Podcast Sejarah

Pemberontakan Boxer - Sejarah

Pemberontakan Boxer - Sejarah


Ketika sebuah kumpulan anti-asing yang dikenali sebagai "Petinju" bangkit memberontak di China dan menduduki Peking, AS dan banyak negara lain melakukan usaha antarabangsa untuk meredakan legasi asing di Peking. AS adalah peserta penuh dalam usaha itu tetapi menyatakan dengan jelas bahawa ia menentang upaya asing untuk mengukir China sebagai akibat pemberontakan tersebut.

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Percubaan kuasa Eropah dan Jepun yang semakin meningkat untuk menjajah China menimbulkan rasa benci dan penentangan yang semakin meningkat. Ini digabungkan dengan kekeringan yang teruk yang menimbulkan keresahan di seluruh China dan membawa kepada kebangkitan Gerakan Boxer. Nama mereka berasal dari masyarakat bela diri, yang mempromosikan norma sosial konservatif, ia segera mengalihkan perhatiannya kepada pengaruh asing yang menyalahkannya pada kemerosotan masyarakat Cina. Mereka segera mula menyerang gereja dan simbol kehadiran misionaris lain di China.

Sejajar dengan kebangkitan Boxers, pemerintah China berusaha melakukan reformasi yang luas. Tempoh itu dikenali sebagai Seratus Hari Pembaharuan. Maharaja Guangxu berdiri di belakang pembaharuan yang ditentang oleh anggota konservatif elit Cina. Mereka menyokong Empress Dowager Cixi yang merebut kuasa. Permaisuri pada mulanya memerangi Boxers tetapi mengubah kedudukannya pada awal tahun 1900. Pergerakan Boxer menyebar dengan cepat. Legasi asing diizinkan oleh pemerintah China untuk menghantar tentera untuk mempertahankan legasi mereka di Being. Marinir Amerika adalah bahagian penting dari kekuatan itu. Petinju menerobos wilayah asing kota dan mengepung warga asing yang terutama dibela oleh Marinir AS.

Legasi asing memutuskan untuk mengirim pasukan penyelamat sekitar 2000 yang berarti siapa yang mereka anggap lebih dari cukup untuk membuat jalan ke Bejing dan melegakan legasi yang dikepung. Tentera di bawah Wakil Laksamana Inggeris Edward Seymour tidak dapat Bejing, dan terpaksa diselamatkan oleh pasukan asing tambahan. Sementara itu, di Beijing, sejumlah 473 orang asing, 409 askar, dan 3,000 orang Kristian Cina bersekongkol di Kuasa Menjadi Legasi dari 20 Jun dan seterusnya.

Sementara itu, pasukan asing membangun kekuatan mereka di China dengan tujuan untuk melepaskan legasi. Akhirnya, ada kekuatan 55,000, terdiri dari Jepun (20,840), Rusia (13,150), British (12,020), Perancis (3,520), AS (3,420), Jerman (900), Itali (80), Austro-Hungarian (75) dan tentera China anti-Boxer. Dua puluh ribu dari mereka berjaya menuju Bejing. Mereka ditentang oleh kedua-dua 50,000 Boxer dan juga pasukan China biasa. Jarak 120 kilometer ke Bejing dari Tianjin. Pasukan sekutu menghadapi tentangan sporadis oleh orang Cina. Musuh yang paling mematikan adalah kepala dan kelembapan. Pasukan itu sampai di Beijing pada 14 Ogos 1900. Setelah pertahanan yang singkat tetapi bersemangat, pasukan China menarik diri, dan tentera Sekutu melepaskan legasi dan menduduki kota itu. Untuk tahun berikutnya, Boxer terus membunuh orang Kristian di seluruh China dan pasukan sekutu yang menakluki sebahagian besar China Utara melakukan kekejaman mereka sendiri terhadap orang awam China.

Tahun kerusuhan diakhiri dengan penandatanganan Protokol Boxer, yang menuntut pelaksanaan pemimpin gerakan Boxer dan penyokongnya dan pembayaran ganti rugi yang berjumlah 450,000,000 tael perak. AS menggunakan bahagiannya untuk memberi biasiswa untuk pelajar Cina.

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Bagaimana China Berjuang Imperialisme Dengan Pemberontakan Boxer

Bermula pada tahun 1899, Pemberontakan Boxer adalah pemberontakan di China terhadap pengaruh asing dalam agama, politik, dan perdagangan. Dalam pertempuran itu, Petinju membunuh ribuan Kristian Cina dan berusaha menyerbu kedutaan asing di Beijing. Setelah pengepungan selama 55 hari, kedutaan dibebaskan oleh 20,000 tentera Jepun, Amerika, dan Eropah. Setelah pemberontakan, beberapa ekspedisi hukuman dilancarkan dan pemerintah China terpaksa menandatangani "Protokol Boxer" yang meminta para pemimpin pemberontakan itu dilaksanakan dan pembayaran ganti rugi kewangan kepada negara-negara yang cedera.


Pemberontakan Boxer

Pemberontakan Boxer adalah gerakan anti-asing / Kristian oleh Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists di China. Sebagai tindak balas terhadap pengembangan imperialis dan penginjilan dakwah, organisasi tempatan mula muncul di Shandong pada tahun 1898. Pada mulanya, mereka ditindas oleh Dinasti Qing tetapi kemudian, Janda Permaisuri berusaha mengusir pengaruh barat dari China dengan pencerobohan yang ditujukan kepada mubaligh asing. Petinju di seluruh China Utara menyerang perkarangan misi yang membunuh mubaligh asing dan Kristian Cina.

Pada musim panas tahun 1900, 239 mubaligh mati syahid di China dalam apa yang dikenali sebagai Pemberontakan Boxer. Dari jumlah tersebut, 189 adalah Protestan dan 40 adalah Katolik. Dua organisasi misi dengan jumlah korban syahid terbesar adalah China Inland Mission, yang sekarang disebut Overseas Missionary Fellowship, dan The Christian and Missionary Alliance. CIM (OMF) kehilangan 79, dan C & # 038MA kehilangan 36. Setiap mubaligh ini berkomitmen untuk melayani Tuhan di China untuk membawa harapan dan cahaya kepada jutaannya.

Banyak perkara menyumbang kepada penyembelihan mubaligh asing secara besar-besaran ini, yang terbesar dalam sejarah misi Kristian. China sedang mengalami pergolakan. Dinasti Manchu, yang berasal dari Mongolia, adalah dinasti yang sangat tidak digemari di ambang penggulingan.

Ketidakpuasan mula menyapu tanah dan mengancam dinasti Permaisuri Dowagers. Orang-orang berseru agar China melepaskan diri dari semua pengaruh asing, baik imperialisme Barat dan dinasti Manchu. Permaisuri berjaya, bagaimanapun, untuk mengubah pemberontakan rakyat terhadap orang barat dan terutama para mubaligh. Dia meyakinkan orang-orang bahawa bencana di China adalah akibat dari berpaling dari agama Cina lama untuk agama asing yang baru. Arwah marah kerana pemujaan nenek moyang diabaikan. Percaya bahawa peluru Barat tidak dapat melukai mereka, dan di bawah pengaruh ubat-ubatan dan Syaitan, para Petinju, yang kebanyakannya muda, berangkat untuk menyingkirkan China dari semua orang asing. Permaisuri melemparkannya dengan Petinju dan memutuskan agar orang asing di China dibunuh.

Bukan hanya mubaligh yang terbunuh, tetapi juga banyak pendeta Cina kehilangan nyawa mereka serta lebih dari 32,000 orang Kristian. Seperti para martir Ibrani 11, mereka semua adalah juara iman dan duta besar Yesus Kristus. Kesyahidan secara besar-besaran para mubaligh dan orang Kristian ini mengundang penganiayaan gereja Kristian pada abad yang paling ganas. Berikut adalah kisah-kisah para mubaligh Alliance yang tewas dalam pemberontakan.

