Podcast Sejarah

15 September 1944

15 September 1944



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15 September 1944

Bahagian Depan Timur

Pasukan Soviet memasuki Sofia.

Pasukan Soviet mencapai kejayaan di Naraw

Finland mengisytiharkan perang terhadap Jerman

Bahagian Depan Barat

Tentera Darat AS pertama menerobos Siegfried Line

Tentera AS ke-3 membebaskan Nancy

Pasukan Britain menyeberangi Terusan Escaut pada titik kedua

Itali

Tentera ke-8 menyeberangi sungai Marano

Eropah yang dijajah

Parti Tito membebaskan Pulau Brac

Tentera Inggeris mendarat di Pulau Kythera

Pasifik

Pasukan tentera AS mendarat di Moratai

Marinir AS mendarat di Peleliu

Perang di Laut / Perang di Udara

Pengebom RAF menjatuhkan bom 12,000 lb di Tirpitz



Hari ini dalam Sejarah Perang Dunia II — 15 September 1939 & # 038 1944

80 Tahun Lalu — 15 September 1939: Aviator Charles Lindbergh membuat siaran radio pertamanya menentang penglibatan AS dalam perang.

Marinir Afrika-Amerika di Peleliu, 15 September 1944 (Arkib Negara AS)

75 Tahun Lalu — Sept. 15, 1944: US Marine 1st Division mendarat di Peleliu di Kepulauan Palau di Pasifik.

Pasukan sekutu dari Operasi Dragoon (pendaratan di selatan Perancis) dipindahkan dari Teater Operasi Mediterranean (MTO) ke Teater Operasi Eropah (ETO).


Kandungan

Morotai adalah sebuah pulau kecil yang terletak di kelompok Halmahera di Kepulauan Maluku Indonesia timur. Sebahagian besar kawasan pedalaman pulau ini lasak dan ditutup dengan hutan tebal. Dataran Doroeba di sudut barat daya Morotai adalah yang terbesar dari beberapa kawasan tanah rendah di pulau ini. Sebelum meletusnya perang, Morotai mempunyai populasi 9.000 orang dan belum dikembangkan secara komersial. Ia membentuk sebahagian dari Hindia Belanda dan diperintah oleh Belanda melalui Kesultanan Ternate. Orang Jepun menduduki Morotai pada awal tahun 1942 semasa kempen Hindia Belanda tetapi tidak mengawal atau mengembangkannya. [2]

Pada awal tahun 1944, Morotai menjadi daerah yang penting bagi tentera Jepun ketika ia mulai mengembangkan pulau Halmahera yang lebih besar di sekitarnya sebagai titik fokus untuk mempertahankan pendekatan selatan ke Filipina. [3] Pada bulan Mei 1944, Bahagian ke-32 Tentera Jepun Imperial tiba di Halmahera untuk mempertahankan pulau dan sembilan landasannya. [3] Bahagian ini mengalami kerugian besar ketika konvoi yang membawanya dari China (konvoi Take Ichi) diserang oleh kapal selam AS. [4] Dua batalion dari Rejimen Infanteri 211 Divisi ke-32 pada awalnya dikerahkan ke Morotai untuk mengembangkan landasan udara di Dataran Doroeba. Kedua-dua batalion ditarik ke Halmahera pada pertengahan bulan Juli, namun, ketika landasan udara ditinggalkan kerana masalah saliran. [5] Pemecah kod sekutu mengesan pertahanan Jepun di pertahanan lemah Halmahera dan Morotai, dan menyampaikan maklumat ini kepada kakitangan perancang yang berkaitan. [6]

Pada bulan Julai 1944, Jenderal Douglas MacArthur, komandan Kawasan Pasifik Barat Daya, memilih Morotai sebagai lokasi pangkalan udara dan kemudahan tentera laut yang diperlukan untuk menyokong pembebasan Mindanao di Filipina, yang pada waktu itu direncanakan untuk 15 November. Walaupun Morotai belum berkembang, ia lebih disukai daripada Halmahera kerana pulau yang lebih besar dan lebih baik dipertahankan dinilai terlalu sukar untuk ditangkap dan dilindungi. [7] Pendudukan Morotai ditetapkan sebagai Operasi Tradewind. Pendaratan dijadualkan berlangsung pada 15 September 1944, hari yang sama dengan pendaratan Bahagian Laut 1 di Peleliu. Jadual ini membolehkan badan utama Armada Pasifik Amerika Syarikat untuk melindungi kedua-dua operasi secara serentak dari serangan balas berpotensi Jepun. [8]

Oleh kerana terdapat sedikit tentangan di Morotai, perancang Sekutu memutuskan untuk mendarat pasukan pencerobohan dekat dengan lokasi lapangan terbang di Dataran Doroeba. Dua pantai di pantai barat daya pulau itu dipilih sebagai lokasi pendaratan yang sesuai, dan ditetapkan sebagai Pantai Merah dan Pantai Putih. Rancangan Sekutu meminta ketiga-tiga rejimen infanteri Divisi 31 untuk mendarat di pantai-pantai ini pada 15 September dan dengan pantas menuju ke daratan untuk mengamankan dataran. Oleh kerana kawasan pedalaman Morotai tidak memiliki nilai ketenteraan, Sekutu tidak berniat untuk melampaui batas yang diperlukan untuk mempertahankan lapangan terbang. [9] Perancangan untuk pembinaan lapangan terbang dan pemasangan pangkalan lain juga dilakukan sebelum pendaratan, dan lokasi tentatif untuk kemudahan ini telah dipilih pada 15 September. [10]

Pasukan lawan Edit

Pada masa pendaratan Sekutu, Morotai dibela oleh kira-kira 500 tentera Jepun. Unit utama adalah Unit Penyerangan Sementara ke-2, yang secara beransur-ansur tiba di pulau itu antara 12 dan 19 Julai 1944, untuk menggantikan batalion Bahagian ke-32 ketika mereka ditarik balik. Unit Penyerangan Sementara Kedua terdiri daripada empat syarikat dan dikendalikan oleh pegawai Jepun dan tentera Formosa. Unsur-unsur kecil beberapa infanteri lain, polis tentera dan unit sokongan juga terdapat di pulau itu. Komander Unit Serangan Sementara 2, Mejar Takenobu Kawashima, mengerahkan unit itu di sektor barat daya pulau dan menggunakan unit-unit yang lebih kecil untuk mendirikan pos pencarian dan detasmen di sekitar garis pantai Morotai. [11] Pos-pos terbesar ini berada di ujung timur laut pulau itu di Cape Sopi, yang terdiri daripada sekitar 100 orang. [12] Pasukan Jepun terlalu kecil dan tersebar luas sehingga tidak dapat melakukan pertahanan yang berkesan, jadi Bahagian ke-32 memerintahkannya untuk membina kem palsu dan menggunakan penipuan lain dalam usaha menipu sekutu untuk berfikir bahawa Morotai dipegang kuat. [5]

Pasukan Sekutu yang ditugaskan untuk Morotai melebihi jumlah pembela pulau itu lebih dari seratus kepada satu. Pasukan Petugas Tradewind ditubuhkan pada 20 Ogos di bawah arahan Mejar Jeneral Charles P. Hall dan berjumlah 40,105 tentera Tentera A.S. dan 16,915 anggota Angkatan Udara Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat (USAAF) dan anggota Angkatan Udara Diraja Australia (RAAF). Pasukan Petugas Tradewind berada di bawah komando keseluruhan Tentera Darat Keenam Amerika Syarikat elemen pertempuran utamanya adalah markas Kor XI, Bahagian Infantri ke-31 dan Pasukan Tempur Regimental ke-126 (RCT) dari Divisi Infanteri ke-32. Unit-unit ini disokong oleh jurutera dan kumpulan anti-pesawat besar. Pasukan Petugas Tradewind juga merangkumi sejumlah besar unit pembinaan dan rangkaian komunikasi lain yang berperanan untuk mengembangkan pulau ini dengan cepat menjadi pangkalan utama. Bahagian Infantri ke-6 ditetapkan sebagai pasukan simpanan tetapi tetap berada di daratan New Guinea. [13] Jeneral MacArthur menyertai pasukan USS Nashville tetapi tidak dalam arahan langsung operasi. [14]

Pasukan pendaratan disokong oleh tentera udara dan tentera laut yang kuat. Tentera Udara Kelima Amerika Syarikat memberikan sokongan langsung sementara Angkatan Udara Ketiga Belas dan Kumpulan Operasi No. 10 RAAF melakukan misi strategik di NEI dan Filipina. [15] Pasukan tentera laut ditunjuk sebagai Task Force 77 dan disusun menjadi dua kumpulan serangan, empat kumpulan penguat, satu kumpulan sokongan dan satu kumpulan pengawal pengiring. Kumpulan serangan dan penguat bertanggungjawab untuk mengangkut pasukan penyerang dan unit sokongan seterusnya dan terdiri daripada dua puluh empat kapal pemusnah, empat kapal frigat, dua LSI Australia, lima APD, satu LSD, dua puluh empat LCI, empat puluh lima LST, dua puluh LCT dan sebelas LCI bersenjatakan roket. Kumpulan sokongan terdiri daripada dua kapal penjelajah berat Australia, tiga kapal penjelajah ringan AS dan lapan kapal perang AS dan dua kapal perang Australia. Kumpulan pengawal pengiring terdiri daripada enam pengangkut pengawal dan sepuluh pengawal pemusnah dan menyediakan rondaan udara anti-kapal selam dan pertempuran. Pasukan Petugas 38.4 dengan dua kapal pengangkut armada, dua kapal induk ringan, satu kapal penjelajah berat, satu kapal penjelajah ringan dan tiga belas kapal pemusnah juga tersedia untuk menyokong Pasukan Petugas 77 jika diperlukan. [16]

