawat pesakit mereka dan dipandang tinggi oleh budaya lain.

Teks Perubatan

Teks perubatan Mesir kuno dianggap berkesan dan boleh dipercayai pada zaman mereka seperti yang setara dengan zaman moden. Mereka ditulis oleh pakar perubatan untuk doktor dan memberikan penawar dan rawatan praktikal dan ajaib. Mereka ditulis di atas gulungan papirus yang disimpan di bahagian kuil yang dikenal sebagai Per-Ankh ('Rumah Kehidupan'), tetapi salinan mesti dibawa oleh doktor individu yang sering membuat panggilan rumah.

Daftar untuk mendapatkan buletin e-mel percuma setiap minggu!

Teks-teks ini hari ini semua dikenali dengan nama-nama individu yang menemui, membeli, atau menyumbangkannya ke muzium tempat mereka bertempat. Teks utama adalah:

Papirus Ginekologi Kahun (sekitar 1800 SM) menangani masalah konsepsi dan kehamilan serta kontrasepsi.

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Papirus Perubatan London (c. 1782-1570 SM) menawarkan resep untuk masalah yang berkaitan dengan mata, kulit, luka bakar, dan kehamilan.

Papirus Edwin Smith (sekitar tahun 1600 SM) adalah karya tertua mengenai teknik pembedahan.

Papirus Ebers (c. 1550 SM) merawat barah, penyakit jantung, diabetes, kawalan kelahiran, dan kemurungan.

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Papirus Perubatan Berlin (juga dikenal sebagai Brugsch Papyrus, bertarikh Kerajaan Baru, sekitar 1570 - sekitar 1069 SM) berkaitan dengan kontrasepsi, kesuburan, dan termasuk ujian kehamilan yang paling awal diketahui.

Papirus Perubatan Hearst (bertarikh Kerajaan Baru) merawat jangkitan saluran kencing dan masalah pencernaan.

Papirus Perubatan Chester Beatty, bertarikh c. 1200 BCE, menetapkan rawatan untuk penyakit anorektal (masalah yang berkaitan dengan dubur dan rektum) dan menetapkan ganja untuk pesakit barah (mendahului penyebutan ganja di Herodotus, yang dianggap lama sebagai penyebutan awal ubat).

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Papirus Magik Demotik London dan Leiden (c. abad ke-3 CE) dikhaskan sepenuhnya untuk mantra dan ramalan ajaib.

Setiap doktor mempunyai bidang pengkhususannya sendiri dan akan merujuk teks yang sesuai dengan bidangnya.

Rawatan perubatan

Doktor memulakan diagnosis dan rawatan pesakit dengan memeriksa orang itu dan sampai pada salah satu dari tiga kesimpulan:

1. Saya dapat merawat keadaan ini.

2. Saya boleh menghadapi keadaan ini.

3. Saya tidak dapat berbuat apa-apa untuk keadaan ini.

Kanser, misalnya, tidak mempunyai penyembuhan daripada yang berlaku sekarang. Penyakit jantung dapat diatasi melalui mantra, ubat, dan perubahan dalam diet seseorang. Masalah kulit dan mata dapat diatasi melalui salep, mantra, dan mantra. Setelah doktor menentukan apakah ada yang dapat dilakukan, langkah seterusnya adalah memahami sifat masalahnya. Oleh kerana penyebabnya adalah entiti ghaib, tetapi doktor harus memahami bagaimana entiti itu menyerang tubuh dan mengapa. Pesakit akan diajukan serangkaian pertanyaan untuk menentukan apa yang mereka alami serta apa yang mungkin mereka lakukan untuk layak menderita.

Salah satu contoh prosedur ini, dari Papirus Ebers, menangani masalah pesakit yang menunjukkan "penyakit maut". Doktor diarahkan untuk memeriksa pesakit dengan berhati-hati, dan jika badan kelihatan bebas dari penyakit kecuali "permukaan tulang rusuk", doktor kemudian harus membaca mantra untuk melawan penyakit ini dan menetapkan campuran batu darah, butir merah, dan karob , dimasak dengan minyak dan diambil selama empat pagi berikutnya dengan madu. Mantra yang akan dibacakan tidak dinyatakan dalam kes ini tetapi dalam banyak yang lain diberikan.

Ubat-ubatan biasanya dicampur dengan bir, anggur, atau madu, dan masing-masing mempunyai khasiat perubatan mereka sendiri. Bir adalah minuman paling popular di Mesir kuno, sering dijadikan upah seseorang, dan dianggap sebagai hadiah dari para dewa untuk kesihatan dan kesenangan masyarakat. Tenenet adalah dewi bir, tetapi minuman itu paling sering dikaitkan dengan Hathor (salah satu julukannya adalah 'The Lady of Drunkenness'). Mantra yang memanggil Hathor muncul dalam teks perubatan, tetapi yang sangat menarik memanggil Set.

Walaupun Set awalnya sepertinya adalah dewa pelindung, sepanjang sebagian besar sejarah Mesir, dia adalah penjahat utama yang membunuh saudaranya Osiris dan menjatuhkan tanah itu ke dalam kekacauan. Dia memang muncul di era tertentu, sebagai pelindung dan juara, dan namanya bahkan diambil oleh beberapa raja (Seti I, misalnya) yang sangat menghormatinya. Dalam satu mantra, dibacakan untuk menyembuhkan penyakit yang tidak disebutkan namanya, Set diminta untuk memberikan kekuatannya kepada ubat yang ditentukan: bir. Ahli Mesir, Alison Roberts mencatat bahawa "Pengaruh Set dalam bir yang diminum oleh orang sakit itu sangat hebat sehingga syaitan yang menyiksa menjadi bingung dan ditanggung, meninggalkan orang itu kembali sihat" (98). Mantra berbunyi, sebahagian:

Tidak ada Set penahan. Biarkan dia melaksanakan keinginannya untuk menangkap hati dengan nama 'bir' miliknya - Untuk membingungkan hati, dan untuk menawan hati musuh. (Roberts, 98)

Bir dianggap "menggembirakan hati" secara umum, tetapi ketika seseorang sakit, ubat-ubatan yang dicampurkan dengan bir - dan digabungkan dengan mantra - dianggap sangat berkesan. Bir dan anggur juga diresepkan untuk kanak-kanak dan ibu menyusu. Preskripsi dari Papirus Ebers kerana inkontinensia kanak-kanak meminta ibu minum secawan bir yang dicampurkan dengan biji rumput dan rumput cyperus selama empat hari semasa menyusukan anak.