Sejarah mubaligh Sweden C & # 038MA di China

Pada tahun 1893 sekumpulan kira-kira 50 mubaligh Sweden pergi ke China untuk memberikan Injil kepada mereka yang belum terjangkau. Pendeta William Emanuel Franken dari Sweden mengirim mereka dengan pengertian bahawa The Christian and Missionary Alliance akan menyediakan pengangkutan dan sokongan. Seorang mubaligh Perikatan Emanuel Olsson seorang mubaligh China sendiri, dipilih untuk menjadi Penguasa mereka. Majalah Alliance 20 Oktober 1900 mempunyai artikel berikut.

Para mubaligh Sweden ini adalah pekerja yang sungguh-sungguh dan menyangkal diri yang menawarkan khidmat mereka kepada Perikatan di bawah arahan seorang mubaligh yang setia dan luar biasa bernama Emannel Olsson. Mereka menyatakan kesediaan mereka untuk hidup dengan tunjangan yang sangat sederhana tidak melebihi dua ratus dolar setahun. Beberapa pihak dihantar ke utara China. Ladang mereka adalah daerah yang terbengkalai luas yang terletak di luar Tembok Besar China. Pada awalnya mereka berjumlah lebih dari lima puluh mubaligh dan telah menempati hampir dua puluh stesen yang berlainan, meliputi wilayah yang berjarak beberapa ratus batu. Mereka adalah mubaligh yang bersemangat, rendah hati, dan menyangkal diri. Pengaturan itu mengalami satu kelemahan besar. Bahawa mereka adalah orang asing yang tidak diketahui oleh Dewan asal dan orang-orang, dan oleh itu sukar untuk menjalin hubungan persekutuan dan kerjasama yang lengkap seperti dalam hal para mubaligh yang telah pergi dari Institut Latihan kita sendiri dan dari tengah. Karya mereka sangat diberkati dan mereka mendapat hak untuk kasih sayang yang mendalam. Pengawas mereka, Pendeta Emil Olsson dan isteri adalah orang Sweden Amerika dan merupakan pekerja dengan kemampuan yang sangat tinggi yang terkenal di Barat Laut.

Surat daripada Encik Carl Lundberg

dari Kwei, Hua-Cheng dihantar ke Holy Union Mission di Sweden. Bertarikh 16 Ogos 1900.

Pastor Kilstet yang dihormati,

Betapa indahnya Tuhan dalam semua perbuatan-Nya! Siapa yang dapat memahami cara-caraNya? Sahabat Misi yang terhormat, anda mungkin pernah mendengar bagaimana badai penganiayaan meletus di China, dan juga sampai ke Shansi ke bidang pekerjaan anda dan C & # 038MA kami, dan C. I. M. juga mendapat bagian dari mereka. Setelah Encik Lundeberg memberitahu bagaimana sepuluh utusan Misi Kesatuan Suci dibunuh, dan di antaranya Tuan dan Puan Forsberg, dari misi kami, dan anak mereka & # 8212 mubaligh dilempari batu dan anak itu terkoyak. Rusuhan bermula di Kwei-Hua-Cheng di mana kami berada, jadi kami meninggalkan tempat itu dan berfikir untuk pergi ke Urza, dan pergi ke Rusia, tetapi ketika kami dua hari perjalanan dari Kwei Thea, semua barang kami dicuri dari kami, perompak menyerang kami lapan kali. Mereka mengambil sebahagian dari pakaian kami dari badan kami sehingga kami terpaksa menderita lapar dan sejuk. Empat mubaligh Katolik di tempat itu mendengar tentang kami dan menghantar utusan selepas kami untuk membawa kami ke sini. Utusan terakhir menemui kami dan kami telah berada di sini selama lapan hari, tetapi di sini juga ada bahaya besar. Petinju datang untuk menghancurkan tempat itu. Banyak penempatan Katolik dimanjakan dan ribuan orang Cina terbunuh dan stesen yang kita tahu musnah.

Kami tidak tahu apa-apa mengenai para mubaligh yang lain, tetapi bersama kami di sini C & # 038MA Mr. dan Puan Emil Olson dan ketiga-tiga anak mereka, Mr. dan Puan Edvin Andersson, dan dua anak mereka, Miss Emilie Erickson, dan Mrs Carl Lundberg dan anak-anak mereka. Sekiranya kita tidak keluar dengan nyawa kita, sila hantarkan pesanan terakhir kita kepada semua rakan misi. Kita hidup dan mati untuk Tuhan dan China. Jalan ke pantai tidak terbuka. Sudah hampir dua bulan kami tidak mendengar apa-apa dari Peking, tetapi jalan menuju Tuhan terbuka, terima kasih kepada-Nya. Jangan sampai tangan anda gagal dan jangan kehilangan keberanian anda. Apa yang kita taburkan akan membuahkan hasil pada waktunya. Ketika ribut sudah selesai, kirimkan saksi-saksi lain ke China untuk menyatakan tindakan besar Tuhan. Saya tidak menyesal kerana saya datang ke China. Saya tahu Tuhan memanggil saya di sini, dan rahmat-Nya cukup bagi saya. Cara dia memimpin adalah yang terbaik, kehendak-Nya dilakukan. Kita akan bertemu di tangan kanannya.

22 Ogos 1900

Sekarang tentera datang dan mereka akan menyerang kita di sini hari ini. Umat ​​Katolik akan mempertahankan diri tetapi nampaknya tidak ada gunanya, kita tidak mahu mati dengan senjata di tangan kita. Sekiranya Tuhan mengizinkan mereka boleh mengambil nyawa kita. Kita mati dengan iman kepada Tuhan dan tahu bahawa Dia dapat menyelamatkan jiwa kita tanpa mempercayai Gereja Katolik. Para imam bertanya kepada kami kemarin jika kita bersedia memasuki atau dihubungkan dengan satu-satunya gereja yang menyelamatkan, dan jika kita tidak takut jika kita salah, dan tidak seharusnya diselamatkan, tetapi kita semua menjawab bahawa kita tahu pada siapa kita percaya, dan bahawa kita tidak pasti dan bahawa kita akan mati sebagai penunjuk perasaan, ya, sebagai orang Kristian. Tuhan memberkati anda semua. Kami akan bertemu dengan Yesus.

Hormat anda, bahagia di dalam Yesus, Carl L. Lundberg.

Pemberontakan Boxer

Seperti awan hujan yang pada awalnya sedikit, tetapi tidak lama lagi akan menjadi awan yang besar dan gelap, yang menyembunyikan langit biru jernih dan keluar dalam kilat, guruh dan hujan lebat sehingga meletus pada musim panas tahun 1900 ribut di China Utara yang biasanya dipanggil & # 8220Boxer Rebellion. & # 8221

Petinju (I-ho-t & # 8217uan), seperti yang mereka sebut, mempunyai asal usul di antara gunung-gunung di provinsi Shantung. Anggota mengambil bahagian dalam jenis gimnastik dan menganggap diri mereka memiliki semangat, yang memberi mereka kekuatan ajaib. Mazhab ini dikutuk oleh Kaisar Kia-ching sekitar tahun 1810 dalam dekrit umum. Pemimpin baru-baru ini mendorong pergerakan itu, sementara program pengikutnya & # 8220Memelihara kekuatan dinasti Manchu dan mengusir semua orang asing dari China. & # 8221

Petinju didorong oleh Yonglu (naib raja Chihli) dan pangeran Tuan dari Peking, yang ingin mendapatkan kuasa dan prestij dengan menjatuhkan maharaja. Maharaja (Uhsein) condong ke arah mengajak orang asing ke negeri ini untuk melakukan perindustrian China.

Mereka memulai program menanamkan kebencian terhadap kaum liberal dan orang asing. Pada tahun 1898 rampasan kuasa di Peking berlaku di mana maharaja digulingkan dan & # 8220wow-permaisuri & # 8221 berkuasa. Ada sebab untuk mempercayai bahawa permaisuri itu cacat mental dan mudah terpengaruh oleh penyokongnya.