Serangan awal Edit

Serangan udara awal untuk menekan tentera udara Jepun di sekitar Morotai bermula pada bulan Ogos 1944. Pada masa ini, perkhidmatan perisik Sekutu menganggarkan bahawa terdapat 582 pesawat Jepun dalam jarak 400 batu (640 km) dari Morotai, 400 daripadanya berada di kawasan objektif. Tentera udara Bersekutu melakukan serangan hebat di lapangan terbang di Halmaheras, Celebes, Ceram, Ambon, Boeroe dan kawasan lain. Pesawat yang dibawa kapal induk Tentera Laut AS juga menyerang unit udara Jepun yang berpusat di Mindanao dan menyerang lebih jauh ke atas Halmahera dan Celebes. Serangan ini berjaya, dan pada 14 September dianggarkan hanya 60 pesawat yang tinggal di sekitar Morotai. [17]

Untuk menjaga kejutan, Sekutu tidak mengebom Morotai sebelum pencerobohan dan hanya melakukan beberapa penerbangan pengintaian fotografi di pulau itu. [18] Rondaan Biro Perisikan Sekutu telah didarat di pulau itu pada bulan Juni tetapi maklumat yang dikumpulkannya tidak disampaikan kepada Tentera Darat Keenam. Walaupun Pasukan Petugas Tradewind memiliki sedikit informasi tentang pantai pencerobohan atau posisi Jepun, Tentera Keenam tidak mendarat rondaan pengintaiannya sendiri di Morotai, kerana dikhuatiri ini dapat memberi amaran kepada para pembela pulau itu bahawa serangan akan segera terjadi. [19]

Pasukan Petugas Tradewind memasuki konvoi pencerobohan di beberapa pangkalan di barat laut New Guinea, dan melakukan latihan pendaratan di Aitape dan Pulau Wakde pada awal September. Konvoi berkumpul di Teluk Maffin pada 11 September dan berangkat ke Morotai pada keesokan harinya. Pelayarannya tidak henti-henti, dan konvoi tiba di Morotai pada pagi 15 September tanpa dapat dikesan oleh pasukan Jepun. [20]

Pertempuran Morotai bermula pada pukul 6:30 pagi 15 September. Kapal perang sekutu melakukan pengeboman selama dua jam di kawasan pendaratan untuk menekan mana-mana tentera Jepun di sana. Pengeboman ini membakar beberapa kampung, tetapi menyebabkan beberapa orang Jepun terkorban kerana mereka tidak mempunyai banyak tentera di kawasan itu. [21]

Gelombang pertama tentera Amerika mendarat di Morotai pada pukul 8:30 dan tidak menghadapi tentangan. RCT ke-155 dan ke-167 mendarat di Pantai Merah dan RCT ke-124 di Pantai Putih. Setelah di darat, pasukan penyerang berkumpul ke unit taktik mereka dan maju dengan cepat ke pedalaman. Pada penghujung hari Bahagian ke-31 telah memperoleh semua objektif D-Day dan mengadakan perimeter 2,000 ela (1.800 m) ke daratan. Terdapat sedikit pertempuran dan korban jiwa sangat rendah di kedua-dua belah pihak. [22] Unit Penyerang Sementara Jepun yang ke-2 tidak dapat memberikan tentangan terhadap pasukan Sekutu yang luar biasa, dan menarik diri dalam keadaan baik. Pesawat Bahagian Udara ke-7 Jepun yang berpusat di Ceram dan Celebes memulakan serangkaian serangan udara setiap malam di Morotai pada 15 September, tetapi ini tidak banyak memberi kesan kepada pasukan Sekutu. [23]

Kekurangan tentangan bernasib baik bagi Sekutu kerana keadaan pantai yang tidak dijangka. [24] Walaupun kecerdasan pra-invasi yang terhad menunjukkan bahawa pantai Merah dan Putih mampu menyokong pendaratan amfibi, mereka sebenarnya sangat tidak sesuai untuk tujuan ini. Kedua-dua pantai berlumpur dan sukar untuk didaratkan oleh kapal pendaratan kerana tebing berbatu dan terumbu karang. Akibatnya, tentera dan peralatan terpaksa didarat melalui selancar dalam. Ini melambatkan operasi dan menyebabkan sejumlah besar peralatan rosak. [25] Seperti kebanyakan askarnya, Jeneral MacArthur terpaksa mengharungi ombak setinggi dada ketika dia datang ke darat. [26] Pada pagi hari D-Day pihak tinjauan menentukan bahawa pantai di pantai selatan Morotai jauh lebih sesuai untuk LST. Pantai ini, yang dinamakan Pantai Biru, menjadi tempat pendaratan Sekutu utama dari 16 September. [27]

Bahagian ke-31 meneruskan kemajuan di kawasan pedalaman pada 16 September. Bahagian itu menghadapi sedikit tentangan dan berjaya mendapatkan garis perimeter yang dirancang di sekitar kawasan lapangan terbang pada petang itu. [28] Dari 17 September, Rejimen Infantri ke-126 mendarat di beberapa titik di pesisir Morotai dan pulau-pulau lepas pantai untuk mendirikan stesen radar dan pos pemerhatian. Operasi ini umumnya tidak bertentangan, walaupun rondaan yang mendarat di Morotai utara membuat banyak hubungan dengan pihak-pihak kecil Jepun. [28] Unit Penyerangan Sementara 2 berusaha menyusup ke perimeter Sekutu pada malam 18 September tetapi tidak berjaya. [23]

Detasemen dari Pentadbiran Awam Hindia Belanda (NICA) bertanggungjawab untuk urusan sivil di Morotai. Detasemen ini berlaku di darat pada 15 September, dan mewujudkan semula kedaulatan Belanda terhadap penduduk awam Morotai. Ramai orang awam tempatan kemudiannya memberi NICA kepandaian mengenai pelupusan Jepun di Morotai dan Halmahera dan yang lain bertindak sebagai panduan untuk rondaan Amerika. [29]

Pada 20 September, Bahagian 31 maju ke pedalaman untuk mendapatkan perimeter yang diperluas. Ini diperlukan untuk memberi ruang untuk bivouacs tambahan dan pemasangan bekalan setelah ibu pejabat Jeneral MacArthur memutuskan untuk memperluas pembinaan lapangan terbang di pulau itu. Pendahuluan itu menemui sedikit rintangan dan diselesaikan dalam satu hari. [28] Pada 22 September, pasukan Jepun menyerang markas Batalion 1, Rejimen Infantri ke-167 tetapi dengan mudah ditolak. Pada keesokan harinya, sebuah syarikat dari Rejimen Infantri ke-126 tidak berjaya menyerang sebuah unit kubu Jepun yang berdekatan dengan Wajaboeta di pantai barat pulau itu. Yang ke-126 meneruskan serangannya pada 24 September dan mengamankan kedudukan. Pasukan AS terus melakukan rondaan intensif hingga 4 Oktober ketika pulau itu dinyatakan aman. [30] Korban A.S. semasa pendudukan awal Morotai berjumlah 30 mati, 85 cedera, dan seorang hilang. Jumlah korban Jepun jauh lebih tinggi, berjumlah lebih 300 orang mati dan 13 orang ditangkap. [31]

Pasukan darat Amerika tidak memerlukan sokongan udara berat yang tersedia untuk mereka, dan kumpulan pengangkut cepat dibebaskan untuk tugas lain pada 17 September. Enam pengangkut pengawal tetap menyokong, tetapi pesawat mereka tidak banyak bertindak. Empat dari CVE dibebaskan pada 25 September, dan dua selebihnya dikeluarkan pada 4 Oktober. [32] Pemusnah pengawal USS Shelton tenggelam oleh kapal selam Jepun Ro-41 pada 3 Oktober sambil mengawal kumpulan CVE. [33] [34] Beberapa jam kemudian seorang TBF Avenger dari syarikat pengawal USS Di pertengahan jalan menyerang USS Rumpai Laut 20 batu (32 km) utara dari mana Shelton telah torpedoed, dengan kepercayaan keliru bahawa dia adalah kapal selam yang bertanggungjawab. Setelah menjatuhkan dua bom, TBF Avenger memandu USS Richard M. Rowell ke kawasan itu dan pengawal pemusnah tenggelam Rumpai Laut setelah lima percubaan, membunuh semua kru kapal selam. Ia kemudian ditentukan bahawa sementara Rumpai Laut dalam perjalanan di "lorong keselamatan kapal selam" yang ditentukan, juruterbang CVE belum diberi penjelasan mengenai keberadaan dan lokasi lorong tersebut, dan kedudukan kapal selam itu belum diberikan kepada USS Richard M. Rowell. [35]