The Papirus Ginekologi Kahun memberi tumpuan terutamanya pada rahim sebagai sumber penyakit wanita dan sering menetapkan "pengasapan rahim" sebagai penawar. Ini dapat dicapai dengan mengarahkan asap dupa atau memasukkan dupa ke dalam vagina wanita. Preskripsi sering menyebut "pembuangan rahim" sebagai penyebab utama masalah, seperti dalam petikan ini:

Pemeriksaan seorang wanita sakit di belakang, depan, dan betis paha
Anda harus mengatakannya 'itu adalah pembuangan rahim'.
Anda harus merawatnya dengan ukuran buah karob, ukuran pelet, 1 lembu susu lembu
Rebus, sejuk, campurkan bersama, minum pada 4 pagi. (Lajur I.8-12)

Ujian kesuburan menunjukkan meletakkan bawang di dalam vagina wanita jika aroma bawang pada nafasnya keesokan harinya, dia dianggap subur. Ujian kehamilan juga ditangani di mana vegetasi (khususnya emmer dan barli) disiram dengan air kencing wanita jika tumbuh-tumbuhan berkembang, dia hamil. Ia juga difikirkan bahawa seseorang dapat menentukan jantina anak dengan cara yang sama. Sekiranya biji emmer tumbuh terlebih dahulu, anak itu akan menjadi betina jika barli bertindak balas terlebih dahulu, anak itu akan menjadi jantan. Kontraseptif juga dijelaskan dalam teks dengan satu kaedah yang disebut sebagai penyisipan kotoran buaya ke dalam vagina. Mantra yang menyertai prosedur ini juga diberikan untuk menjadikannya lebih berkesan.

The Papirus Magik Demotik sepenuhnya ditujukan untuk mantra, ritual, dan mantra untuk memanggil para dewa dan roh untuk meminta bantuan, dan beberapa di antaranya dianggap memberi petunjuk kepada doktor-penyihir tentang bagaimana membangkitkan orang mati. Walaupun demikian, nampaknya tujuan mantra tersebut adalah untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan mengenai penyebab kematian dengan memanggil roh si mati. Mantra diberikan untuk memanggil lelaki lemas atau lelaki yang dibunuh, misalnya. Untuk memanggil semangat lelaki lemas, doktor harus meletakkan batu karbohidrat (objek yang belum dikenal pasti) di brazier dan memanggil namanya, sementara bagi lelaki yang dibunuh, seseorang meletakkan tahi keldai dan jimat. Nephthys di brazier. Untuk menghalau semangat, tahi kera diletakkan di atas api.

Walau bagaimanapun, tidak semua teks perubatan melibatkan mantra ajaib dalam rawatan. The Edwin Smith Papyrus, sebahagian besarnya, memberikan prosedur mudah dalam merawat kecederaan. Bermula dengan kepala, teks turun ke badan memberikan jenis kecederaan yang dialami dan menunjukkan cara terbaik untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Walaupun lapan mantra sihir muncul di bahagian belakang papirus, sebahagian besar karya berkenaan sepenuhnya berkaitan dengan prosedur perubatan yang menangani kecederaan secara langsung tanpa rayuan untuk campur tangan supranatural.

Kesimpulannya

Orang Mesir kuno mengenal konsep bahawa penyakit boleh terjadi secara semula jadi seawal awal Kerajaan Lama (sekitar 2613-2181 SM). Arkitek Imhotep (sekitar 2667-2600 SM), yang terkenal dengan karyanya di Raja Djoser Step Pyramid di Saqqara, telah menulis risalah perubatan yang menekankan kemungkinan ini dan mendakwa penyakit itu tidak semestinya merupakan hukuman dari para dewa atau perbuatan jahat arwah. Ide-idenya juga tidak diabaikan kerana dia sangat dihormati atas karyanya dan kemudiannya disifatkan sebagai dewa perubatan dan penyembuhan.

Walaupun begitu, tanpa sebab lain yang mungkin menyebabkan penyakit, orang Mesir terus mempercayai unsur-unsur ghaib yang mempengaruhi kesihatan seseorang. Walaupun tajuk swnw (pengamal am) dan sos (pengamal sihir) muncul dalam prasasti yang berkaitan dengan doktor, sihir itu penting bagi keduanya. Ini tidak menghairankan kerana manusia akan selalu mencari alasan untuk pengalaman yang diberikan. Apabila menghadapi beberapa fenomena yang kelihatannya tidak dapat dijelaskan, seseorang akan mencari penyebabnya dalam fenomena yang nampaknya paling masuk akal bagi sistem kepercayaan seseorang.

Mitos paling awal diberitahu untuk menjelaskan terbitnya matahari, perubahan musim, alasan penderitaan dan semua ini mempunyai unsur ghaib bagi mereka. Para dewa hadir dalam setiap aspek kehidupan orang Mesir kuno. Oleh kerana itu, ketika mereka menentukan punca penyakit, mereka mencari sumber yang sama dan melakukan mantra dan ritual untuk meminta kesihatan dan kesejahteraan dewa-dewa mereka dengan kepercayaan yang sama pada masa kini orang-orang tunduk pada rawatan yang ditentukan oleh profesion perubatan moden.


Memahami Buzz Mengenai Cendawan Ajaib

Budaya di seluruh dunia telah menggunakan tumbuh-tumbuhan dan kulat dengan sifat psychedelic selama ribuan tahun untuk menghasilkan keadaan fikiran yang berubah. Lebih dari sekadar mengubah lensa untuk sementara melihat seseorang, ubat-ubatan ini dianggap suci, kerana mereka yang sering mengambilnya mempunyai pengalaman mistik atau keagamaan.

Hingga hari ini, banyak individu yang menggunakan ubat psychedelic merasakan mereka memberikan jenis sudut pandang tertentu, dan jumlah orang yang menggunakan psychedelics nampaknya semakin bertambah. Beberapa ujian klinikal kini meneliti kesan ubat-ubatan ini, sementara beberapa kota dan negara bagian mempertimbangkan untuk mendekriminalisasi "jamur ajaib" yang mengandung psilocybin sebatian psikotropik.

Walaupun di bawah pengaruh ubat, pengguna biasanya mengalami perubahan mood dan persepsi, rasa keterbatasan lautan, pemikiran dan pemikiran yang berubah secara radikal, dan halusinasi pendengaran dan visual. Namun, begitu kesan akut ubat itu mereda, banyak orang merasa seolah-olah mereka mempunyai rasa empati dan kesedaran diri yang tinggi, itulah sebabnya ubat-ubatan ini telah menarik minat banyak penyelidik perubatan.

Walaupun ini bukanlah sokongan dengan cara apa pun - kerana lebih banyak kajian perlu dilakukan sebelum sains perubatan dapat dengan pasti mengatakan bahawa ubat-ubatan ini berkesan - ujian klinikal awal menunjukkan bahawa kesan sampingan ini mungkin mempunyai manfaat terapeutik, terutama bagi mereka yang menghadapi had kematian mereka.