Permaisuri dan pengikutnya percaya bahawa maharaja dan pihaknya telah menerima idea-idea liberal mereka dari Barat dengan mempelajari sastera mereka dan mendengar orang asing. Oleh itu, berlaku kejam terhadap parti pembaharuan maharaja dan sebahagian besar pegawai parti terkemuka terbunuh. Permaisuri menandatangani perintah yang membolehkan tentera membunuh semua penyokong maharaja dan semua orang asing di China. Maka bermulalah Pemberontakan Boxer.

Tentera, yang biasanya diperintahkan oleh Boxers, atau simpatisan, menyapu seluruh China membunuh semua orang asing dan juga orang-orang Cina yang mempunyai hubungan dengan mereka. Terdapat sokongan tentera yang hebat kerana mereka dapat menyimpan barang-barang asing yang mereka bunuh.

Daripada orang asing yang dibunuh, 135 mubaligh yang memprotes dan kira-kira 51 dari anak mereka dibunuh. Dari jumlah tersebut, 41 mubaligh Sweden bersama dengan 15 kanak-kanak mati. Dari mereka yang ada dalam Christian and Missionary Alliance, 21 mubaligh dan 14 kanak-kanak, dari mubaligh Holiness Alliance 10, dari mubaligh Scandinavian Alliance Mongol Mission 5 dan mubaligh China Island Mission 2.


Penentangan

Sebagai reaksi, orang-orang biasa di China memutuskan untuk mengatur perlawanan. Mereka membentuk gerakan spiritualis / seni bela diri, yang merangkumi banyak unsur mistik atau ajaib seperti kepercayaan bahawa "Petinju" sendiri tidak tahan terhadap peluru. Nama Inggeris "Boxers" berasal dari kekurangan perkataan Inggeris untuk seniman bela diri, oleh itu penggunaan bahasa Inggeris yang hampir sama.

Pada mulanya, Petinju menjatuhkan pemerintah Qing dengan orang asing lain yang perlu dihalau dari China. Bagaimanapun, Dinasti Qing bukan etnik Han Cina, melainkan Manchu. Terperangkap di antara orang-orang asing barat yang mengancam di satu pihak, dan orang-orang Cina Han yang marah di sisi lain, Permaisuri Janda Cixi dan pegawai Qing yang lain pada awalnya tidak pasti bagaimana untuk bertindak balas terhadap Petinju. Akhirnya, memutuskan bahawa orang asing menimbulkan ancaman yang lebih besar, Qing dan Petinju mulai memahami, dan Beijing akhirnya menyokong pemberontak dengan pasukan kerajaan.


Marinir A.S. dalam Pemberontakan Boxer

Pada tahun 1900 krisis meletus di China ketika "Petinju" meningkatkan daya tahan mereka terhadap pengaruh dan kehadiran asing. Menjelang akhir abad kesembilan belas, beberapa negara telah membangun wilayah pengaruh di China. Pada musim gugur tahun 1899, Setiausaha Negara John Hay menulis bahawa Amerika Syarikat, yang lewat tiba, ingin mengekalkan "dasar pintu terbuka" di China. Sekiranya Petinju berjaya mendorong Amerika Syarikat dan negara asing lain, pintu yang baru dibuka ini akan segera ditutup.

Ketidakpuasan dengan orang asing telah meningkat di China sejak tahun 1898, ketika "I Ho Ch'uan" (Persatuan "Tinju Benar dan Harmonis") mulai mendapat popularitas di sebuah provinsi di barat laut China. Kumpulan ini biasanya disebut sebagai "Petinju" menentang pengaruh asing dan sangat anti-Kristian. Jumlah kumpulan itu bertambah dengan petani dan pekerja lain yang terjejas oleh kemarau yang melanda banjir besar. Petinju mula mengganggu orang Kristian Cina dan mubaligh asing. Ketika kegiatan Boxer tersebar ke beberapa provinsi, para pemimpin provinsi dan mahkamah kekaisaran China tidak konsisten dengan sikap mereka. Kadang-kadang pihak berkuasa berjuang untuk melindungi orang asing dan Kristian dan pada masa lain memilih untuk tidak melakukan apa-apa. Tzu Hsi, janda permaisuri Dinasti Manchu, secara terbuka "anti-Boxer." 1

Amerika Syarikat dan tujuh negara lain - Austria-Hungary, Perancis, Jerman, Britain, Itali, Jepun, dan Rusia-semuanya mempunyai kepentingan di China. Lapan kuasa asing ini juga mengekalkan legasi di Legation Quarter of Peking.2

Penduduk Peking mulai bertambah apabila beratus-ratus mubaligh asing dan Kristian Cina mula berbondong-bondong ke kota untuk perlindungan. Pada 28 dan 29 Mei, Boxers membakar beberapa stesen keretapi antara Peking dan Paotingfu, termasuk persimpangan kereta api besar di Fengtai. Legasi di Peking, takut mereka diasingkan, cepat telegraf meminta bantuan. Tindak balas segera adalah penyebaran pelaut dan tentera laut dari kapal asing di luar China.3

Pada 31 Mei, Kapten John T. Myers, USMC, tiba di Peking secara komando dua detasmen kapal Marin A.S. Legasi Pengawal yang baru dibentuk ini terdiri daripada Myers dan dua puluh lima tentera laut dari USS Oregon bersama dengan Kapten Newt Hall, USMC, dua puluh tiga tentera laut, lima pelaut, dan Pembantu Tentera Laut A.S. T. M. Lippett dari USS Newark.4 Tiba di Peking pada hari yang sama terdapat kira-kira 350 pelaut asing dan tentera laut dihantar untuk melindungi legasi masing-masing.5

Pada 18 Jun, menteri luar negeri di Peking menerima kabar dari pemerintah China bahawa keadaan perang akan segera berlaku. Deklarasi itu dibuat sebagai tindak balas terhadap penangkapan kubu-kubu China di Taku oleh kuasa asing sehari sebelumnya. Para menteri luar negeri diberi masa dua puluh empat jam untuk meninggalkan Peking dengan janji jalan selamat ke selatan hingga Tientsin. Para menteri bertemu pada keesokan harinya dan menolak tawaran untuk pergi. Janda permaisuri mengeluarkan perisytiharan perang yang merangkumi pujian bagi "pengikut Boxers yang berani." Pada 20 Jun, Petinju dan tentera China memulakan pengepungan kota.6

Tembakan artileri China dan senjata kecil menjadi berterusan. Tidak ada serangan teratur terhadap legasi. Pada dua puluh lima, tentera laut mengambil kedudukan kritikal di Tartar Wall. Sejak awal pengepungan, pasukan China telah membina sekatan beberapa jarak dari depan marinir. Pada malam 28 Jun, Pvt. Richard Quinn mengingatkan semula salah satu barikade ini dengan merangkak di tangan dan lutut ke posisi China.7 Pada 2 Julai, pasukan China berjaya memajukan barikade mereka dengan bahaya dekat dengan kedudukan tentera laut di dinding barikade terdekat menjadi ancaman segera. Bermula sekitar pukul dua pagi keesokan harinya, Kapten Myers mengetuai tentera Marin A.S. dan tentera Britain dan Rusia yang bertugas di barikade China. Serangan, yang dilakukan semasa ribut hujan, berjaya dilakukan orang-orang Cina jatuh ke barikade yang lain beratus-ratus ela ke belakang. Dua tentera laut terbunuh, dan Myers cedera di kaki.8 Marinir meneruskan kedudukan mereka di dinding, dan letupan artileri dan tembakan penembak jitu dari senjata kecil China berlanjutan seperti sebelumnya.

Captain Hall mengambil alih arahan Legation Guard setelah Kapten Myers cedera. Api penembak hendap dan artileri hampir mati setelah gencatan senjata tidak rasmi dibuat pada tanggal enam belas. Kegiatan ini berlanjutan sehingga legasi asing dibebaskan pada 14 Ogos.