Tentera Laut A.S. menubuhkan pangkalan kapal PT di Morotai pada 16 September ketika tender USS Mobjack dan USS Teluk Tiram tiba dengan skuad perahu motor torpedo 9, 10, 18 dan 33 dan 41 kapal mereka. Misi utama kapal PT adalah untuk mencegah orang Jepun memindahkan tentera dari Halmahera ke Morotai dengan mewujudkan sekatan selat sepanjang 12 batu (19 km) di antara kedua pulau tersebut. [36]

Unsur-unsur Divisi ke-31 keluar dari Morotai pada bulan November untuk menawan beberapa pulau di luar New Guinea dari mana pos-pos Jepun dapat memerhatikan pergerakan Sekutu. Pada 15 November 1,200 tentera dari Batalion ke-2, Rejimen Infanteri ke-167 dan unit-unit yang bersangkutan didarat di Pulau Pegun di kepulauan Mapia pada keesokan harinya, Pulau Bras diserang. Kepulauan Mapia dinyatakan aman pada 18 November setelah perlawanan dari 172 pasukan Jepun dari Bahagian Infantri ke-36 diatasi. Pada 19 November, pasukan 400 tentera AS yang dibina di sekitar Syarikat F, Rejimen Infantri ke-124 menduduki Kepulauan Asia yang tidak dipertahankan. [37] Ini adalah operasi ofensif pertama yang diawasi oleh Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat yang kelapan, dan panglima tentera laut untuk kedua-dua operasi itu adalah Kapten Lord Ashbourne dari Tentera Laut Diraja yang menaiki HMS Ariadne. Stesen Radar dan LORAN kemudiannya didirikan di pulau-pulau. [38]

Perkembangan Morotai yang pesat menjadi pangkalan tentera utama adalah tujuan utama operasi. Rancangan pra-pencerobohan memerlukan pembinaan tiga landasan udara besar dalam masa empat puluh lima hari dari 15 September, dengan yang pertama akan beroperasi sejurus selepas pendaratan. Rancangan itu juga merangkumi kemudahan tempat tinggal dan bekalan untuk 60,000 anggota tentera udara dan tentera, sebuah rumah sakit 1.900 tempat tidur, pemasangan dan pengendalian bahan bakar pukal dan kemudahan dok kapal. [39] Untuk membina kemudahan ini, Pasukan Petugas Tradewind merangkumi 7,000 tentera perkhidmatan jurutera, di mana 84 peratus adalah Amerika dan selebihnya Australia. [10]

Kerja bermula di kemudahan asas sebelum Morotai dijamin. Pihak tinjauan memulakan tinjauan transit di lokasi lapangan terbang pada 16 September, yang menentukan bahawa penyelarasan yang dirancang mereka tidak dapat dilaksanakan. [10] Rencana untuk menyelesaikan lapangan terbang Jepun juga ditinggalkan, kerana akan mengganggu lapangan terbang yang lebih besar untuk dibangun di sebelah timur. Ia sebaliknya dibersihkan dan digunakan sebagai "jalur kemalangan" kecemasan. Kerja di landasan udara baru yang pertama (dipanggil Wama Drome) bermula pada 23 September setelah laman web ini dibersihkan. Menjelang 4 Oktober landasan Wama Drome dapat beroperasi sejauh 5,000 kaki (1,500 m) dan menyokong serangan pengebom berat di Balikpapan di Borneo. Pembinaan Pitu Drome yang lebih besar, yang mempunyai dua landasan selari dengan Wama Drome, bermula pada akhir September dan pada 17 Oktober ia mempunyai landasan landasan seluas 7,000 kaki (2,100 m). [40] Kerja pembinaan dipercepat dari 18 Oktober setelah Armada Ketiga Amerika Syarikat ditarik dari memberikan sokongan langsung kepada pendaratan yang dirancang di Leyte. [41] Ketika dua landasan udara selesai pada bulan November, mereka mempunyai tiga landasan pacu besar dan landasan keras untuk 253 pesawat, termasuk 174 pengebom berat. [42] Walaupun pembinaan pangkalan udara memerlukan pemusnahan kampung, jurutera lapangan terbang Amerika dan Australia dibantu dari 1 Oktober oleh kira-kira 350 pekerja tempatan yang direkrut oleh detasmen NICA. [29]

Kemudahan asas lain didirikan bersamaan dengan pembinaan landasan udara. Kerja-kerja kemudahan penyimpanan bahan bakar bermula sejurus selepas pendaratan, dan yang pertama siap pada 20 September. Sebuah jeti untuk kapal tangki minyak dan ladang tangki yang lebih besar siap dibina pada awal Oktober, dan kemudahan penyimpanan terus diperluas hingga November, ketika kapasitas bahan bakar 129.000 tong (20.500 m 3) tersedia. Beberapa dermaga yang mampu menampung kapal-kapal kebebasan dibina di pantai barat Morotai, dan yang pertama siap pada 8 Oktober. Di samping itu, dua puluh pendaratan LST dibina di Pantai Biru untuk memudahkan pemuatan dan pemunggahan kapal-kapal ini. Projek pembinaan utama lain termasuk rangkaian jalan raya yang luas, pemasangan tentera laut, pergudangan seluas 28.000 kaki persegi (2.600 m 2), dan membersihkan tanah untuk pembuangan sampah dan bivouac. Sebuah hospital 1,000 tempat tidur juga dibina setelah rancangan asal untuk kemudahan 1,900 tempat tidur disemak semula. Kesukaran utama yang dihadapi adalah mengatasi lumpur yang disebabkan oleh hujan lebat dan mendapat bekalan air yang mencukupi. [43]

Revisi terhadap rancangan Sekutu bermaksud bahawa Morotai memainkan peranan yang jauh lebih besar dalam pembebasan Filipina daripada yang awalnya dibayangkan. Pencerobohan Mindanao ditangguhkan pada bulan September 1944 demi pendaratan di Leyte di tengah Filipina pada akhir Oktober. Pangkalan udara di Morotai adalah jalur udara Bersekutu yang paling dekat dengan Leyte, dan pejuang dan pengebom berdasarkan pulau itu menyerang sasaran di selatan Filipina dan NEI untuk menyokong pendaratan di Leyte pada 25 Oktober. [44] Setelah lapangan terbang selesai di Leyte, Morotai juga digunakan sebagai titik awal untuk pejuang dan pengebom yang pergi ke Filipina. [45]

Respons Jepun Edit

Tentera Jepun menyedari bahawa pasukannya di Filipina akan terancam sekiranya Sekutu mengembangkan lapangan terbang di Morotai. Dalam usaha untuk mengganggu program pembinaan lapangan terbang, komandan Tentera Jepun di Halmahera menghantar sejumlah besar bala bantuan ke Morotai antara akhir September dan November. Pasukan ini termasuk badan utama Rejimen Infantri ke-211, Batalion ke-3 Rejimen Infanteri ke-210 dan tiga detasmen penyerbuan. [23] Komandan Rejimen Infantri ke-211, Kolonel Kisou Ouchi, mengambil alih komando pasukan Jepun di Morotai pada 12 Oktober. [46] Pemecah cod sekutu sering dapat memberi amaran kepada pasukan di Morotai mengenai cubaan menjalankan sekatan, [6] dan kapal PT menghancurkan sebilangan besar tongkang yang digunakan orang Jepun untuk mengangkut tentera dari Halmahera. Bagaimanapun, Sekutu tidak dapat menghentikan penumpukan Jepun sepenuhnya. [47]

Serangan balas Jepun terhadap Morotai tidak berjaya. Pasukan yang dibawa ke pulau itu menderita penyakit yang tinggi dan terbukti mustahil untuk membawa bekalan yang mencukupi melalui sekatan udara dan tentera laut Sekutu. Akibatnya, sementara Unit Penyerangan Sementara ke-2 menyerang perimeter AS pada beberapa kesempatan, bala bantuan tidak dapat melakukan serangan yang lebih besar dan tidak menghalangi kegiatan pembinaan lapangan terbang Sekutu. Pasukan Jepun kemudian menarik diri ke Morotai tengah di mana banyak tentera mati akibat penyakit atau kelaparan. [48] ​​Tongkang bekalan Jepun terakhir dari Halmahera sampai di Morotai pada 12 Mei 1945. [49]