Mungkin beberapa penyelidikan yang paling menjanjikan mengenai psychedelics meneliti bagaimana ubat-ubatan ini mempengaruhi mereka yang berada di peringkat terakhir penyakit terminal dan mengalami kesusahan eksistensial kerana kematian mereka yang akan datang. Beberapa kajian menunjukkan bahawa psychedelics seperti psilocybin (bahan aktif dalam "cendawan ajaib") berkesan menghasilkan kesan antidepresan dan kecemasan dengan membiarkan individu-individu ini dapat menentukan kematian mereka sendiri.

Bukan sahaja penemuan ini agak baru, tetapi juga disokong oleh kumpulan data yang kuat. Ini penting kerana banyak doktor Barat dan penyelidik perubatan akan melihat tuntutan seperti itu mengenai psilocybin sekiranya bukti tidak begitu kuat.

Selama beberapa dekad, bahkan cadangan bahawa psilocybin dan psychedelics lain mempunyai potensi terapi sering dilihat sebagai sokongan bukan sahaja ubat-ubatan itu sendiri tetapi juga budaya kontra pada tahun 1960-an. Dan sementara banyak penyelidik terus mengaitkan penggunaan psychedelics seperti psilocybin dengan counterculture ini, stigma mulai mereda kerana lebih banyak penyelidikan diterbitkan yang menunjukkan bahawa psilocybin memang mempunyai potensi terapi.

Stigma budaya yang merangkumi penggunaan ubat seperti psilocybin bukan satu-satunya halangan untuk penyelidikan. Terdapat juga sekatan undang-undang. Pada masa ini, psilocybin masih dianggap sebagai ubat Jadual 1 oleh Pentadbiran Makanan dan Dadah (FDA), yang bermaksud terdapat banyak halangan peraturan yang menghalang para penyelidik untuk mendapatkan dan menguji sebatian tersebut.

Namun, kabar baiknya adalah bahawa FDA telah menetapkan psilocybin sebagai terapi terobosan pada dua kesempatan yang terpisah, terakhir untuk rawatan gangguan kemurungan utama. Penunjukan terapi terobosan, menurut FDA, "dimaksudkan untuk mempercepat pengembangan dan peninjauan ubat-ubatan untuk keadaan serius atau mengancam nyawa."

Bagaimana Psilocybin Mempengaruhi Otak?

Psilocybin adalah sebatian tryptamine yang terdapat secara semula jadi yang terdapat pada sekurang-kurangnya 100 spesies cendawan. Apabila dikonsumsi secara oral, yang merupakan cara pemberian khas, psilocybin diubah menjadi psilocin melalui metabolisme hepatik. Psilocin, bukan psilocybin, tampaknya merupakan bahan aktif secara farmakologi yang bertanggungjawab untuk kesan psikotropik "cendawan ajaib."


Kesusasteraan Mesir Purba

Kesusasteraan Mesir kuno terdiri daripada pelbagai bentuk naratif dan puitis termasuk prasasti di makam, tugu peringatan, obelisk, dan mitos kuil, cerita, dan legenda tulisan agama karya falsafah autobiografi biografi sejarah puisi memuji surat karangan peribadi dan catatan mahkamah. Walaupun banyak dari bentuk-bentuk ini biasanya tidak didefinisikan sebagai "sastera", mereka diberi penunjukan dalam kajian Mesir kerana begitu banyak dari mereka, terutama dari Kerajaan Tengah (2040-1782 SM), mempunyai nilai sastera yang tinggi.

Contoh pertama penulisan Mesir berasal dari Zaman Dinasti Awal (sekitar 6000 - sekitar 3150 SM) dalam bentuk Daftar Tawaran dan otobiografi autobiografi diukir di makam seseorang bersama dengan Senarai Penawaran untuk memberi tahu orang hidup apa hadiah, dan dalam jumlah berapa, si mati mesti kerap berkunjung ke kubur. Oleh kerana mayat dianggap hidup setelah mayat mereka gagal, persembahan biasa di kubur adalah pertimbangan penting orang mati masih harus makan dan minum walaupun mereka tidak lagi mempunyai bentuk fizikal. Dari Senarai Penawaran datang Doa untuk Persembahan, karya sastera standard yang akan menggantikan Daftar Penawaran, dan dari autobiografi berkembang Teks Piramid yang merupakan kisah pemerintahan raja dan perjalanannya yang berjaya ke akhirat kedua perkembangan ini berlaku pada masa Kerajaan Lama (sekitar 2613-c.2181 SM).

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Teks-teks ini ditulis dalam hieroglif ("ukiran suci") sistem tulisan yang menggabungkan fonogram (simbol yang mewakili suara), logogram (simbol yang mewakili kata-kata), dan ideogram (simbol yang mewakili makna atau akal). Penulisan hieroglif sangat padat karya dan skrip lain tumbuh di sebelahnya yang dikenali sebagai hieratik ("tulisan suci") yang lebih pantas untuk digunakan dan lebih mudah digunakan. Hieratic berdasarkan skrip hieroglif dan bergantung pada prinsip yang sama tetapi kurang formal dan tepat. Skrip hieroglif ditulis dengan penuh perhatian untuk keindahan estetik susunan simbol hieratik digunakan untuk menyampaikan maklumat dengan cepat dan mudah. Di c. 700 BCE hieratic digantikan oleh skrip demotik ("tulisan popular") yang terus digunakan hingga munculnya agama Kristian di Mesir dan penerapan skrip Koptik c. Abad ke-4 Masihi.

Sebilangan besar sastera Mesir ditulis dalam hieroglif atau hieroglif skrip digunakan pada monumen seperti kubur, obelisk, tugu peringatan, dan kuil sementara skrip hieratik digunakan dalam penulisan pada gulungan papirus dan periuk seramik. Walaupun hieratik, dan kemudian demotik dan Koptik, skrip menjadi sistem tulisan umum orang berpendidikan dan celik, hieroglif tetap digunakan sepanjang sejarah Mesir untuk struktur monumental sehingga ia dilupakan pada masa awal Kristiani.

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Walaupun definisi "Kesusasteraan Mesir" merangkumi pelbagai jenis penulisan, untuk tujuan ini perhatian kebanyakan akan diberikan kepada karya sastera standard seperti cerita, legenda, mitos, dan karangan peribadi jenis atau karya lain yang akan disebut ketika mereka terutama ketara. Sejarah Mesir, dan kesusasteraan, merangkumi berabad-abad dan mengisi banyak buku, satu artikel tidak dapat berharap dapat membahas topik ini dengan adil dalam usaha untuk merangkumi pelbagai karya bertulis budaya.