Marinir A.S. mengambil bahagian dalam beberapa tindakan di China setelah pasukan Myers sampai di Peking. Sebelum pengepungan bermula, pasukan sekutu bergerak ke utara dari Tientsin menuju Peking beberapa hari setelah landasan kereta api dirobohkan, mengasingkan ibu kota. Naib Laksamana Sir Edward Seymour dari Tentera Laut Diraja Britain mengetuai pasukan ini dengan Kapten Tentera Laut A.S. Ekspedisi Seymour merangkumi 112 pelaut dan marinir Amerika. Pasukan sekutu mengembara ke utara, membina semula landasan kereta api ketika mereka pergi. Ekspedisi Seymour datang dalam jarak dua puluh lima batu dari Peking tetapi dipaksa oleh petinju dan tentera China untuk mundur kembali ke Tientsin. Setelah lima hari berundur ke selatan, pasukan Seymour bertempur masuk ke gudang senjata api enam batu di utara Tientsin, di mana mereka memperkuat kedudukan mereka dan menunggu pertolongan.

Amerika Syarikat cepat-cepat bergegas menghantar pasukan tambahan untuk membantu mengangkat pengepungan Peking. Dua buah kapal selam marin yang terpisah meninggalkan Cavite di Kepulauan Filipina dan bergabung berhampiran Taku, China. Detasemen pertama terdiri daripada 107 tentera laut dari Rejimen Pertama, yang meninggalkan Cavite di USS Keselesaan. Detasemen kedua tiga puluh dua marinir berlayar dari Cavite di USS Nashville.9 Sekitar 18 Jun, kedua detasemen laut digabungkan menjadi batalion di bawah komando Majistret Littleton W.T. Waller. Pada tanggal dua puluh, batalion laut ini dan kira-kira empat ratus orang Rusia melibatkan orang-orang Cina di dekat Tientsin. Pasukan marinir adalah ujung tombak serangan Amerika-Rusia tetapi sedikit berjaya melawan pasukan China yang lebih besar. Setelah serangan balas yang luar biasa, orang Amerika dan Rusia mundur. Marinir membentuk penjaga belakang tempat perlindungan, di mana mereka dikejar selama empat jam. Setelah sampai di tempat mereka bermula, tentera laut telah berjalan sejauh tiga puluh batu setelah pergi ke Tientsin dan kembali. Mereka menderita tiga terbunuh dan tujuh cedera.10 Dua hari kemudian, batalion Waller dan pasukan Rusia diperkuatkan kepada dua ribu orang dengan kedatangan tentera Inggeris, Rusia, Jerman, Itali, dan Jepun. Kekuatan yang diperbesar ini menyerang pada keesokan harinya dan mengambil semua kecuali kota Tientsin yang berdinding dalam. Pada tanggal dua puluh lima, pasukan antarabangsa melegakan ekspedisi Seymour, yang telah berlangsung selama sebulan di Hsi-Ku Arsenal di utara Tientsin.11

Infantri A.S. Kesembilan tiba pada 6 Julai dan bergabung dengan pasukan sekutu berhampiran Tientsin. Jumlah tentera laut di China meningkat ketika Kolonel Robert L. Meade dan 318 tentera laut tiba pada 10 Julai dari Filipina di USS Brooklyn.12 Detasemen marinir ini berpindah dari pantai ke Tientsin, di mana ia bergabung dengan batalion Waller, dan Meade mengambil alih komando pasukan Amerika. Pada keesokan harinya, pasukan sekutu melancarkan serangan terhadap Tientsin untuk menyingkirkan kota-kota di dalam tembok dari baki tentera Cina dan Boxer. Pasukan penyerang, di bawah komando seorang jeneral Britain, termasuk tentera laut, Infantri A.S. Kesembilan, dan pasukan Inggeris, Perancis, Jerman, Jepun, dan Rusia. Pertengkaran berlaku sepanjang hari dengan sedikit yang dapat ditunjukkan. Daripada 451 tentera marin yang terlibat dalam tindakan ini, tujuh belas orang lelaki dan empat pegawai yang terlibat menjadi korban.13 Serangan malam Jepun menembusi pertahanan China, yang membolehkan pasukan antarabangsa memasuki kota Tientsin yang bertembok. Penembusan ini mencetuskan rampasan bandar yang berleluasa.

Pada 30 Julai, Jeneral Tentera AS Adna R. Chaffee tiba di Tientsin dan mengambil alih semua pasukan AS di China.14 Tiba bersama Chaffee sebagai sebahagian daripada "Ekspedisi Bantuan China" adalah satu batalion marinir di bawah pimpinan Mejar Biddle, dua batalion Infantri AS Keempat Belas, Kavaleri AS Keenam, dan satu bateri dari Artileri AS Kelima. Matlamat ekspedisi ini adalah untuk meredakan legasi di Peking dan melindungi kepentingan Amerika di China. Pada 4 Ogos, ekspedisi antarabangsa kira-kira 18,000 meninggalkan Tientsin untuk pasukan Peking Chaffee yang berjumlah kira-kira 2,500 orang Amerika termasuk 482 marin.15 Pada 5 Ogos, pasukan Jepun bertempur dan mengalahkan orang Cina di Pei-tsang. Keesokan harinya, sebahagian daripada pasukan antarabangsa, termasuk tentera laut, berjaya bertempur di Yangstun. Banyak anggota pasukan antarabangsa mengalami kepanasan semasa perarakan sejauh lapan puluh batu akibat suhu tinggi dan pertempuran sesekali dari Tientsin ke Peking.16

Pada keempat belas, pasukan antarabangsa sampai di Peking dan melegakan perbincangan. Setelah sampai di Peking, unit laut berhenti di dekat pintu utara sementara sebuah peleton menuju ke bahagian atas tembok untuk menghentikan tembakan penembak tepat dan memasang perlindungan untuk artileri. Dua orang tentera dan Letnan Smedley Butler cedera.17 Pada keesokan harinya, tentera laut ikut serta dalam kemajuan di Kota Imperial.18 Setelah pertempuran di Peking berakhir, perlawanan ringan terus berlanjutan di berbagai tempat di China. Sebahagian besar aktiviti ini diperangi oleh tentera Jerman sehingga Protokol Boxer (perjanjian damai formal) ditandatangani pada bulan September 1901.19

Pada masa pengepungan itu diangkat, Pengawal Legasi telah mengalami lapan belas korban. Tujuh lelaki yang terdaftar terbunuh, dan sebelas anggota Pengawal Legasi cedera, termasuk Kapten Myers dan Asisten Bedah Lippitt.20 Pada awal September, detasmen itu meninggalkan Peking untuk Tientsin dan menjaga orang-orang yang sakit dan pelarian di sepanjang jalan. Orang-orang yang disenaraikan dari Legation Guard kembali ke kapal-kapal di mana mereka telah berkhidmat sebelum terpisah untuk perkhidmatan di China. Kapten Myers dihantar ke Hospital Tentera Laut di Yokohama, Jepun, dan Kapten Hall kembali ke USS Newark.21

Marinir tambahan telah tiba di China pada pertengahan Ogos tetapi tidak ikut serta dalam usaha melegakan Peking. Pada akhir bulan September, kapal selam yang masih ada di China dipesan kembali ke Filipina dan dihantar ke Brooklyn, Zafiro, dan Indiana.22

Tidak lama setelah Peking merasa lega, Menteri AS ke China EH Conger menulis setiausaha negara, "Kepada Marinir kita jatuh bahagian pertahanan yang paling sukar dan berbahaya kerana jarak kita dengan tembok kota besar, dan pintu-pintu kota utama di mana senjata besar ditanam. Legasi kami, dengan kedudukan yang kami pegang di dinding, adalah kunci untuk keseluruhan keadaan. "23 Conger terus menulis bahawa" peristiwa paling berani dan paling berjaya dari keseluruhan pengepungan adalah serangan yang dipimpin oleh Kapten Myers, dari Marinim kita, dan lima puluh lima orang, Amerika, Inggeris, dan Rusia, yang mengakibatkan penangkapan barikade yang hebat di dinding, yang dibela oleh beberapa ratus tentera China, lebih dari lima puluh daripadanya terbunuh. "24