Pada akhir Disember 1944, Rejimen Infantri ke-136 Bahagian Infanteri AS dibawa ke Morotai dari New Guinea untuk menyerang Rejimen Infantri Jepun ke-211 di sebelah barat pulau itu. Setelah mendarat di pantai barat pulau itu, rejimen Amerika bergerak ke wilayah yang dipegang oleh Jepun pada 26 Disember dan maju di kedudukan Jepun dari arah barat daya dan utara. Yang ke-136 disokong oleh batalion Rejimen Infantri ke-130 yang memajukan daratan dari Dataran Doroeba, unit artileri yang ditempatkan di pulau-pulau di lepas pantai Morotai dan seratus pelabuhan awam. [50] Batalion ke-3 Rejimen Infantri ke-167 turut serta dalam operasi ini dan melakukan perarakan yang sukar dari pantai selatan Morotai ke pedalaman untuk mengelakkan orang Jepun tersebar ke dalam kumpulan kecil di pergunungan pulau itu. [51]

Pada awal Januari 1945, pasukan Amerika menetapkan bahawa dua batalion Rejimen 211 Jepun berada di Bukit 40, kira-kira empat batu (6 km) utara perimeter Sekutu. Serangan pada kedudukan ini bermula pada 3 Januari 1945 ketika batalion 1 dan 2 Rejimen Infantri ke-136 maju dari barat daya dan menghadapi tentangan kuat. Rejimen menggunakan sejumlah besar peluru dalam serangan ini, dan bekalan udara diperlukan untuk mengisi semula persediaannya. Kedua-dua batalion Amerika kembali menyerang pada hari berikutnya dengan sokongan pengeboman artileri yang sangat berkesan, dan mencapai kedudukan utama Jepun pada sebelah petang. Dalam tempoh ini, Batalion ke-3 Rejimen ke-136 maju di Bukit 40 dari utara, dan menghancurkan Batalion ke-3 Rejimen ke-211 dalam satu siri pertempuran. Batalion Jepun ini telah ditempatkan di pantai untuk menerima bekalan dari Halmahera dan melakukan beberapa serangan yang tidak berjaya di tepi pantai batalion Amerika setelah mendarat pada bulan Disember. [52]

Rejimen Infantri ke-136 menyelesaikan serangannya di Bukit 40 pada 5 Januari. Batalion 1 dan 2 Rejimen maju dari barat dan barat daya dan Batalion ke-3 dari utara, menghadapi sedikit perlawanan. Batalion 1 dan 2 terus ke utara untuk mengejar sisa-sisa Jepun hingga 14 Januari, ketika itu rejim mengaku telah membunuh 870 tentera Jepun dan menangkap sepuluh orang dengan kehilangan 46 orang terbunuh dan 127 orang cedera dan cedera. [53] Batalion ke-3, Rejimen Infanteri ke-16 bergabung dengan 136 pada 7 Januari setelah menguasai stesen radio Jepun utama di pulau itu pada 4 Januari. [54] Pada pertengahan Januari, Rejimen ke-136 ditarik ke perimeter Sekutu di mana ia bergabung semula dengan Divisi ke-33, yang mengadakan pementasan melalui Morotai dalam perjalanan untuk pendaratan Sekutu di Luzon. [55]

Serangan udara dan Sekutu mengedit

Bahagian Udara ke-7 Jepun terus menyerang Morotai selama berbulan-bulan setelah pendaratan Bersekutu. Bahagian udara melakukan 82 serangan di Morotai yang melibatkan 179 serangan antara 15 September 1944 dan 1 Februari 1945. Pesawat yang digunakan dalam serangan ini terbang dari Ceram dan Celebes dan mendarat di lapangan terbang di Halmahera sebelum menuju ke sasaran mereka. Walaupun 54 dari serbuan tidak menyebabkan kerosakan, yang lain mengakibatkan pemusnahan empat puluh dua pesawat Bersekutu dan kerosakan pada tiga puluh tiga lagi. Korban sekutu akibat serangan udara adalah 19 terbunuh dan 99 cedera. Serbuan paling berjaya dilakukan pada malam 22 November ketika 15 pesawat Bersekutu musnah dan lapan rosak. Serangan udara Jepun biasa dihentikan pada akhir Januari 1945, walaupun serangan terakhir berlaku pada 22 Mac. Pejuang malam USAAF hanya mempunyai kejayaan yang terbatas kerana penyerang biasanya dikesan tidak lama sebelum mereka memasuki zon pertahanan senjata anti-pesawat yang dilancarkan oleh senapang ini di mana kebanyakan 26 pesawat Jepun hilang di Morotai. [56] Sejarah rasmi pasukan pejuang malam USAAF menyatakan bahawa Morotai "mungkin merupakan tugas paling sukar yang dilakukan oleh pejuang malam Amerika semasa Perang Dunia II" kerana kesukaran mengesan penyerang yang masuk. [57]

Pasukan perahu PT di Morotai diturunkan menjadi skuadron tunggal pada Februari 1945 tetapi tetap aktif hingga akhir perang. Selain melakukan rondaan di sekitar Morotai, kapal-kapal itu beroperasi di NEI timur untuk menyerang kedudukan Jepun dan menyokong pihak pengakap Australia dan Belanda. Pada bulan Mei 1945 kapal PT dan Unit Khas Z Australia menyelamatkan Sultan Ternate bersama dengan istana dan haremnya semasa operasi yang diberi nama Projek Opossum setelah dia dianiaya oleh orang Jepun. [58] [59] Pada akhir perang kapal PT telah melakukan hampir 1.300 rondaan dan memusnahkan 50 tongkang dan 150 kapal kecil di Morotai dan Halmahera. [60]

Bahagian ke-31 kekal di Morotai hingga 12 April 1945 ketika berangkat untuk mengambil bahagian dalam pembebasan Mindanao, dan digantikan oleh Bahagian Infanteri ke-93. [61] Bahagian ke-93 adalah unit Afrika Amerika yang terpisah, dan digunakan terutamanya untuk tugas keselamatan dan buruh semasa perang. [62] Setelah ditubuhkan di Morotai, bahagian ini melakukan rondaan intensif dengan tujuan untuk menghancurkan baki tentera Jepun di pulau itu. Pada masa ini kebanyakan orang Jepun di Morotai terletak di sepanjang pantai barat pulau itu, dan umumnya tinggal berdekatan dengan taman-taman awam. Bahagian ke-93 mendarat rondaan di sepanjang pantai barat dan utara Morotai dari April dan seterusnya, dan ini bertempur dengan pertempuran kecil dengan pasukan Jepun. Salah satu tujuan utama bahagian ini adalah untuk menangkap Kolonel Ouchi, dan ini dicapai oleh rondaan dari Rejimen Infantri ke-25 pada 2 Ogos. Ouchi adalah salah seorang pegawai Jepun berpangkat tertinggi yang ditangkap sebelum berakhirnya perang. Pasukan Amerika juga menggunakan siaran dan risalah propaganda untuk mendorong tentera Jepun di Morotai menyerah, dengan beberapa kejayaan. [63]

Morotai kekal sebagai pangkalan Sekutu yang penting setelah Leyte dijamin. Pesawat Tentera Udara Ketiga Belas dan Tentera Udara Taktikal Pertama Australia (sebelumnya Kumpulan Operasi No. 10 RAAF) berpusat di Morotai dan menyerang sasaran di NEI dan selatan Filipina hingga akhir perang. Dari April 1945, pulau ini juga digunakan oleh Australian I Corps untuk melancarkan Borneo Campaign. [45] Jurutera Tentera Australia memperluas kemudahan pangkalan di Morotai untuk menyokong operasi ini. Kerana terlalu ramai orang, beberapa tapak perkhemahan Australia terletak di luar kawasan Amerika. [64]

Morotai adalah lokasi sejumlah upacara penyerahan selepas penyerahan Jepun. Kira-kira 660 tentera Jepun di Morotai menyerah kepada pasukan Sekutu selepas 15 Ogos. [65] Bahagian ke-93 juga menerima penyerahan 40.000 tentera Jepun di Halmahera pada 26 Ogos setelah panglima Jepun di sana dibawa ke Morotai dengan kapal US Navy AS. [49] Pada 9 September 1945, Jeneral Australia Thomas Blamey menerima penyerahan Tentera Kedua Jepun dalam upacara yang diadakan di padang sukan I Corps di Morotai. [66] Private Teruo Nakamura, penahanan terakhir Jepun di Morotai atau di tempat lain, ditangkap oleh anggota Tentera Udara Indonesia pada 18 Disember 1974. [67] [68]

Kemudahan di Morotai terus banyak digunakan oleh Sekutu pada bulan-bulan setelah perang. Pasukan Australia yang bertanggungjawab untuk penjajahan dan pentadbiran ketenteraan NEI timur beribu pejabat di Morotai sehingga April 1946, ketika pemerintahan kolonial Belanda ditubuhkan semula. [69] [70] Pulau ini juga merupakan salah satu lokasi di mana tentera Australia dan NEI melakukan perbicaraan jenayah perang terhadap anggota Jepun. [71]


15 September 1944 - Sejarah

Marinir di Peleliu

Keputusan telah dibuat untuk menyerang Filipina. Sebelum melakukannya diputuskan bahawa penting untuk menangkap Morotai dan Peleliu untuk digunakan sebagai pangkalan awal. Pendaratan serentak dilakukan di kedua pulau pada 15 September 1944. Morotai ditangkap dengan pantas dengan hanya perlawanan Jepun yang simbolik. Peleliu adalah perkara lain. Orang Jepun telah menyimpulkan bahawa perlawanan di pantai kebanyakannya sia-sia. Sokongan tentera laut dan udara Amercian yang luar biasa dengan senang hati mengatasi sebarang percubaan untuk menghentikan tentera Amerika di pantai. Sebaliknya mereka mengembangkan barisan pertahanan yang kuat termasuk gua bawah tanah yang jauh dari pantai. Peleliu adalah tempat pertama pertahanan dikerahkan.