Sastera di Kerajaan Lama

Senarai Penawaran dan autobiografi, walaupun tidak dianggap "sastera", adalah contoh pertama sistem tulisan Mesir dalam tindakan. Senarai Penawaran adalah arahan sederhana, yang dikenal oleh orang Mesir sebagai hetep-di-nesw ("anugerah yang diberikan oleh raja"), tertulis di makam yang memperincikan makanan, minuman, dan persembahan lain yang sesuai untuk orang yang dikebumikan di sana. Autobiografi, yang ditulis setelah kematian orang itu, selalu ditulis pada orang pertama seolah-olah si mati sedang bercakap. Ahli Mesir, Miriam Lichtheim menulis:

Daftar untuk mendapatkan buletin e-mel percuma setiap minggu!

Tujuan asas autobiografi - potret diri dengan kata-kata - sama dengan potret diri dalam patung dan lekapan: untuk merangkum ciri-ciri ciri individu itu dari segi nilai positifnya dan dalam menghadapi kekekalan. (4)

Obituari awal ini bertambah dengan jenis penulisan formula yang sekarang dikenali sebagai Katalog Kebajikan yang berkembang dari "kemampuan baru untuk menangkap pengalaman hidup yang tidak berbentuk dalam rumusan abadi dari perkataan yang ditulis" (Lichtheim, 5). The Katalog Kebajikan menonjolkan kebaikan yang telah dilakukan seseorang dalam hidupnya dan betapa pantasnya mereka mengingati. Lichtheim menyatakan bahawa pentingnya Kebajikan adalah bahawa mereka "mencerminkan standard etika masyarakat" dan pada masa yang sama menjelaskan bahawa si mati telah mematuhi standard tersebut (5). Beberapa autobiografi dan senarai kebajikan ini ringkas, tertulis di pintu palsu atau di sekitar lintel yang lain, seperti yang terkenal Autobiografi Weni, tertulis pada paparan monolitik besar dan cukup terperinci. Autobiografi ditulis dalam prosa the Katalog dalam puisi formula. Contoh tipikal ini dilihat dalam Prasasti Nefer-Seshem-Ra Dipanggil Sheshi dari Dinasti ke-6 Kerajaan Lama:

Saya datang dari bandar saya

Saya telah turun dari nombor saya

I have done justice for its lord

I have satisfied him with what he loves.

I spoke truly, I did right

I spoke fairly, I repeated fairly

I seized the right moment

So as to stand well with people.

I judged between two so as to content them

I rescued the weak from the stronger than he

As much as was in my power.

I gave bread to the hungry, clothes to the naked

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I brought the boatless to land.

I buried him who had no son,

I made a boat for him who lacked one.

I respected my father, I pleased my mother,

I raised their children.

So says he whose nickname is Sheshi. (Lichtheim, 17)

These autobiographies and virtue lists gave rise to the Pyramid Texts of the 5th and 6th dynasties which were reserved for royalty and told the story of a king's life, his virtues, and his journey to the afterlife they therefore tried to encompass the earthly life of the deceased and his immortal journey on into the land of the gods and, in doing so, recorded early religious beliefs. Creation myths such as the famous story of Atum standing on the primordial mound amidst the swirling waters of chaos, weaving creation from nothing, comes from the Pyramid Texts. These inscriptions also include allusions to the story of Osiris, his murder by his brother Set, his resurrection from the dead by his sister-wife Isis, and her care for their son Horus in the marshes of the Delta.

Following closely on the heels of the Pyramid Texts, a body of literature known as the Instructions in Wisdom appeared. These works offer short maxims on how to live much along the lines of the biblical Book of Proverbs and, in many instances, anticipate the same kinds of advice one finds in Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Psalms, and other biblical narratives. The oldest Instruction is that of Prince Hardjedef written sometime in the 5th Dynasty which includes advice such as:

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Cleanse yourself before your own eyes

Lest another cleanse you.

When you prosper, found your household,

Take a hearty wife, a son will be born to you.

It is for the son you build a house

When you make a place for yourself. (Lichtheim, 58)

The somewhat later Instruction Addressed to Kagemni advises:

The respectful man prospers,

Praised is the modest one.

The tent is open to the silent,

The seat of the quiet is spacious

Do not chatter.

When you sit with company,

Shun the food you love

Restraint is a brief moment

Gluttony is base and is reproved.

A cup of water quenches the thirst,

A mouthful of herbs strengthens the heart. (Lichtheim, 59-60)

There were a number of such texts, all written according to the model of Mesopotamian Naru Literature, in which the work is ascribed to, or prominently features, a famous figure. The actual Prince Hardjedef did not write his Instruction nor was Kagemni's addressed to the actual Kagemni. As in Naru literature, a well-known person was chosen to give the material more weight and so wider acceptance. Wisdom Literature, the Pyramid Texts, and the autobiographical inscriptions developed significantly during the Old Kingdom and became the foundation for the literature of the Middle Kingdom.

Middle Kingdom Literature

The Middle Kingdom is considered the classical age of Egyptian literature. During this time the script known as Middle Egyptian was created, considered the highest form of hieroglyphics and the one most often seen on monuments and other artifacts in museums in the present day. Egyptologist Rosalie David comments on this period:

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The literature of this era reflected the added depth and maturity that the country now gained as a result of the civil wars and upheavals of the First Intermediate Period. New genres of literature were developed including the so-called Pessimistic Literature, which perhaps best exemplifies the self-analysis and doubts that the Egyptians now experienced. (209)

The Pessimistic Literature David mentions is some of the greatest work of the Middle Kingdom in that it not only expresses a depth of understanding of the complexities of life but does so in high prose. Some of the best known works of this genre (generally known as Didactic Literature because it teaches some lesson) are The Dispute Between a Man and his Ba (soul), The Eloquent Peasant, The Satire of the Trades, The Instruction of King Amenemhet I for his Son Senusret I, Prophecies of Neferti, dan juga Admonitions of Ipuwer.

The Dispute Between a Man and his Ba is considered the oldest text on suicide in the world. The piece presents a conversation between a narrator and his soul on the difficulties of life and how one is supposed to live in it. In passages reminiscent of Ecclesiastes or the biblical Book of Lamentations, the soul tries to console the man by reminding him of the good things in life, the goodness of the gods, and how he should enjoy life while he can because he will be dead soon enough. Egyptologist W.K. Simpson has translated the text as The Man Who Was Weary of Life and disagrees with the interpretation that it has to do with suicide. Simpson writes:

This Middle Kingdom text, preserved on Papyrus Berlin 3024, has often been interpreted as a debate between a man and his ba on the subject of suicide. I offer here the suggestion that the text is of a somewhat different nature. What is presented in this text is not a debate but a psychological picture of a man depressed by the evil of life to the point of feeling unable to arrive at any acceptance of the innate goodness of existence. His inner self is, as it were, unable to be integrated and at peace. (178)

The depth of the conversation between the man and his soul, the range of life experiences touched on, is also seen in the other works mentioned. Dalam The Eloquent Peasant a poor man who can speak well is robbed by a wealthy landowner and presents his case to the mayor of the town. The mayor is so impressed with his speaking ability that he keeps refusing him justice so he can hear him speak further. Although in the end the peasant receives his due, the piece illustrates the injustice of having to humor and entertain those in positions of authority in order to receive what they should give freely.