Pada pertemuan yang diadakan pada 18 Ogos, sekumpulan mubaligh Amerika memutuskan bahawa, "Orang-orang Amerika yang dikepung di Peking ingin menyatakan penghargaan mereka atas keberanian, kesetiaan, dan patriotisme Marinir Amerika, kepada siapa kita sangat berhutang keselamatan. " Kumpulan ini lebih jauh memutuskan bahawa, "dengan keberanian mereka dalam memegang posisi yang hampir tidak dapat dipertahankan di tembok kota dalam menghadapi jumlah yang sangat banyak, dan dalam bekerjasama dalam mendorong orang-orang Tionghoa dari posisi yang sangat kuat, mereka membuat semua orang asing di Peking menjadi penghutang mereka, dan telah mendapat nama terhormat di kalangan pahlawan negara mereka. "25

Kumpulan Marin A.S. ini adalah sebahagian daripada ekspedisi bantuan antarabangsa yang dihantar untuk mengangkat pengepungan Peking. (NARA 306-ST-505-58-4822)

Penghormatan individu diberikan kepada banyak tentera laut setelah Pemberontakan Boxer. Tiga puluh tiga lelaki yang disenaraikan dianugerahkan Pingat Kehormatan, termasuk pingat pertama yang diberikan kepada seorang marinir selepas kematian. Pvt. Harry Fisher terbunuh pada 16 Julai ketika membantu membina sekatan berhampiran tembok di Peking. Pvt. Dan Daly menerima Pingat Kehormatan pertamanya kerana secara sukarela tinggal bersendirian di benteng tembok sambil mengalami tembakan berterusan dari musuh pada malam 15 Julai 26.26 Pegawai Angkatan Laut tidak layak mendapat Pingat Kehormatan sehingga tahun 1913. Sebaliknya, pegawai memperhatikan keberanian dalam tindakan biasanya dibezakan dengan "maju dalam jumlah" dalam pangkat mereka atau kadang-kadang diberi peringkat brevet. Sebagai contoh, Kapten John Myers maju empat angka dan mendahului Leftenan Besar 1 Smedley Butler maju dua nombor dan mendahului kapten dan Leftenan 1 Henry Leonard maju dua nombor. 27 Butler dan Leonard telah dipilih dalam sebuah laporan kepada Meade oleh pegawai Britain yang bertanggung jawab atas tindakan terhadap Tientsin pada 13 Julai, "Di antara banyak kejadian keberanian peribadi dalam tindakan itu, saya mencadangkan agar diperhatikan secara khusus dalam melakukan perlakuan 1st Lieut. Smedley D. Butler, Amerika Syarikat Marine Corps, dalam membawa seorang lelaki yang cedera dari depan di bawah api yang berat dan tepat Lieut. Butler cedera ketika melakukannya tetapi saya senang belajar tidak serius. Leftenan Pertama Adjutant Regimen, Henry Leonard, sebagai Lieut. Butler menderita dengan teruk, sukarela untuk membawanya keluar dari garis tembak. Prestasi gagah ini yang dia berjaya capai, tetapi saya menyesal mengatakan bahawa ia sangat terluka dalam melakukannya. "28 Selain itu, tiga pegawai yang bertugas di Pemberontakan Boxer wen untuk menjadi Komandan Kor Marin.29

Penyelidikan Salasilah

Jumlah tentera laut yang dihantar ke China semasa Pemberontakan Boxer adalah 49 pegawai dan 1,151 orang yang disenaraikan. , DC, atau di Pusat Rekod Personel Nasional (Rekod Personel Tentera) di St. Louis, Missouri. Secara amnya, catatan perkhidmatan untuk marinir yang terdaftar yang berpisah dari perkhidmatan sebelum tahun 1905 disimpan di Washington, D.C., dan rekod perkhidmatan untuk marin yang terdaftar yang berpisah setelah tahun 1905 disimpan di St. Louis. Penyelidik yang meminta salinan fail-fail ini melalui surat harus menggunakan Borang 80 NATF [lihat nota NATF], "Perintah Arkib Negara Untuk Salinan Rekod Veteran," untuk rekod yang terdapat di Washington, DC, dan Borang Standard 180, "Permintaan Berkaitan dengan Rekod Ketenteraan, "untuk fail personel di St. Louis.

Rekod perkhidmatan atau "fail kes" marinir yang terdaftar di Arkib Negara terdapat di Kumpulan Rekod 127, Rekod Kor Marin AS, entri 76. Rekod perkhidmatan boleh merangkumi: kertas pendaftaran dan pendaftaran semula, senarai deskriptif, rekod kelakuan, pemberitahuan pelepasan , sejarah ketenteraan, dan penerbitan lencana dan anugerah kempen. Terdapat dua siri fail kes. Yang pertama (tentera laut yang mendaftar sebelum tahun 1895) diatur mengikut tarikh pendaftaran atau pendaftaran semula terakhir. Sekiranya tarikh pendaftaran tidak diketahui, penyelidik boleh menggunakan indeks kad yang terdapat di Record Group 127, entri 75, "Senarai Kad Alphabetical of Enlisted Men of the Marine Corps, 1798-1941." Siri kedua fail kes, bagi tentera laut yang mendaftar setelah tahun 1895, disusun mengikut abjad. Harus diingat bahawa tidak biasa bagi marinir yang terdaftar untuk menggunakan alias dalam tempoh ini. Rekod perkhidmatan dan kad pendaftaran difailkan dengan nama kapal laut yang digunakan semasa dalam perkhidmatan.

Fail anggota tentera untuk pegawai laut yang bertugas dalam Pemberontakan Boxer disimpan di St. Louis. Pusat Rekod Personel Nasional mempunyai rekod untuk semua pegawai marin yang dipisahkan dari perkhidmatan selepas tahun 1895. Sumber yang baik untuk mengesahkan perkhidmatan sebagai pegawai marin adalah Senarai Pegawai Tentera Laut Amerika Syarikat dan Angkatan Laut dari 1775 hingga 1900, disunting oleh Edward W. Callahan.

Beberapa maklumat mengenai pegawai boleh didapati di Arkib Nasional di Washington, DC, dalam jilid dua (1899-1904) entri 67, "Rekod Perkhidmatan Tentera Pegawai Kor Marin," dalam Kumpulan Kumpulan 127. Jilid ini merangkumi maklumat seperti date and place of birth, state from which appointed, state of residence, date of commission, and military service for 1889- 1904.

Several reports related to marines in the Boxer Rebellion may be found in Record Group 127, entry 26, "Reports Relating to Engagements of Marine Corps Personnel in the Philippines and China, 1899-1901," and Record Group 80, General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947, entry 19, File #6320. Letters and reports not located in these two entries might be found in RG 127, entry 10, (Commandant's) "Letters Received, 1819-1903." This series is arranged alphabetically by initial letter of one of the following: surname of the correspondent, ship name, place name, location of marine barracks or duty station, name of the person concerned, or subject of the letter then chronologically under each letter.31

For a consolidated list of the Peking Legation Guards, see the "Names of the officers and enlisted men of the U.S. Marine Corps who were members of the Legation Guard during the siege of Pekin, China," found in RG 127, entry 26.32 The names of other marines involved in the Boxer Rebellion can be found in muster rolls in RG 127. Marine Corps muster rolls are arranged chronologically by year, then by month, and then by duty stations, units, ship detachments, and expeditionary forces. The muster rolls contain the names of officers and enlisted men, rank, date of enlistment/reenlistment, and date of transfer to or from another duty station including detached service.33 The muster rolls for this time period have been reproduced as part of National Archives Microfilm Publication T977, U.S. Marine Corps Muster Rolls, 1893-1958461 rolls). The muster rolls for July to September 1900 are available on T977, roll 21. This microfilm may be viewed in the Microfilm Reading Room at the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C.34

Campaign badges for service in the Boxer Rebellion were authorized by Navy Department Special Order No. 82 in 1908. The order authorized China Campaign Badges "to be issued to officers and enlisted men of the Marine Corps who served ashore in China with the Peking Relief Expedition, between May 24, 1900, and May 27, 1901, and the Legation Guard at Peking."35 As noted above, an individual's service record usually shows when the badge was issued and the campaign badge number. Many of these badges are listed in Record Group 127, entry 106, "Register of Badges, Medals and Bars Issued, 1908-1911."