Pengeboman pulau itu telah dimulai pada 12 September, dan angkatan laut mempunyai waktu untuk membersihkan semua halangan di pantai pendaratan. Veteran Bahagian Laut Pertama Guadacanal ditugaskan untuk menawan pulau itu. Jepun walaupun telah mengembangkan pertahanan mendalam juga berusaha menghentikan pendaratan. 210 Marinir terbunuh dan 900 lagi cedera pada D-Day. Marinir menguasai lapangan terbang pada 15 tetapi Jepun terlalu dekat untuk menggunakannya. Angkatan Laut dipaksa menyerang setiap gua satu per satu menggunakan senjata baru, sebuah tangki pelempar api yang dipasang untuk mengalahkan Jepun. Tidak sampai malam 24-25 perlawanan terakhir dikalahkan dan komandan Jepun Kolonel Nakagawa membunuh diri.


Kandungan

Sungai Waal di Nijmegen adalah penghalang semula jadi yang penting, yang tidak dilanjutkan hingga tahun 1879 oleh Jambatan Keretapi, dan pada tahun 1936 oleh Jambatan Jalan, yang biasanya dikenal sebagai Jambatan Waal. Pada masa itu, Jambatan Waal adalah prestasi kejuruteraan yang luar biasa: ia adalah jambatan terikat terpanjang di Eropah. Pada 10 Mei 1940, semasa pencerobohan Jerman ke Belanda, Jambatan Waal telah dirobohkan oleh jurutera ketenteraan Belanda untuk mencegah kemajuan cepat Wehrmacht. [9] Semasa penjajahan Jerman, jambatan tersebut telah diperbaiki, dan dibuka semula pada tahun 1943.

Pada 22 Februari 1944, Pengeboman Bersekutu Nijmegen berlaku. Its intended target of opportunity was the railway station area (which the Germans used for weapons transport), but because the attack was carelessly executed, most bombs dropped on residential buildings in the city centre, killing about 800 civilians. [10] After the fact, the Nazis seized on the incident, and focused their propaganda on it, attempting to sway popular opinion against the Allies. Their efforts failed, however, and may have even been counterproductive. On the eve of Market Garden, most Nijmegeners were passionately awaiting Allied liberation, despite the bombardment. [11]

That liberation seemed to come soon when in late August Heeresgruppe B collapsed in Normandy and made a rushed, chaotic retreat to Germany, leaving the Allies to capture Northern France and Belgium in a matter of days. [12] Reports spread that the British had conquered Brussels and Antwerp on 3 and 4 September, and allegedly –but incorrectly– Breda as well. This gave rise to a euphoric ambiance throughout the Netherlands on the next day, later known as Mad Tuesday, when one exaggerated rumour after another fed the hope that liberation would occur in a matter of hours. However, the German forces managed to regroup, and would not be driven out of the Netherlands without a fight. British general Montgomery then designed the ambitious plan Market Garden, to surprise the Germans by the deployment of airborne forces. These would quickly seize several crucial bridges across major rivers, after which the heavy armour could advance straight through the Netherlands, along Eindhoven, Nijmegen and Arnhem, and reach the Ruhr, where a vital part of Germany's war industry was located. The airborne landings were given the codename "Market," and the ground force operation was given codename "Garden." The airborne drop would capture the bridges, and the ground forces would be the main invasion. The airborne drop would secure the bridges that were vulnerable to being blown up by the Germans and protect the invasion route. The operation may have been sufficient to finish the war before the end of 1944. [13]

The success of Market Garden depended on the timely and intact capture of a number of bridges in the southeastern Netherlands by American, British, Polish and Canadian airborne forces. These were to clear the way, Highway 69 or later nicknamed "Hell's Highway"– from Belgium to the north Nether Rhine bank for the advance of the heavily armed British XXX Corps (supported by the Guards Armoured Division), consisting of dozens of Sherman tanks and artillery. If this firepower could be moved across all major Dutch rivers in time, Germany might be defeated and the war ended before 1945.

The 82nd Airborne Division – comprising the 504th, 505th and 508th Parachute Infantry Regiments (PIRs)– commanded by Brigadier General James Gavin, was tasked with taking all of the bridges between Grave and Arnhem. The bridges in question were the Grave Bridge, four bridges spanning the Maas–Waal Canal, the Railway Bridge and, most importantly of all, the Waal Bridge near Nijmegen. The 82nd's main body and the 504th PIR would land north and south of Grave to capture the first 5 bridges, while the 505th and 508th PIRs would jump at Groesbeek to secure the vital Groesbeek Heights to block any German counterattacks from the Klever Reichswald, [14] to advance towards Nijmegen and lastly to occupy the Waal Bridge.

The Grave, Canal and Road (Waal) bridges Edit

On 17 September at 12:30, Companies D, E and F of the 504th PIR (placed under the 82nd Division for the operation) were dropped near the Grave Bridge, which was seized and defended successfully against German counterattacks after a two to three hour firefight. [15] The 1st Battalion of the 504th, led by Major Harrison, had to seize the four Canal bridges, designated as no. 7, 8, 9 and 10. [16] Bridge 8 was destroyed by the Germans at 16:15 Bridge 9 near Hatert was blown up at 20:15 as well but at 19:00, Bridge 7 near Heumen was captured by the Americans. [17] At around 02:30 on 18 September, Companies F, D and HQ occupied Grave without any resistance they waited until the arrival of the British XXX Corps, which came at 08:30. [18]

At about 18:00 on 17 September, the 1st Battalion, 508th PIR (1/508th) left its half-dug trenches at Groesbeek and advanced towards Nijmegen to take the Road Bridge. [19] Ironically, this particular initiative may have resulted from miscommunication between Gavin and Colonel Roy E. Lindquist, commander of 1/508th PIR, allowing a delayed advance on the bridge giving German troops enough time to occupy the bridge. The 82nd Division's own website states:

"Immediately after the landing, Gavin ordered Colonel Lindquist’s 508th regiment to head for the bridge along the east side of the city, avoiding the built-up area. But due to a misunderstanding, Lindquist thought he was to advance only after he secured his other objectives. As a result, he moved towards Nijmegen late in the afternoon through the built-up area which Gavin had wanted him to avoid. The surprise effect of his attack was lost. German troops (some from Gräbner's squadron) prevented the Americans from taking the bridge." [20]

March on Nijmegen Edit

17 September: battle of Keizer Karelplein Edit

Around 22:00, Companies A and B of 1/508th advanced, whilst C waited. Company A was guided by a member of the Dutch resistance for about 8 km until a crossroads at the southern end of Nijmegen, where he suddenly disappeared and was never seen again. After long waiting, the American soldiers decided to march on. Several blocks before the Keizer Karelplein, a platoon came under fire by a German machine gun, which, however, was soon taken out. On the square, a major firefight broke out: German soldiers shot at the paratroopers from the square's centre and the houses surrounding it. [21]

Both the Germans and the Americans received reinforcements (the latter first Company B 1/508th, later other companies). However, when the German 406th Infantry Division attacked the landing zones near Groesbeek in the morning of 18 September, almost the entire 1/508th was pulled back. Only Company G 3/508th stayed in town in an attempt to capture the Road Bridge anyway. They relinquished the Keizer Karelplein, and tried a more eastern route, systematically cleaning up every German guard post underway, and almost reaching the bridge. [22]

Waal Bridge not demolished Edit

The Allies' greatest fear was that the Germans would blow up the Road Bridge, which would render Market Garden a failure. Indeed, the Germans had already installed explosives on the bridge, ready to be detonated when that would be deemed necessary, but this never happened during the entire battle. Generalfeldmarschall Walter Model, commander of the German forces in the Netherlands, counted on an Allied defeat at Arnhem. This meant the bridge could still be of use for a large-scale counteroffensive, and so it was not destroyed on 17 September. [8] On 18 September, resistance member Jan van Hoof allegedly sabotaged the explosives, but this remains uncertain. However, when he was arrested and executed by the Germans the next day, he was soon heroised as the "Saviour of the Waal Bridge". An official investigation after the war concluded the Germans would have had enough time to charge the bridge with explosives once more and demolish it anyway however, they again did not do so out of strategic considerations. [23] According to another hypothesis, the Germans supposedly failed to blow up the bridge on 20 September, because the ignition system malfunctioned. [8]