The Satire of the Trades is presented as a man advising his son to become a scribe because life is hard and the best life possible is one where a man can sit around all day doing nothing but writing. All the other trades one could practice are presented as endless toil and suffering in a life which is too short and precious to waste on them.

The motif of the father advising his son on the best course in life is used in a number of other works. The Instruction of Amenemhat features the ghost of the assassinated king warning his son not to trust those close to him because people are not always what they seem to be the best course is to keep one's own counsel and be wary of everyone else. Amenemhat's ghost tells the story of how he was murdered by those close to him because he made the mistake of believing the gods would reward him for a virtuous life by surrounding him with those he could trust. Dalam Shakespeare Hamlet Polonius advises his son, "Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried/ Grapple them unto thy soul with hoops of steel/ But do not dull thy palm with entertainment of each new-hatched, unfledged courage" (I.iii.62-65). Polonius here is telling his son not to waste time on those he barely knows but to trust only those who have proven worthy. Amenemhat I's ghost makes it clear that even this is a foolish course:

Put no trust in a brother,

Acknowledge no one as a friend,

Do not raise up for yourself intimate companions,

For nothing is to be gained from them.

When you lie down at night, let your own heart be watchful over you,

For no man has any to defend him on the day of anguish. (Simpson, 168)

The actual king Amenemhat I (c. 1991-1962 BCE) was the first great king of the 12th Dynasty and was, in fact, assassinated by those close to him. The Instruction bearing his name was written later by an unknown scribe, probably at the request of Senusret I (c. 1971-1926 BCE) to eulogize his father and vilify the conspirators. Amenemhat I is further praised in the work Prophecies of Neferti which foretell the coming of a king (Amenemhat I) who will be a savior to the people, solve all the country's problems, and inaugurate a golden age. The work was written after Amenemhat I's death but presented as though it were an actual prophecy pre-dating his reign.

This motif of the "false prophecy" - a vision recorded after the event it supposedly predicts - is another element found in Mesopotamian Naru literature where the historical "facts" are reinterpreted to suit the purposes of the writer. In the case of the Prophecies of Neferti, the focus of the piece is on how mighty a king Amenemhat I was and so the vision of his reign is placed further back in time to show how he was chosen by the gods to fulfil this destiny and save his country. The piece also follows a common motif of Middle Kingdom literature in contrasting the time of prosperity of Amenemhat I's reign, a "golden age", with a previous one of disunity and chaos.

The Admonitions of Ipuwer touches on this theme of a golden age more completely. Once considered historical reportage, the piece has come to be recognized as literature of the order vs. chaos didactic genre in which a present time of despair and uncertainty is contrasted with an earlier era when all was good and life was easy. The Admonitions of Ipuwer is often cited by those wishing to align biblical narratives with Egyptian history as proof of the Ten Plagues from the Book of Exodus but it is no such thing.

Not only does it not - in any way - correlate to the biblical plagues but it is quite obviously a type of literary piece which many, many cultures have produced throughout history up to the present day. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that everyone, at some point in his or her life, has looked back on the past and compared it favorably to the present. The Admonitions of Ipuwer simply records that experience, though perhaps more eloquently than most, and can in no way be interpreted as an actual historical account.

In addition to these prose pieces, the Middle Kingdom also produced the poetry known as The Lay of the Harper (juga dikenali sebagai The Songs of the Harper), which frequently question the existence of an ideal afterlife and the mercy of the gods and, at the same time, created hymns to those gods affirming such an afterlife. The most famous prose narratives in Egyptian history - The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor dan Kisah Sinuhe both come from the Middle Kingdom as well. The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor holds Egypt up as the best of all possible worlds through the narrative of a man shipwrecked on an island and offered all manner of wealth and happiness he refuses, however, because he knows that all he wants is back in Egypt. Sinuhe's story reflects the same ideal as a man is driven into exile following the assassination of Amenemhat I and longs to return home.

The complexities Egypt had experienced during the First Intermediate Period (2181-2040 BCE) were reflected in the literature which followed in the Middle Period. Contrary to the claim still appearing in history books on Egypt, the First Intermediate Period had not been a time of chaos, darkness, and universal distress it was simply a time when there was no strong central government. This situation resulted in a democritization of art and culture as individual regions developed their own styles which were valued as greatly as royal art had been in the Old Kingdom.

The Middle Kingdom scribes, however, looked back on the time of the First Intermediate Period and saw in it a clear departure from the glory of the Old Kingdom. Works such as The Admonitions of Ipuwer were interpreted by later Egyptologists as accurate accounts of the chaos and disorder of the era preceding the Middle Kingdom but actually, if it were not for the freedom of exploration and expression in the arts the First Intermediate Period encouraged, the later scribes could never have written the works they produced.

The royal autobiographies and Offering Lists of the Old Kingdom, only available to kings and nobles, were made use of in the First Intermediate Period by anyone who could afford to build a tomb, royal and non-royal alike. In this same way, the literature of the Middle Kingdom presented stories which could praise a king like Amenemhat I or present the thoughts and feelings of a common sailor or the nameless narrator in conflict with his soul. The literature of the Middle Kingdom opened wide the range of expression by enlarging upon the subjects one could write about and this would not have been possible without the First Intermediate Period.

Following the age of the 12th Dynasty, in which the majority of the great works were created, the weaker 13th Dynasty ruled Egypt. The Middle Kingdom declined during this dynasty in all aspects, finally to the point of allowing a foreign people to gain power in lower Egypt: The Hyksos and their period of control, just like the First Intermediate Period, would be vilified by later Egyptian scribes who would again write of a time of chaos and darkness. In reality, however, the Hyksos would provide valuable contributions to Egyptian culture even though these were ignored in the later literature of the New Kingdom.

Literature in the New Kingdom

Between the Middle Kingdom and the era known as the New Kingdom falls the time scholars refer to as the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782-c.1570 BCE). During this era rule in Egypt was divided between the foreign kings of the Hyksos in Lower Egypt at Avaris, Egyptian rule from Thebes in Upper Egypt, and control of the southern reaches of Upper Egypt by the Nubians. Egypt was united, and the Hyksos and Nubians driven beyond the borders, by Ahmose of Thebes (c. 1570-1544 BCE) who inaugurated the New Kingdom. The memory of the Hyksos "invasion" remained fresh in the minds of the Egyptians and was reflected in the political policies and the literature of the period.