Additional information of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps involvement in the Boxer Rebellion can be found in U.S. Navy deck logs in Record Group 24, Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel. The logbooks are arranged by name of a vessel and include daily entries for the ship. Naval vessels involved in China during the Boxer Rebellion include: USS Brooklyn, Buffalo, Iris, Monocacy, Nashville, New Orleans, Newark, Oregon, Solace, Wheeling, Yorktown, dan Zafiro.

Contemporary accounts of the Boxer Rebellion can be found in the published annual reports of the Secretary of the Navy, Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the War Department for 1900 and 1901. These publications contain many official reports from officers in China. For narrative histories of the Marine Corps' role in the Boxer Rebellion, see Robert D. Heinl's Soldiers of the Sea: The United States Marine Corps, 1775-1962, dan Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps by Alan R. Millett.

Catatan: NATF Form 80 was discontinued in November 2000. Use NATF 85 for military pension and bounty land warrant applications, and NATF 86 for military service records for Army veterans discharged before 1912.

See also this related article:

Chinese place names that appear in this article are those used in 1900 and are spelled as they appear in the U.S. military reports.

1. First Lt. J. R. Lindsey to Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, Annual Reports of the War Department, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1901, Jilid 1, pt. 6, pp. 454-459. Jonathan D. Spence, (The Search for Modern China1991), pp. 231-232.

2. Legations are official residences and offices of diplomatic ministers in a foreign country.

3. Robert D. Heinl, Soldiers of the Sea: The United States Marine Corps, 1775-1962 (1962), p. 127.

4. Capt. John T. Myers to Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Force on Asiatic Station, Sept. 26, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, pp. 1266-1270. The sailors from USS Newark included three blue jackets, one chief machinist, and one hospital apprentice. Chief Machinist Peterson arrived on June 3.

5. The foreign sailors and marines included: 35 Austrians, 82 British, 48 French, 51 Germans, 25 Japanese, 81 Russians, and 29 Italians. First Lt. J. R. Lindsey to Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, Annual Reports of the War Department, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1901, Jilid 1, pt. 6, pp. 454-459. Heinl, Soldiers of the Sea, p. 130.

6. Capt. John T. Myers to Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Force on Asiatic Station, Sept. 26, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, pp. 1266-1270. Spence, Search for Modern China, pp. 233-234.

7. Capt. John T. Myers to Brigadier-General Commandant, U.S. Marine Corps, Mar. 28, 1901, Reports Relating to Engagements of Marine Corps Personnel in the Philippines and China, 1899-1901, entry 26, Records of the U.S. Marine Corps, Record Group (RG) 127, National Archives Building (NAB), Washington, DC.

8. One Englishman and a Russian were also wounded during the assault. Myers's wound healed, but he soon came down with typhoid fever.

9. Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1900, hlm. 1116.

10. Littleton W. T. Waller to Second in Command, United States Naval Force, Asiatic Station, June 22, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1900, pp. 1148- 1149.

11. Littleton W. T. Waller to Brigadier-General Commandant, U.S. Marines, June 28, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1900, pp. 1150-1152.

12. Heinl, Soldiers of the Sea, hlm. 133.

13. One officer was killed, and three were wounded.

14. Although General Chaffee was assigned to command American troops in China on June 26, 1900, he did not arrive in China until July 30. See Corbin to MacArthur, June 26, 1900, Correspondence Relating to the War With Spain (1902), Vol. 1, hlm. 419. Maj.-Gen. Adna R. Chaffee to Adjutant-General, USA, Sept. 1, 1900, Annual Reports of the War Department, For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1900, Jilid 1, pt. 9, pp. 31- 43.

15. The marines accounted for 453 enlisted men and 29 officers.

16. W. P. Biddle to Major-General Commanding United States Forces, Aug. 20, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department, 1901, pp. 1276-1277. Maj.-Gen. Adna R. Chaffee to Adjutant- General, USA, Sept. 1, 1900, Annual Reports of the War Department, For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1900, Jilid 1, pt. 9, pp. 31-43.

17. Biddle to Major-General Commanding United States Forces, Aug. 20, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, Report "B," p. 1278.

18. Biddle to Major-General Commanding United States Forces, Aug. 20, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, Report "C," p. 1278.

19. Spence, Search for Modern China, hlm. 235.

20. Report of Wounded and Killed, G. A. Lung, Aug. 26, 1900, File 6320-65, General Correspondence, 1897-1915, entry 19, General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947, RG 80, NAB.

21. Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, hlm. 1232.

22. Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, hlm. 1234.

24. Extract from Report of Minister Conger to the Secretary of State, Aug. 17, 1900, entry 26, RG 127, NAB.

25. Attached to E. H. Conger to Maj. W. P. Biddle, Aug. 20, 1900, entry 26, RG 127, NAB.

26. N. H. Hall to J. T. Myers, Aug. 30, 1900, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901, pp. 1270- 1271. Dan Daly was awarded a second Medal of Honor for service in Haiti in 1915.

27. "Awards For Services in China," entry 26, RG 127, NAB.

28. Brig. Gen. A.R.F Dorward to Col. Robert Meade, July 15, 1900, ibid.

29. Officers who went on to become Commandants were: William P. Biddle, Wendell C. Neville, and Ben H. Fuller.

30. Report of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1900, hlm. 1132.

31. Researchers interested in additional files related to the Boxer Rebellion may want to consult Area 10 records found in the Area Files of the Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library, RG 45, NAB. These records have been reproduced on NARA Microfilm Publication M625, Area File of the Naval Records Collection, 1775-1910 (414 rolls). Microfilm rolls 377 to 383 cover documents for May 1, 1900, to August 31, 1900.

32. Identifying marines in the Peking Legation can also be done by checking the May and June 1900 Marine Corps muster rolls of the USS Newark and the USS Oregon.

33. Muster rolls also show date of desertion, sick in the hospital, and minor infractions and punishments.

34. The microfilming of Microfilm Publication T977 has not yet been completed. Rolls covering 1893-1940 are available at the National Archives Building. Once microfilming is complete, rolls covering 1941-1958 will be available at the National Archives at College Park, MD. Contact military textual reference in College Park for reference service on the original bound volumes for 1940-1945. Reference service for the post-1945 muster rolls is provided by the Marine Corps Historical Center, Washington, DC.


A Chinese historical view of the Boxer Rebellion (1976)

Although Western historians and conservative Chinese historians have been critical of the Boxers, an alternative view in China sees the Boxers as patriotic defenders of China. This account appeared in China in 1976:

“The world-shaking Yi Ho Tuan Movement [Boxers] is the glory and pride of the Chinese people. It laid a cornerstone for the great victory of their revolution fifty years later. It gave the invaders a taste of the people’s heavy fist and shattered their fond dream of partitioning China. Earlier, they had arrogantly boasted that with 10,000 soldiers carrying modern arms they could subjugate all China.

Clamour for partition had filled the air. But after the Yi Ho Tuan mounted the political stage, this claptrap was no longer heard – not because the imperialists had changed in their aggressive nature and their desire to carve up China, but because the mighty Chinese people had taught them a bitter lesson through the Yi Ho Tuan…

To the Chinese people, the Yi Ho Tuan Movement brought a better understanding of imperialism, strengthening them in attacks against its rule in China. The imperialist powers liked to pose as guardians of civilisation. The crimes of their soldiery on Chinese soil bared this lie, unmasking their real savagery for all to see.

Further, the Yi Ho Tuan Movement exposed the treasonous character of the Qing government. It both weakened the feudal ruling power and precipitated the subsequent growth of the revolutionary movement.