18 September: German reinforcements Edit

On 18 September, Model sent reinforcements from Arnhem to keep the Waal Bridge out of the Allies' hands. Because elements of the British 1st Airborne Division were still in control of the Arnhem bridge at the time, [24] the 1. Kompagnie SS-Panzer-Pionier-Abteilung commanded by SS-Untersturmführer Werner Baumgärtel and the 2. Bataillon SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 19 under leadership of SS-Hauptsturmführer Karl-Heinz Euling crossed the Rhine at Pannerden as the 500 man strong 'Kampfgruppe Euling', used the still intact Waal Bridge and dug in at the Hunnerpark. [6] These reinforcements enabled the SS to regroup under the command of Sturmbannführer Leo Reinhold, who set up his headquarters on the north Waal bank. Fallschirmjäger Oberst Henke prepared the Railway Bridge's defences. The two roundabouts and beltway were reinforced during the next 48 hours. The Americans would have to wait for the XXX Corps' help in taking the bridges, even though according to the planning, they should have been captured before the British arrival. [22]

19 September: battle of Keizer Lodewijkplein Edit

The British and American commanders Browning (British 1st Airborne Division), Gavin (82nd Airborne Division), Horrocks (XXX Corps) and Adair (British Guards Armoured Division) held a meeting in the morning of 19 September in Molenhoek to determine their strategy. The binational force was split in two groups: the western group would take the Railway Bridge, and the eastern group the Road Bridge. The arrival of the British gave Gavin the necessary sense of security to send some of his troops from the Groesbeek Heights to join the assault.

At 16:00, the Anglo-American combat forces moved into town, resulting in a heavy firefight at the Keizer Lodewijkplein. The British tanks and armour exchanged fire with the German anti-tank cannons and infantry entrenched at the Valkhof fortress, while the American paratroopers fortified themselves in residential buildings on the square's south side. Meanwhile, heavy German artillery bombarded the attackers from Lent across the river Waal. [25]

Soon it became apparent that a mere head-on assault on the German positions might take several more days. However, the Allies did not have that much time to spare in relieving the British troops in Arnhem. It necessitated capturing the north end of both bridges to isolate the German forces on the south bank. To accomplish this, infantry would have to cross the river under fire. [26] The 3rd Battalion, 504th PIR crossed the Heumen bridge in the evening of 19 September, and set up camp in the Jonkerbos at 21:15. Brigadier General Gavin ordered Captain Julian Cook to find boats to cross the Waal. Initially, Cook had no idea where to get them. Eventually, canvas boats had to be transported from Belgium, delaying the Waal crossing by a day. [27] Originally, these would be 32 boats, but underway a truck carrying six boats was destroyed, and so only 26 reached their destination. [28]

20 September: battle of Nijmegen centre Edit

To make the river crossing a success, a renewed attack on the bridge's south sides was needed to divert the enemy's attention and firepower. Nijmegen's city centre had to be swept clean systematically first, block by block. This operation began in the morning of 20 September at 08:30, succeeding unexpectedly quickly. The occupying force was easily pushed back, as long as it could delay the Allies. Much of the combat took place on rooftops, where parachutists rapidly hopped from one rooftop to the next. Only in the Kronenburgerpark, where the elite SS troops of Kampfgruppe Henke had a clear field of fire, did the advance go slowly. Meanwhile, the II. Fallschirmjäger Corps of General Eugen Meindl charged the U.S. formations at Groesbeek and Mook, but failed to force a breakthrough. [29]

20 September 15:00 : Waal Crossing Edit

The planned crossing at 8:00 had to be delayed time and again because of logistical problems: the supply of canvas boats by truck from Belgium was difficult, since Hell's Highway was narrow, and constantly blocked by burnt-out vehicles. [30]

The crossing finally took place at 15:00, about two kilometres downstream from the Waal Bridge, near the old Gelderland Power Plant. [6] Two British Spitfires were to provide air support, but flak shot one down, after which the other returned to England. [3] The men of the 3/504th were fired on by German tanks, artillery and small arms, suffering heavy losses (48 paratroopers were killed with several dozens more were wounded). Some boats capsized or sank during the crossing.

Despite the losses, at least 16 boats survived the initial crossing. A field telephone line was laid on the riverbed for communication across the river. [31]

In several waves, most of the assault force from 3/504th succeeded in crossing the river.

By the late afternoon, 3/504th had taken the northern end of the railway bridge, and began preparations for a German counterattack. Instead, however, at dusk about 200 to 300 German soldiers approached the Americans to surrender. Around the same time, the Waal Bridge's northern end was seized by another group after heavy fighting. The 1st Battalion then relieved the 3rd to guard the railway bridge. [32]

Time was ticking away for the British tanks and artillery on the south bank of the Waal, as their munitions were running low. This and unforeseen delays in supply logistics presented a long-term problem, because of the munitions required by XXX Corps to complete its advance to the Rhine. [33]

In the battle for the Waal Bridge in the Hunnerpark and on the Keizer Lodewijkplein, over 300 of Kampfgruppe Euling's 500 soldiers lost their lives, 60 were taken prisoners, and the rest were able to escape. [6]

March halted Edit

Around the same time the Nijmegen bridges were captured, the British paratroopers under John Frost had to surrender the Arnhem Bridge to the Germans. A rapid advance from Nijmegen to Arnhem to retake the bridge, was blocked by a combination of factors, including sunset, unfamiliarity with the terrain ahead (the Betuwe), German reinforcements near Ressen coming from Arnhem (3 Tiger tanks and 2 infantry companies), ongoing firefights and chaos in Nijmegen, and continuous logistical problems on "Hell's Highway", due to events such as the German counterattacks near Veghel. The march of XXX Corps was delayed for another 18 hours after the Waal Bridge's conquest, [34] but eventually it was so worn out after 5 days of combat, that the offensive could not be resumed. On 21 September, a battle near Elst obstructed further progress of the XXX Corps and the Guards Armoured Division on the road to Arnhem. The 43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division played an important role on 22 September by creating a side corridor to Oosterbeek (where the British parachutists under Roy Urquhart had fortified themselves against a superior German enemy that vastly outnumbered them) via Driel (just liberated by the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade under Stanisław Sosabowski). [35] Attempts were made to still turn the Battle of Arnhem into an Allied success now that the forces were linked up, but these were thwarted on 23 September. On 24 September, the XXX Corps' generals decided in the Valburg Conference to abandon Market Garden, pull the troops out of Arnhem, and let the frontline fall back to Nijmegen. Remaining British troops tried to escape to the south, or hide in occupied territory. During Operation Berlin (25–26 September), more than 2,400 of them could be evacuated with Canadian help. [36] Operation Pegasus (22–23 October) managed to save another 100.

Nijmegen front city Edit

After the Allied withdrawal from Arnhem and the Betuwe, the frontline was again at Nijmegen, which would be bombarded regularly for the next five months. Historians wonder why Nijmegen was not evacuated right after liberation –just like Arnhem would be by the Germans on 23 September – which could have prevented hundreds of extra civilian casualties. [37] The German forces especially tried to destroy the Waal Bridge on several occasions in numerous ways, but they failed every time. The best attempt took place on 29 September, just before 17:30. A group of German Kampfschwimmer ("combat swimmers") succeeded in placing floating mines on both bridges, managing to destroy the middle section of the Railway Bridge, and blowing a hole in the road deck of the Road Bridge. However, the latter could be saved with a British bailey bridge. [8]

Political revolution Edit

On 17 September NSB burgemeester Marius van Lokhorst and the more moderate NSB locum burgemeester Harmanus Hondius were put out of office by the Allies. Hondius fled to Arnhem, whilst Van Lokhorst had already fled to Groningen around Mad Tuesday. [38] Petrus van der Velden was installed as the new burgemeester on 19 September. This aroused a lot of criticism from the Nijmegeners, because during his previous tenure as burgemeester (1 May 1942 – 24 February 1943) he had complied more with the commands of the German occupiers than his predecessor. On 16 October 1944, he was succeeded by Charles Hustinx, who would remain burgemeester of Nijmegen until 1 January 1968.