The early pharaohs of the New Kingdom dedicated themselves to preventing any kind of incursion like that of the Hyksos and so embarked on a series of military campaigns to expand Egypt's borders this resulted in the Age of Empire for Egypt which was reflected in a broader scope of content in the literature and art. Monumental inscriptions of the gods of Egypt and their enduring support for the pharaoh became a vehicle for expressing the country's superiority over its neighbors, stories and poems reflected a greater knowledge of the world beyond Egypt's borders, and the old theme of order vs. chaos was re-imagined as a divine struggle. These larger themes were emphasized over the pessimistic and complex views of the Middle Kingdom. The Hyksos and the Second Intermediate Period did the same for New Kingdom art and literature that the First Intermediate Period had for the Middle Kingdom it made the works richer and more complex in plot, style, and characterization. Rosalie David writes:

New Kingdom literature, developed in a period when Egypt had founded an empire, displays a more cosmopolitan approach. This is expressed in texts that seek to promote the great state god, Amun-Ra, as a universal creator and in the inscriptions carved on temple walls and elsewhere that relate the king's military victories in Nubia and Syria. (210)

This is true only of the monumental inscriptions and hymns, however. The inscriptions are religious in nature and focus on the gods, usually either on Amun or Osiris and Isis, the gods of the two most popular religious cults of the time. Stories and poems, however, continued to deal for the most part with the conflicts people faced in their lives such as dealing with injustice, an unfaithful spouse, and trying to live one's life fully in the face of death. These same themes had been touched on or fully dealt with during the Middle Kingdom but the New Kingdom texts show an awareness of other cultures, other values, outside of the Egyptian paradigm.

Middle Kingdom literature was now considered "classical" and studied by students learning to be scribes. An interesting aspect of New Kingdom literature is its emphasis on the importance of the scribal tradition. Scribes had always been considered an important aspect of Egyptian daily life and the popularity of The Satire of the Trades makes clear how readers in the Middle Kingdom recognized this. In the New Kingdom, however, in the works extant in the Papyrus Lansing dan juga Papyrus Chester Beatty IV, a scribe is not simply a respected profession but one who is almost god-like in the ability to express concepts in words, to create something out of nothing, and so become immortal through their work. Lichtheim comments on the Papyrus Chester Beatty IV:

Papyrus Chester Beatty IV is a typical scribal miscellany. The recto contains religious hymns the verso consists of several short pieces relating to the scribal profession. Among these, one piece is of uncommon interest. It is a praise of the writer's profession which goes beyond the usual cliches and propounds the remarkable idea that the only immortality man can achieve is the fame of his name transmitted by his books. Man becomes dust only the written word endures. (New Kingdom, 167)

The concept of the sacred nature of words had a long history in Egypt. The written word was thought to have been given to humanity by the god of wisdom and knowledge, Thoth. Worship of Thoth can be dated to the late Pre-Dynastic Period (c. 6000-c. 3150 BCE) when Egyptians first began to discover writing. During the 2nd Dynasty of the Early Dynastic Period, Thoth received a consort: his sometimes-wife/sometimes-daughter Seshat. Seshat was the goddess of all the different forms of writing, patroness of libraries and librarians, who was aware of what was written on earth and kept a copy of the scribe's work in the celestial library of the gods.

Seshat ("the female scribe"), as part of her responsibilities, also presided over accounting, record-keeping, census-taking, and measurements in the creation of sacred buildings and monuments. She was regularly invoked as part of the ceremony known as "the stretching of the cord" in which the king would measure out the ground on which a temple was built. In this capacity she was known as Mistress of Builders who measured the land and lay the foundation of temples. Egyptologist Richard H. Wilkinson writes, "she appears to have had no temple of her own, but by virtue of her role in the foundation ceremony, she was part of every temple building" (167). Her involvement in a temple complex did not end with its inception, however, as she continued to inhabit a part of the temple known as the House of Life. Rosalie David explains the function of this part of the temple:

The House of Life appears to have been an area of the temple that acted as a library, scriptorium, and higher teaching institution, where the sacred writings were produced and stored and where instruction was given. Medical and magical texts as well as religious books were probably compiled and copied there. Sometimes this institution may have been situated within the temple itself, but elsewhere it was probably located in one of the buildings within the temple precinct. Very little is known of its administration or organization but it is possible that every sizable town had one. They are known to have existed at Tell el-Amarna, Edfu, and Abydos. (203)

The name of the institution reflects the value Egyptians placed on the written word. The House of Life - a school, library, publishing house, distributor, and writer's workshop combined - was presided over by Seshat who made sure to keep copies of all that was produced there in her own celestial library.

During the New Kingdom these works were largely hymns, prayers, instructions in wisdom, praise songs, love poems, and stories. The Egyptian love poem of the New Kingdom is remarkably similar on many levels to the biblical Song of Solomon and the much later compositions of the troubadors of 12th century CE France in their evocation of a beloved who is beyond compare and worthy of all devotion and sacrifice. The same sentiments, and often imagery, used in these New Kingdom love poems are still recognizable in the lyrics of popular music in the present day.

The narrative structure of the prose work of the time, and sometimes even plot elements, will also be recognized in later works. In the story of Truth and Falsehood (juga dikenali sebagai The Blinding of Truth by Falsehood), a good and noble prince (Truth) is blinded by his evil brother (Falsehood) who then casts him out of the estate and assumes his role. Truth is befriended by a woman who falls in love with him and they have a son who, when he discovers the noble identity of his father, avenges him and takes back his birthright from the usurper. This plot line has been used, with modifications, in many stories since. The basic plot of any adventure tale is utilized in the story known as The Report of Wenamun which is a story about an official sent on a simple mission to procure wood for a building project. In the course of what was supposed to be a short and easy trip, Wenamun encounters numerous obstacles he needs to overcome to reach his goal and return home.

Two of the best known tales are The Prince Who Was Threatened by Three Fates (juga dikenali sebagai The Doomed Prince) dan The Two Brothers (juga dikenali sebagai The Fate of an Unfaithful Wife). The Doomed Prince has all the elements of later European fairy tales and shares an interesting similarity with the story of the awakening of the Buddha: a son is born to a noble couple and the Seven Hathors (who decree one's fate at birth) arrive to tell the king and queen their son will die by a crocodile, a snake, or a dog. His father, wishing to keep him safe, builds a stone house in the desert and keeps him there away from the world. The prince grows up in the isolation of this perfectly safe environment until, one day, he climbs to the roof of his home and sees the world outside of his artificial environment. He tells his father he must leave to meet his fate, whatever it may be. On his journeys he finds a princess in a high castle with many suitors surrounding the tower trying to accomplish the feat of jumping high enough to catch the window's edge and kiss her. The prince accomplishes this, beating out the others, and then has to endure a trial to win the father's consent. He marries the princess and later meets all three of his fates - the crocodile, snake, and dog - and defeats them all. The end of the manuscript is missing but it is assumed, based on the narrative structure, that the conclusion would be the couple living happily ever after.