These great and historic merits of the Yi Ho Tuan can never be obliterated. Yet the Yi Ho Tuan Movement has long been abused and slandered by the imperialists and all reactionary forces. In its own day, the imperialists labelled it a manifestation of the ‘hostility of the yellow race towards the white race’ and of ‘Chinese hatred for European culture and civilisation’. Imperialist lackeys dubbed it ‘irrational’. And 50 years later… a US Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, slandered it as an anti-foreign disturbance…

Not in vain did the Yi Ho Tuan heroes shed their blood. Their patriotism and dauntless courage will inspire the Chinese people forever. In the annals of the Chinese nation, the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal exploits of the Yi Ho Tuan will always be a lustrous chapter.”


Controversy in modern China

Though the reaction of the Boxers against foreign imperialism in China is regarded by some as patriotic, others in China consider this movement as a rebellion (disorder Mandarin Pinyin: luàn), a negative term in Chinese language, when described by commentators during the years of the Qing Dynasty and Republic of China. Chinese Communists have altered the perception of the rebellion by referring to it as an uprising (being upright q_yì), a more positive term in the Chinese language. It is frequently referred to as a “patriotic movement” in the People’s Republic of China by Communist politicians.

In January 2006, Freezing Point, a weekly supplement to the China Youth Daily newspaper, was closed partly due to its running of an essay by Yuan Weishi (History professor at Zhongshan University) that criticized the way in which the Boxer Rebellion and nineteenth century history about foreign interaction with China was portrayed in Chinese textbooks and taught at school.


The Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion targeted both the Manchu dynasty in China and the influence of European powers within China. Though the Boxer Rebellion failed but it did enough to stir up national pride within China itself.

In 1895, China had been defeated by Japan. This was a humiliation for the Chinese as Japan had always been considered as a lesser nation to China. China lost control of Korea and Formosa to Japan.

Within the elite of Chinese society, it was believed that this defeat was entirely the blame of the Europeans who were dominant in China and that they alone were responsible for China’s defeat.

Many Chinese began to feel the same. It was believed that the Europeans were driving China’s domestic and foreign policy and that the situation was getting out of control. By the end of the Nineteenth Century, a strong sense of nationalism swept over China and many wanted to reclaim China for the Chinese. In 1898, these feelings boiled over into rebellion.

The rebellion began in north China in the Shantung Province. This province was a German sphere of influence and Germany dominated the rail lines, factories and coal mines that existed in Shantung. The Germans made considerable profits while the Chinese there were paid very poor wages and lived very poor lifestyles.

In Shantung, gangs of Chinese people roamed the streets chanting “Kill the Christians” and “Drive out the foreign devils”. Germans who lived in Shantung were murdered as were other European missionaries. Those Chinese who had converted to Christianity were also murdered.

Those behind the Shantung rebellion belonged to a secret society called Yi Ho Tuan – which meant “Righteous Harmony Fists” when translated into English. This was shorten to Boxers and the rebellion has gone done in history as the Boxer Rebellion.

By 1900, the rebellion had started to spread across northern China and included the capital Peking.

One of the targets of the Boxers was the Manchu government. They were seen as being little more as unpatriotic stooges of the European ‘masters’ who did nothing for national pride.

The inspiration behind the Manchu government was the Empress Dowager. She was nicknamed “Old Buddha” – but never to her face. She had been married to the former emperor and was a very clever person. China was a society where women were ‘kept in their place’, therefore, she was an oddity within that male dominated society. Empress Dowager Tzu realised what was going on and made secret contact with the Boxers offering them her support. This they accepted. This allowed the Boxers to turn their full attention to the Europeans.

Peking had many Europeans living in it in 1900. Their lifestyle was completely different to that of the Chinese who lived in the city. The Europeans effectively treated the Chinese in Peking as their slaves. It was not surprising that the Boxers found many ready supporters in Peking.

In June 1900, it became clear that their lives were in danger and many prepared to leave the city. The German ambassador in China wanted to register one final protest at the way the Europeans were being treated in China. As he made his way to the Royal Palace to protest, he was dragged from his sedan chair (being carried by Chinese) and murdered. The message was clear. Even the high and mighty were not safe. The rest of the Europeans crowded into the British Legation for their own safety. They were defended by an assortment of 400 European soldiers and sailors nicknamed the “Carving Knife Brigade” because of their lack of proper weapons. They fought off the Boxers with great bravery who were joined in the attack by troops who guarded the Manchus.

The Siege of the Legation lasted for 55 days until an international force marching from Tientsin on the coast managed to relieve them. 66 Europeans had been killed in this time and 150 had been wounded. This type of treatment was unforgivable from a European point of view. America had also been shocked by the treatment of the Europeans.

The international force, as a punishment, went of the rampage in Peking – effectively urged on by the officers commanding them. Peking was extensively damaged. The Chinese government was also ordered to pay $450 million in compensation – a vast sum of money for any nation let alone one as poor as China. The European force, now supported by the Manchus, then took its revenge on the Boxers. Those caught were given little mercy and they were beheaded in public. The Manchus were effectively forgiven as was the Dowager Empress despite her apparent treachery. She and her family were allowed to return to the Forbidden Palace in Peking facing no punishment other than European nations re-establishing their authority over the Chinese. She had no other choice but to be compliant.


The Boxer Rebellion

T he Boxer Rebellion was one of the darkest episodes in the history of China, where the discontent of the masses, the drug trade and the interests of foreign countries were mixed against the interests of the Chinese people. With the first Opium War still recent and a Chinese government trying to end the legality of drug trafficking against the English, who did not want to lose business or income, political conditions increasingly required more than a radical change.

When the Chinese army, which tried to end the problem by force, was defeated, the conditions set by the English were not only that the traffic would continue, but also that they should unconditionally surrender the island of Hong Kong. These conditions were seen by the Chinese people as a terrible humiliation, and thus a new revolt began to develop.

The Boxers were a group of clandestine political activists, whose goal was to eliminate any foreign presence in China, and their activities began in 1899 with a terrible maneuver whose main objectives were to Christian missionaries, who were trying to spread Catholicism among the Chinese. The nickname Boxers was given to them by Westerners, due to their use of martial arts, boxing and fencing as tools to fight against Western power.

The political conditions imposed from abroad, the abuse of power by foreigners and a terrible famine that took the lives of more than 6 million people due to high taxes to support wars, ended up sowing strong xenophobic sentiment. . This sentiment fueled the Boxer's movement, who proclaimed that they would end even the last foreigner in the country.

Although they were officially banned and operated outside the government, there were members of the Royal Court who supported them, as is the case of the Empress Ci Xi, who saw the revolution as the only way to end foreign rule. In this way, the Boxers were empowered to start acting, and their first forays skewed the lives of about 230 foreigners and several thousand Chinese Christians.

The darkest days came with the assassination of Baron Klemens von Ketteler, Germany’s ambassador to China, when several countries officially declared war on China. In 1900, Boxers took Tientsing, entering Beijing with several missionary heads stuck in pikes. Although his actions were condemned by the government, many members of the imperial troops actively supported his cause.

The embassies of Beijing were under siege for two months, but the foreign countries had assembled an army of about 20,000 soldiers, who would have to face the nearly 360,000 who were fighting in the ranks of the Boxers, an action they carried out in less than two months, but not without resistance. The consequences were dire for the Chinese people, who were brutally repressed in subsequent years to prevent a new uprising.

After the rebellion was quelled, the Qing Dynasty was forced to sign the Xinchou Treaty, which left China clearly at a disadvantage with foreign powers. Its two main conditions were that the death penalty would be applied to xenophobes and important compensation in terms of territories. The resource value of this compensation was equal to half the annual national product, which precipitated the fall of the Qing Dynasty and accelerated the arrival of the Republic of China.