The Supreme Court of the Netherlands, which the Germans temporarily moved from The Hague to Nijmegen in 1943, was partially purged after the liberation. Justice Minister Gerrit Jan van Heuven Goedhart, who still resided in London, ordered the dismissal of all pro-Nazi judges appointed by the Germans, but also the temporary suspension of all other judges of the Supreme Court, including those who had already been appointed before the war, which was unconstitutional. [39] Besides, although Nijmegen already lay in liberated territory, most judges who were fired by the Zuivering-Decreet were still in occupied areas, leading to a complex legal situation. [40]

Historiography and memory Edit

"I have no idea what Nijmegen used to look like there was probably quite a sweet old part to the city, judging from some of the ruins (. ) but due to uninterrupted shelling for a month or more the place looks now as if it had been abandoned years ago, following an earthquake and a flood. Today Nijmegen is a town where people sleep in cellars and walk with care on the streets, listening hard for incoming shells."
Martha Gellhorn, October 1944 [41]

During the Battle of Nijmegen, there were only two reporters with the 82nd Airborne Division at hotel Sionshof, and they were both busy covering the actions on the Groesbeek Heights. Therefore, contemporary British and American press did not pay much attention to what was happening in Nijmegen, which had to be reconstructed from other sources later. [42]

Historian Joost Rosendaal found out that the Bombing of Nijmegen of 22 February 1944 has been registered in collective memory much more clearly than the liberation and the five months as a front line city, even though these caused roughly the same number of casualties. The city suffered about 7% (over two thousand) of all war deaths in the Netherlands, which is far out of proportion. Moreover, many of the fallen were not commemorated officially for many years, because they were 'pointless' civilian casualties the nationalistic commemorations preferred to give attention to 'heroic sacrifices' such as soldiers and resistance members who 'died for the fatherland'. [37]

In the course of the war, 10,000 Nijmegeners were wounded, 5,500 of whom were permanently disabled. 5,000 houses (nearly a quarter) were destroyed, and another 13,000 homes were more or less heavily damaged. With 12,000 homeless people and another 3,000 evacuees from the surrounding areas, there was an extreme post-war housing crisis. [9]


Today in World War II History—September 15, 1939 & 1944

80 Years Ago—September 15, 1939: Aviator Charles Lindbergh makes his first radio broadcast opposing US involvement in the war.

African-American Marines on Peleliu, 15 September 1944 (US National Archives)

75 Years Ago—Sept. 15, 1944: US Marine 1 st Division land on Peleliu in the Palau Islands in the Pacific.

Allied forces from Operation Dragoon (landings in southern France) are transferred from the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) to the European Theater of Operations (ETO).


SejarahLink.org

On September 15, 1944, the Port of Seattle Commission votes to rename the new Seattle-Tacoma Airport “Johnson Field” in honor of Philip G. Johnson (1891-1944), Boeing’s wartime president, who died the previous day. Tacoma officials quickly block the plan and the name-change is cancelled.

Phil Johnson was a popular and energetic executive who joined Boeing in 1919 and rose to become president of the company’s United Aircraft and Transport conglomerate. When federal regulators forced UAT’s dissolution in 1934, Johnson departed for Canada where he organized and led the government's Trans-Canada Airlines. He was called back to Seattle after Pearl Harbor to lead Boeing’s war production effort. Johnson died of a sudden brain hemorrhage while visiting Wichita, Kansas, on September 14, 1944.

Naming Rights & Wrongs

In 1942, Tacoma’s Port Commission, city government, and Pierce County lobbied for selection of Bow Lake for a new regional airport and pledged $100,000 towards construction costs (which topped $4 million by 1944) in exchange for sharing the facility's name with Seattle. They objected immediately and loudly to the new name, and Seattle’s Port Commission reversed itself on September 21, 1944, settling for a memorial plaque to honor Johnson. Sea-Tac was completed the following month and civilian operations began in 1946. The Port added "International" to the airport's name in 1949 when it dedicated a modernistic control center and terminal.

The "name game" scenario was replayed 39 years later when the Port of Seattle proposed to rename Seattle-Tacoma International Airport to honor U.S. Senator Henry M. Jackson, who died on September 1, 1983, in his Everett home. Again, Tacoma’s opposition led the Port to reconsider.

King County Landmarks & Heritage Commission
Hotel/Motel Tax Fund

Sea-Tac Airport window decal, 1950s

Philip G. Johnson (1891-1944), Boeing executive

Sumber:

Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 15 and 21, 1944 The Seattle Times, September 21, 1944 Robert J. Serling, Legend & Legacy: The Story of Boeing and Its People (New York: St. Martins, 1992), p. 68 Robert G. Kaufman, Henry M. Jackson: A Life in Politics (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000), pp. 431 and 434.


One Man's War -Part 15: September 1, 1944 -- September 30, 1944 continued

This story appears courtesy of and with thanks to Robert H Allison.

Probably the most humorous thing that took place for the group while we were at Holtville was an outing of the squadron officers and the spouses of the married officers. The whole group journeyed to Mexicali, Mexico, just across the border from Calexico, Ca., to take in a bull fight. After the Gringos witnessed a few sessions with the bulls, they become bored and restless. To liven things up the skipper volunteered to ride the bull while the Matador stuck it. The skipper was so far gone on booze he could hardly walk but he made it to the railing and promptly fell on his face into the arena. The security guards pushed him back in the stands. He bowed to applause of the Gringos but was the subject of scorn by the Mexican fans. Never the less, during the next event he was back, flat on his face again in the arena. This time the security escorted him all the way out. At the end of the festivities, the gang went looking for him and found him outside the gates to where the dead bulls are dragged from the arena. He was down on his hands and knees with a bunch of poor Mexicans trying to cut a steak from a dead bull with his pocket knife. His wife was furious. Conduct unbecoming an officer, well, maybe so, but you would never convince the officers of that squadron he was guilty of bad conduct. It was one of the most memorable fun days we were to have. In fact, the skipper was probably the best squadron commander in the Navy. He was a gentleman and a truly compassionate man. Even when he had a little too much to drink on too many occasions.

It seemss like everywhere you go there is always some guy who has to shoo the females off like they were flies. Ninety nine percent of the men have to work their butts off just to be even glanced at. Then there was the Roy Kinnard type of guy. Roy was tall, blonde, well built and good looking, who, when he entered a room or bar all female eyes just gravitated to him and many of the girls left their companions to make a play for him. He truly did shoo them off. He would actually be bored and even annoyed with them. Pissed most of the rest of us no end. Us ugly guys were used to being ignored.

Another aspect of our training was the "Dilbert Dunker". This was a contraption that was constructed to resemble the cockpit of a plane. We were each required to strap ourselves in the seat, the Dunker was lifted to about 10 feet high over the swimming pool and dropped in the deep-end of the pool. Now you are under water. You can't see any thing and you are expected to unhook yourself and get out before you drown. There are instructors there to make sure you don't drown. The object of this exercise is to become familiar with a water landing and possibly save someone from panicking in the event of the real thing. Little would I know that I would have a first hand experience with the real McCoy, not once but twice.

While at Holtville, the skipper would have trouble with one of the enlisted men. A black steward's mate whom I had encountered in North Bend. He was quite a pleasant, friendly guy at North Bend. I would never have expected trouble with him. Wouldn't you know his last name was Friend. His home was in Los Angeles and as we passed through LA on our way to Holtville he jumped the train. Was picked up by the shore patrol and given a reprimand. A couple of weeks after arriving at Holtville, he decided that he and the rest of the blacks were not going to be segregated in the mess hall. They were challenged by the whites and a riot ensued. Friend was court-marshaled and placed in the Marine brig in El Central, Ca. The report was that the marine guards nearly beat him to death. Too bad for "ole" Friend! He just lived before his time!

The squadron had been commissioned with 37 officers and 134 enlisted men. Before we were to leave Holtville for NAS Los Alamitos at Long Beach, California, the squadron was streamlined into a Composite squadron consisting of only flying officers and flying crewmen and about five administrative officers and a hand full of key ground enlisted men. The rest were released to the local CASU unit at Holtville for reassignment.

Continued.
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Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Post by Richard Stone » 02 Sep 2020, 03:39

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Post by Richard Stone » 04 Sep 2020, 03:58

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Post by Richard Stone » 05 Sep 2020, 19:59

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The first report is a description of a German counterattack that used infantry and armor.

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Post by Richard Stone » 07 Sep 2020, 03:59

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The last report is a comment by the British Army regarding the action patrols should take upon making enemy contact and receiving fire.

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Post by Richard Stone » 09 Sep 2020, 00:31

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Post by Richard Stone » 11 Sep 2020, 03:58

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The text obscured by the ‘Declassified’ stamp can be read by enlarging the attachment.

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Post by Richard Stone » 13 Sep 2020, 04:54

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The second report on the first attachment 'Rhino Saves Infantry’ discusses the advantage of using the Rhino device to breach the hedgerows.

The text obscured by the ‘Declassified’ stamp can be read by enlarging the attachment.

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Post by Richard Stone » 15 Sep 2020, 05:00

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The text obscured by the ‘Declassified’ stamp can be read by enlarging the attachment.

Re: Development Of Hedgerow Breaching Tactics: July to September 1944

Post by Richard Stone » 16 Sep 2020, 19:18

Attached are several more reports that describe the evolution and variety of tactics used by the US Army infantry, artillery and armored units to overcome the German Army defenses located in the French Hedgerows during the summer of 1944.

The first report is a method the British Army adopted to handle snipers located in haystacks.


The 362nd Infantry Regiment Attack the Futa Pass (10 – 21 September 1944)

During the month of September the 91st Division fought its most brilliant campaign, in which it smashed the most formidable defensive positions in Italy, the Gothic Line. It advanced through elaborately constructed fortifications over mountainous terrain made hazardous by rain and fog, with unflinching determination and unwearying courage. According to one infantryman the climactic days, 12-22 September, were a "lifetime of mud, rain, sweat, strain, fear, courage, and prayers.” But with brilliant leadership and magnificent courage, the 91st Division cracked the Gothic Line and established itself as one of the great fighting Divisions of World War II.