The Two Brothers tells the story of the divine siblings Anubis and Bata who lived together with Anubis' wife. The wife falls in love with the younger brother, Bata, and tries to seduce him one day when he returns to the house from the fields. Bata refuses her, promising he will never speak of the incident to his brother, and leaves. When Anubis returns home he finds his wife distraught and she, fearing that Bata will not keep his word, tells her husband that Bata tried to seduce her. Anubis plans to kill Bata but the younger brother is warned by the gods and escapes. Anubis learns the truth about his unfaithful wife - who goes on to cause more problems for them both - and must do penance before the brothers are united and the wife is punished.

From this same period comes the text known as The Contendings of Horus and Set, although the actual story is no doubt older. This tale is a divine version of the Middle Kingdom order vs. chaos motif in which Horus (champion of order) defeats his uncle Set (symbolizing chaos) to avenge his father Osiris and restore the kingdom which Set has usurped. Horus, the prince, must avenge the murder of his father by his uncle and, to do this, must endure a number of trials to prove himself worthy of the throne. This is the basic paradigm of what scholar Joseph Campbell calls "the hero's journey" and can be seen in myths around the world and throughout history. The enduring popularity of George Lucas' Star Wars films is their adherence to the narrative form and symbolism of this type of tale.

The Contendings of Horus and Set, although likely never read by later authors, is a precursor to two of the best-loved and most popular plots in western literature: Hamlet dan Cinderella. American author Kurt Vonnegut has pointed out that both of these stories have been re-imagined with great success multiple times. The story of the disenfranchised who wins back what is rightfully theirs, sometimes at great cost, continues to resonate with audiences in the present day just as The Contendings of Horus and Set did for an ancient Egyptian audience.

Probably the best-known piece of literature from New Kingdom texts, however, is The Book of Coming Forth by Day, biasanya dikenali sebagai The Egyptian Book of the Dead. Although the concepts and spells in The Egyptian Book of the Dead originated in the Early Dynastic Period and the book took form in the Middle Kingdom, it became extremely popular in the New Kingdom and the best preserved texts we have of the work date to that time. The Egyptian Book of the Dead is a series of "spells" which are instructions for the deceased in the afterlife to help them navigate their way through various hazards and find everlasting peace in paradise. The work is not an "ancient Egyptian Bible", as some have claimed, nor is it a "magical text of spells". As the afterlife was obviously an unknown realm, The Egyptian Book of the Dead was created to provide the soul of the deceased with a kind of map to help guide and protect them in the land of the dead.

The literature of ancient Egypt would be a contender as the basis for later works but for the fact that the texts were lost and the language forgotten for centuries. The best one can argue is that the Hebrew scribes who wrote the biblical narratives may have been acquainted with some versions of these texts and later writers took plots and motifs from there but this is speculation. Different cultures come to similar conclusions, without any apparent contact, many times throughout history as best exemplified by the pyramid form of the Maya, Egyptians, and Chinese. It is possible, however, that Egyptian texts inspired or at least lent certain aspects to biblical narratives which were then borrowed by later writers in their works. It is, of course, equally possible that the story of the hero who triumphs over the forces of darkness and disorder simply resonates on a very deep level with humanity and there need be no original work later writers borrowed from.

Following the New Kingdom came the era known as the Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-525 BCE) and then the Late Period (525-323 BCE) and the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BCE) after which Egypt was annexed by Rome. Around the 4th century CE Christianity rose to prominence in Egypt and the Christian Egyptians (known as Copts) developed their own script, a kind of hybrid of demotic Egyptian and Greek, and the old texts of hieroglyphic and hieratic script were forgotten. Inscriptions on monuments and temples, and all the texts in the libraries and Houses of Life, became incomprehensible until the discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1798 CE and the breakthrough in deciphering hieroglyphics it enabled by Jean-Francois Champollion in 1824 CE. By the time Champollion unlocked the mystery of the ancient text a whole world of literature had been created without the benefit of the ancient Egyptian works and yet the plots of these forgotten stories and poems appear in texts all over the world testament to the primal and powerful nature of these themes to touch upon the most resonant aspects of the human experience.


Religion in Early Egypt

Religion in Early Egypt had a profound and deep influence on the pharoanic magic practices and in fact, both existed side by side in a peaceful coexistence for many thousands of years. In reality, the magical powers exclusively belonged to men of religion and the one who was skilled in the art, science of magic was invincible, and his or her capacity was almost boundless and eternal. The domain of Egyptian witchcraft and occult was divine and surreal a person who was an expert in the field was an immortal both by the deeds and by life.

Men of magic in Ancient Egypt used to utter or recite some important words in a systematic manner and deep intonation to heal sick people, by curing the incurable diseases, spell off the ghost residing in the body and restore the dead soul back into the physical body. They could even converse with the dead souls to provide them power to get rid of their guilt and sins to become saner bodies!

An ancient Egyptian magician or a sorcerer was proficient in many things like:

  • Enabling mortal humans to assume various others forms and their souls into weird animals and creatures
  • Converting non living things and images to become living and making them act as per magician’s wishes
  • To make powers of natures like wind, the rain, storms, hurricanes, rivers, sea, volcanoes, dangerous diseases and ultimate death, to work on behalf of a magician, and to make them wreak havoc and cause considerable trouble to all enemies
  • Uttering the most powerful word of the day “thoth”, to which everyone gave respect including godly things
  • To invoke most powerful gods to help them achieve things those are beyond normal people’s comprehension.

Ancient Egyptian religion was a wonderful mix of amazing gods, holy rituals and a fair amount of pure magic! It was surprising to see that Egyptians never differentiated between religion and magic! It id true as that well-known Egyptian writer, Clement, proudly said, “Egypt was the mother of magicians”! Ancient Egyptians also believed that the extreme power that lay behind magic and occult was heka. Old Egyptians also believed in one God who as eternal and omnipresent was unfathomable to human beings.

Neter was the name given to the unknown divine power and Neter means “god”, “divine”, “supreme”, “great”, “strength” and “renewal”

All old-world Egyptian magicians worked and performed magical rituals by identifying themselves with a particular deity or lesser god. In other words, a magician assumed the god form by attaching himself or herself with the god.Magic used quite a bit of things from the religion like utterances, holy chants and prayers. The polytheism of Egyptian religion meant that Neter himself manifested in those local and lesser deities.