Boxer Rebellion: The Chinese React to Imperialism

Commercial concessions had been forced on China dating to the end of the Opium Wars (1839-1842), a contrived series of conflicts engineered by British trading interests. France, Germany and Russia later demanded and received similar treatment. Paramount among the great powers’ requirements was the granting of treaty ports and extraterritorial status. China was later divided into spheres of influence in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), allowing outside nations even greater latitude. Understandably, the Chinese deeply resented the presence of the great powers and the weakness of their own government. China had effectively lost its independence. One reaction to this exploitation was the emergence of a clandestine martial arts society referred to by the English as the “Boxers” (their Chinese name being translated as “righteous harmonious fists”). The nativist group launched a series of attacks against foreigners, Chinese Christians and complicit government officials. The high point of the rebellion occurred in mid-1900, when Beijing was occupied by 140,000 Boxers. They laid siege to the British legation, which harbored most of the international community. The entrenched foreigners held out for two months until a hastily arranged multinational military force managed to break the siege, scattering the Boxers. As a result of the Boxer Rebellion, China was subjected to even greater humiliation. An indemnity of more than $300 million was levied on the nearly bankrupt nation and the government was forced to allow the permanent quartering of foreign soldiers in Beijing. The United States attempted to mitigate some of the financial damage from the Boxer Rebellion by later using much of its share of the reparations to fund scholarships for Chinese students studying in America. From the international perspective, the Boxer Rebellion increased support for the Open Door policy. The great powers realized that warring among themselves would inhibit their ability to exploit China. The Opium Wars, (1839-1842), were the first attempt by the weak Chinese government to eliminate the opium trade that had been thrust upon them by British traders. The British merchants illicitly brought the opium into China from India, against Chinese laws, to pay for the "trade goods" they wanted. The Chinese did want to sell their Porcelain and silk but they had no desire to "Trade" with the foreigners. The Chinese produced everything they needed themselves and considered foreign products to be of inferior quality. Overwhelmed by the Western military response, the Chinese were humiliated by having to pay reparations and allow concessions to the Western powers that effectively denied them control over their own country.


Pemberontakan Boxer

Definition and Summary of the Boxer Rebellion
Summary and Definition: The Boxer Rebellion was an anti-imperialist uprising of peasants in northern China between Autumn 1899 - 7 September 1901 that was aimed at ousting foreign interlopers with their foreign religions and strange cultures from China. An Eight-Nation Alliance of the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Japan, Russia, and Italy was formed in 1900 to organize an intervention in China. The result of the Boxer Rebellion was a victory for the alliance.

Boxer Rebellion for kids
William McKinley was the 25th American President who served in office from March 4, 1897 to September 14, 1901. One of the important events during his presidency was the Boxer Rebellion.

Boxer Rebellion: Chinese Troops and Boxers
The Picture shows Chinese Troops and the Boxers in 1899. The Boxer s are the men on the right of the picture. The dominant figure in the front of the picture is a drum major of the regular army of China. The other men in the picture are infantrymen of the New Imperial Army.

Why was it called the Boxer Rebellion?
The uprising was called the Boxer Rebellion because the revolt was begun by a secret Chinese religious society called "I Ho Ch uan" which translated into English means "Righteous Harmony Fists". Because the original name of the secret society included the word "ch uan", meaning fist, the rebels were called boxers by foreigners - hence the name of the Boxer Rebellion. The name was further emphasized by the Chinese rebels who performed rituals and exercises in martial arts 'Magical Kung-Fu' that they believed would give them the ability to withstand bullets. Westerners referred to these ceremonies as shadow boxing, underlining the Boxers nickname.

Summary of the Boxer Rebellion for kids: Origins of the Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion originated in Northern China in the Shantung Province. Shantung was a hotbed of discontent. Ex-Soldiers, disbanded from the government army, flocked to the area turning to crime when they were unable to find work. Shantung had a history and tradition of rebellions led by secret societies. Boxing and martial arts were practiced by thousands of men in province, sponsored by the secret societies. The "Righteous Harmony Fists" emerged in 1898, attacked Chinese Christians and organized anti-foreign uprisings and protests against the Qing dynasty and government.

Causes of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Western Powers: The Opium War (1839-1842) forced China to grant commercial concessions at first to Great Britain and then to other countries opening China to foreign trade. The industries and commerce in China were destroyed by the inflow of cheap foreign goods. The Opium War also resulted in widespread opium addiction in China.

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Gunboat Policy: Between 1870 to 1894, the Western powers adopted a "gunboat" policy in dealing with China using force to get what they wanted. The Chinese viewed foreigners as barbarians.

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Weak government in China: The ruling Qing dynasty (aka Ching dynasty) in China had been weakened by European encroachments and influence in China and further damaged by Japan's success in the First Sino-Japanese 1894-1895 War. Conflicting factions in the Qing dynasty reduced their power even further and exploitation by the westerners resulted in a rise in taxes.

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Anti-Christian Feelings: Chinese peasants resented the number of Christian missionaries and Chinese converts to the new Western religion which led to the emergence of the secret religious society called the "I Ho Ch uan" (Righteous Harmony Fists), nicknamed the Boxers. The Boxers soon extended their goal to eradicate all foreign presence and influence in China and the rebellion started to spread.

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Natural disasters: Natural disasters were blamed on the Christians and fuelled anti-foreign feelings. These included the flooding of the Yellow River in 1898 followed by the terrible drought of 1900.

Boxer Rebellion Causes: Economic hardship: Economic hardship, poverty, unemployment and high taxes stirred the rebels into action resulting in the eruption of the Boxer Rebellion.

Causes of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Effects of the Boxer Rebellion
The effects the Boxer Rebellion were as follows:

Effects of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: President McKinley tried to safeguard free trade between the United States through the Open Door policy, announced in 1899.

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: The Qing government gave their support to the rebels which stopped their protests against the government. The Qing dynasty believed that the rebels could be used against the hated foreigners.

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: The Boxer uprising increased and Chinese Christians and foreigners were killed in the violence.

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: President McKinley and Secretary of State John Hay tried to safeguard Chinese territorial integrity and free trade through the Open Door policy, announced in 1899.

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: Technological advances introduced by the Westerners such as the railroad and telegraph lines were destroyed, and foreigners were murdered.

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers moved from Shantung to Peking (Beijing), where the western foreigners and legations from United States, Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Japan, Russia, and Italy had set up their base. Starting on 20 June 1900, Boxer forces and Imperial Chinese troops besieged the foreign diplomats

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: In June 1890, an international military force of 2000 sailed from Tientsin to Peking

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: The United States had favored independent action but the uprising reached such high levels of violence and destruction that President McKinley to ordered Rear Admiral Louis Kempff (United States military commander in China) to "act in concurrence with other powers so as to protect all American interests.". President McKinley then ordered the transfer of 2500 American soldiers from the Philippines to China

Effects of Boxer Rebellion: The Battle of Peking: The joint forces of the eight nations ended the Boxer s siege of Peking on August 14, 1900. The emperor, the Dowager Empress and members of the Qing court fled Peking in the early morning of 15 August

Effects of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Significance of the Boxer Rebellion
The significance of the Boxer Rebellion was as follows:

Significance of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Significance of Boxer Rebellion: The combined military forces of the Allied Expedition were far superior to the Boxers and the Qing troops. The Boxer Rebellion had raged from Autumn 1899 - 7 September 1901. Peace was finally established in China and the Boxer protocol was signed in September 1901.

Significance of Boxer Rebellion: Chinese resentment to the Qing dynasty became widespread and within ten years the Chinese imperial system was overthrown and the Chinese Republic was established

Significance of Boxer Rebellion: President McKinley was criticized by Democratic politicians and newspapers who accused the president with imperialism and exceeding his constitutional authority. President McKinley argued that a president s constitutional war powers granted him such authority.

Significance of Boxer Rebellion: The prestige of the United States as a world power increased as a result of their actions and involvement during the Boxer Rebellion.

Effects of the Boxer Rebellion for kids

Boxer Rebellion - President William McKinley Video
The article on the Boxer Rebellion provides detailed facts and a summary of one of the important events during his presidential term in office. The following William McKinley video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 25th American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1897 to September 14, 1901.

Boxer Rebellion: Siege of Peking

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Tonton videonya: Boxer Rebellion 1900 - Documentary (Disember 2021).