The 91st Division moved into position during the night of 9 September. The 362nd Infantry relieved the 2nd Brigade of the 1st British Division near Vaglia. The attack was launched Sept. 10, 1944.

While the 363rd Infantry was battling for Monticelli (Giogo Pass area) on the left and the 361st Infantry fought for Hill 844 and 856, the 362nd Infantry was advancing up Highway 65 toward M. Calvi and Futa Pass. As in the other two sectors, the fighting was very bitter and the advance painfully slow, 13-15 September. With unwearying courage the Regiment fought its way from pillbox to pillbox, through barbed wire and minefields, always through areas in which the enemy had excellent observation and prepared fields of fire. On 14 September the 2nd Battalion occupied Mt. Calvi but could not exploit its position because of the terrific mortar concentrations which fell from Hills 821 and 840. Nor could the Battalion advance rapidly to Hill 840, for although the forward slope of Mt. Calvi is a gentle incline, the reverse slope drops abruptly to the foot of Hill 840, at some points as much as 500 feet in 200 yards. Not only was it almost impossible terrain for the infantry to cross, but artillery fire is masked in many areas. Thus even high angle fire was unable to reach the mole-like Germans dug in below.

Shortly after noon 15 September the 1st Battalion attacked north to Morcoiano according to a plan which involved nine TOT's being delivered by the massed artillery in 15 minutes. Progress of this attack was slow but steady. Morcoiano was heavily defended, but on 18 September the town fell and the Battalion pressed on. The next morning under a "nearly perfect" rolling barrage fired by the 346th Field Artillery the assault" on Poggio began. The artillery fire did not smash the fortifications, but it forced the defenders to seek cover and "button up" completely. Then when the fire moved past a given point, before the enemy could jump out of holes to man their weapons, the infantry, just a scant 300 yards behind the barrage, was upon them. Two hundred prisoners were taken. In this way the attack literally walked through a strong point that would ordinarily have been a scene of bloody and prolonged fighting.

On the same day, 19 September, the 2nd Battalion, attacking from the southeast, captured both Hill 821 and Hill 840. Advancing rapidly to keep contact with the enemy, now driven from his Main Line of Resistance, the Battalion occupied Mt. Alto during the night of 19-20 September.

Although the collapse of the enemy lines in the 362nd sector was not so spectacular as it was in the 361st sector, Hill 896 was captured the next day, and by the morning of 21 September Company A had reached the Santerno and had set up machine guns trained on Futa Pass.


15 September 1944 - History

Artefacts - Pictures of the men from the units that served with the Division

The purpose of this page is to provide a source of pictures and other information relating to the men and units that served with the Division. It will change as and when items are available to be added to it. Please be patient as one or two pictures may take a little while to load. The main sections are

Artileri Kuda Diraja ke-3

The set below are from the collection by Capt G Lawrence (3RHA) courtesy of his son Ray Lawrence.

2 pdr Portee Crew resting by their vehicle

4th Royal Horse Artillery

Three Pictures of 4th RHA In the Desert

25pdr Gun, Limber and Crew, from 4th RHA ready for action in 1941.

Men from 4th RHA digging a gun pit, while the 25pdr Gun, Limber and Quad Tractor wait in the background.

Quad Tractor, Limber and 25pdr gun, of 4th RHA, on the move in 1942.

5th Royal Horse Artillery

K Battery AOP Cromwell and crew 29th November 1994. (James Allen is second from right). Courtesy of James Allen & David Allen..

K Battery Sexton called 'Dagwood'.

Sexton 5 RHA Europe 1944, from 'H' Troop, 'CC' Battery. NB. It is the '76' below the Divisional TAC sign, above the drivers hatch that denotes it as 5 RHA. The 'H' above denotes the troop which is different to normal practice. Courtesy of William Parfitt & Mark Smith.

Another Sexton from 'H' Troop, CC Battery, showing the compartment cover and the various items stowed above the engine

Men from CC Battery HQ in the snow by a AOP Cromwell, clearly showing the CC Bty Badge, with a local. This is in Hingenderstraat in Sint Joost the Netherlands in late 1944 or early 1945. My father is in the leather Jerkin, smoking a pipe.

The below set of photographs have kindly been given to me to added to the website by the family of L/Bdr W Archer. The all relate to G Battery (Mercer's Troop) RHA. Copyright W Archer and his family. Click on the image for a larger version.

Men of 'C' Sub-Section feeling browned off at Alamein

Quad and some of the men of C Sub-section waiting to go into action. Libya 1943

More of the Village of Cancello, 7th November 1943.

Men of Battery HQ, Italy 1943

A few items belonging to Sergeant Rodger Newton May, CC Battery, who was awarded the Military Medal after fighting west of Agheila on December 15th 1942. Courtesy of Pierre Price.

Three photographs of 'K' Battery, 5th Royal Horse Artillery.

Pre-war photograph of some of the men and officers of the Battery.

Photograph from Bill Jones, courtesy of 'Jock' (Rob) Ler che (K Bty) and Barry Forbes

Back Row: Talbot, Jack Boyd, Tilling, McFadden, (?), Cpt Wells, Lt Chris North, (?), Squires, Bill Slack, (?), Cornwall.

Middle Row: Tugwell, Pashby, Winstanley, Ellin, McPherson. Moyes, (?), Briggs.

Front Row: Jock (Bob Lerche), Bowman, Bill Jones, Pritchard, (?), Geordie Hodgeson

Men of K Battery, 5th RHA in Surrey 1942. Courtesy of 'Jo ck' (Rob) Lerche (K Bty) and Barry Forbes

Journey's end. Men of K Battery, 5th RHA in Berlin 1945. Courtesy of 'Jock' (Rob) Lerche (K Bty) and Barry Forbes

'CC' Battery, 5th Royal Horse Artillery, Berlin, October 1945.

Men of CC Battery, 5th RHA in Berlin October 1945. Courtesy of Alexander Paterson

If you are in any of the three pictures of 'K 'and 'CC' Batteries above or know someone who is (or would like a higher definition copy of them) please contact me as my own father is in the one of CC Battery.

Roll of Honour for 5th Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery (1939 - 1945)

Please click on the image below to view the larger image which may take a little while to open

There are more pictures of 5th RHA during the Victory Parade in July 1945 on the Italian and Northern Europe Page. Click here to go there now.

The set of photographs below are from the collection of Sergeant W. Paul DuPre, courtesy of his son Peter DuPre. These cover from the pre-war period to 1945.

Tanks of 8th Hussars waiting to cross the Rhine at Brunen

Recovering a Challenger Tank Destroyer from a river

Chaffee and Honey Tanks of 8th Hussars HQ (Recce) Squadron, outside Hamburg, 1945

There are more pictures of 8th Hussars during the Victory Parade in July 1945 on the Italian and Northern Europe Page. Click here to go there now.

Please also see these photographs on flickr, from Noel Taylor, whose grandfather Henry Hessey was in 8th Hussars.

Pictures of the 11th Hussars

Rolls Royce Armoured Car in the desert in 1940.

Morris Armoured Car crossing the frontier wire into Libya in 1940

A Fordson Armoured Car of 'D' Squadron (RAF), 11th Hussars, fitted with an extra pair of light machine-guns mounted on a 'Scarff Ring', on the turret as additional protection against air attack. The two crew in 'side caps' are RAF personnel, with a Hussars instructor behind them.

Moving upto the front in Humber Armoured Cars

11th Hussars HQ, making use of an umbrella, liberated from a Cairo bar or restaurant

Marmon-Herrington Armoured Cars. Some have the turret removed and are fitted with a 20mm Breda guns

The crew of this Humber II Armoured Car from 'B' Squadron were the first vehicle into Tripoli

Being inspected by Winston Churchill and Montgomery

A Troop equipped with French 75mm guns mounted on US Halftracks in Italy

C' Squadron Outside Ghent September 1944, in Daimler Armoured Cars

No. 1 Troop, D Squadron, in Germany. The White Scout Car carried troops that could dismount and fight on foot, to carry out patrols, out flank enemy positions, etc.

Daimler 'Dingo' Scout Car armed with twin Vickers K Machine Guns

Humber Scout Cars of D Squadron outside the Town Hall, in Hamburg, 3rd May 1945

Men of No.1 Troop, C Squadron, with a Daimler Armoured Car, September 1944

Vehicles of D Squadron in the main square of Tonning after VE Day

Daimler Armoured Cars of 11th Hussars, entering Berlin with Major General Lyne, the Divisional Commander, taking the salute.

Daimler Armoured Cars of 11th Hussars, during the Victory Parade in Berlin, 21st July 1945

Sgt (later Sgt Major) Bernard McGuire, 'B' Squadron, 11th Hussars, receiving his Military Medal from Field Marshall Montgomery


Tonton videonya: Bielschowsky - 15 September 1944 (Ogos 2022).