Fact: The great Goddess Isis was solely responsible for the creative force of Neter, while the God Thoth was Neter’s intellectual repository and the God Horus was Neter’s strength!
Adakah kamu tahu? That another name for magician was a theurgist or “god-worker?”


Medical Texts

The medical texts of ancient Egypt were considered as effective and reliable in their time as any modern day equivalent. They were written by physicians for physicians and presented practical and magical cures and treatments. They were written on papyrus scrolls which were kept in the part of the temple known as the Per-Ankh (‘House of Life’), but copies must have been carried by individual doctors who frequently made house calls.

These texts today are all known by the names of the individuals who discovered, purchased, or donated them to the museums where they are housed. The primary texts are:

The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (c. 1800 BCE) deals with conception and pregnancy issues as well as contraception.

The London Medical Papyrus (c. 1782-1570 BCE) offers prescriptions for issues related to the eyes, skin, burns, and pregnancy.

The London Medical Papyrus (c. 1629 BCE) is among the oldest medical texts in the world / British Museum, Wikimedia Commons

The Edwin Smith Papyrus (c. 1600 BCE) is the oldest work on surgical techniques.

The Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE) treats cancer, heart disease, diabetes, birth control, and depression.

The Berlin Medical Papyrus (also known as the Brugsch Papyrus, dated to the New Kingdom, c. 1570 – c. 1069 BCE) deals with contraception, fertility, and includes the earliest known pregnancy tests.

The Hearst Medical Papyrus (dated to the New Kingdom) treats urinary tract infections and digestive problems.

The Chester Beatty Medical Papyrus, dated c. 1200 BCE, prescribes treatment for anorectal diseases (problems associated with the anus and rectum) and prescribes cannabis for cancer patients (predating the mention of cannabis in Herodotus, long thought to be the earliest mention of the drug).

The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden (c. 3rd century CE) is devoted entirely to magical spells and divination.

Each doctor had his or her own area of specialization and would consult the text corresponding to their field.


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Elegua is a powerful spirit from African initatory traditions. He is often invoked in Santeria and Voodoo variations because he can provide powerful assistance in many areas of life. He is considered.

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Kandungan

The term derives from Late Latin succuba "paramour" from succubare "to lie beneath" (sub- "under" and cubare "to lie"), [1] used to describe this female supernatural being's implied sexual position relative to the male sleeper's position. The English word succubus dates from the late 14th century. [2] [3]

As depicted in the Jewish mystical work Zohar and the medieval rabbinical text Alphabet of Ben Sira, Lilith was Adam's first wife, who later became a succubus. [4] [ sumber yang tidak boleh dipercayai ] She left Adam and refused to return to the Garden of Eden after she mated with the archangel Samael. [5] In Zoharistic Kabbalah, there were four succubi who mated with the archangel Samael. There were four original queens of the demons: Lilith, Eisheth, Agrat bat Mahlat, and Naamah. [6] A succubus may take a form of a beautiful young girl but closer inspection may reveal deformities of her body, such as bird-like claws or serpentine tails. [7] Folklore also describes the act of sexually penetrating a succubus as akin to entering a cavern of ice, and there are reports of succubi forcing men to perform cunnilingus on their vulvas, which drip with urine and other fluids. [8] In later folklore, a succubus took the form of a siren.

Throughout history, priests and rabbis, including Hanina Ben Dosa and Abaye, tried to curb the power of succubi over humans. [9] However, not all succubi were malevolent. According to Walter Map in the satire De Nugis Curialium (Trifles of Courtiers), Pope Sylvester II (999–1003) was allegedly involved with a succubus named Meridiana, who helped him achieve his high rank in the Catholic Church. Before his death, he confessed of his sins and died repentant. [10]

According to the Kabbalah and the school of Rashba, the original three queens of the demons, Agrat Bat Mahlat, Naamah, Eisheth Zenunim, and all their cohorts give birth to children, except Lilith. [11] According to other legends, the children of Lilith are called Lilin.

Mengikut Malleus Maleficarum, or "Witches' Hammer", written by Heinrich Kramer (Institoris) in 1486, succubi collect semen from men they seduce. Incubi, or male demons, then use the semen to impregnate human females, [12] thus explaining how demons could apparently sire children despite the traditional belief that they were incapable of reproduction. Children so begotten—cambions—were supposed to be those that were born deformed, or more susceptible to supernatural influences. [13] While the book does not address why a human female impregnated with the semen of a human male would not produce regular human offspring, an explanation could be that the semen is altered before being transferred to the female host. However in some lore, the child is born deformed because the conception was unnatural. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

King James in his dissertation titled Dæmonologie refutes the possibility for angelic entities to reproduce and instead offered a suggestion that a devil would carry out two methods of impregnating women: the first, to steal the sperm out of a dead man and deliver it into a woman. If a demon could extract the semen quickly, the substance could not be instantly transported to a female host, causing it to go cold. This explains his view that succubi and incubi were the same demonic entity only to be described differently based on the tormented sexes being conversed with. The second method was the idea that a dead body could be possessed by a devil, causing it to rise and have sexual relations with others. However, there is no mention of a female corpse being possessed to elicit sex from men. [14]

Buddhist canon Edit

A Buddhist scripture regarding prayer to Avalokiteśvara, the Dharani Sutra of Amoghapāśa, promises to those who pray that "you will not be attacked by demons who either suck your energy or make love to you in your dreams." [15]

Arabian culture Edit

In Arabian mythology, the qarînah ( قرينة ) is a spirit similar to the succubus, with origins possibly in ancient Egyptian religion or in the animistic beliefs of pre-Islamic Arabia. [16] A qarînah "sleeps with the person and has relations during sleep as is known by the dreams". [17] They are said to be invisible, but a person with "second sight" can see them, often in the form of a cat, dog, or other household pet. [16] "In Omdurman it is a spirit which possesses. . Only certain people are possessed and such people cannot marry or the qarina will harm them." [18] To date, many African myths claim [ rujukan diperlukan ] that men who have similar experience with such principality (succubus) in dreams (usually in form of a beautiful woman) find themselves exhausted as soon as they awaken often claiming spiritual attack upon them. Local rituals/divination are often invoked in order to appeal the god for divine protection and intervention.

In the field of medicine, there is some belief that the stories relating to encounters with succubi bear resemblance to the contemporary phenomenon of people reporting alien abductions, [19] which has been ascribed to sleep paralysis and hallucinations from their contemporary culture. Furthermore, the experience of nocturnal emissions or "wet dreams" may explain the sexual aspect of the phenomenon. [20] [21]

Throughout history, succubi have been popular characters in music, literature, film, television, and more.


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Komen:

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