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Klondike Gold Rush tahun 1896

Klondike Gold Rush tahun 1896

Emas ditemui di British Columbia di daerah Cassiar, pada tahun 1873, dan penambang memasuki wilayah Yukon, pada tahun 1882. Pada tahun 1886, emas kasar ditemui setelah Forty-miles Creek ditemui, mengirimkan gelombang kegembiraan yang mengejutkan melalui negara Yukon. Ogos 1896, George dan Kate Carmack, Skookum Jim, dan Dawson Charlie, menemui emas di Bonanza (Rabbit) Creek, anak sungai Klondike River. Dua minggu kemudian, emas ditemui di Eldorado Creek, anak sungai Bonanza. Pada musim gugur tahun 1896, berita mengenai serangan Klondike sampai di Circle City, dan penambang berangkat ke Dawson. Menjelang September 1896, Bonanza Creek benar-benar diperbaiki dan banyak tuntutan telah dikeluarkan. Semasa musim sejuk tahun 1896-97, para pelombong mengusahakan tambang Klondike, mengeluarkan emas berjuta-juta dolar. Hari 14 Julai meletup sebagai kapal uap Cemerlang tiba di San Francisco, California dengan emas bernilai setengah juta dolar, dan kisah-kisah menakjubkan Klondike Gold Rush melanda berita. Tiga hari kemudian kapal uap Portland berlabuh di Seattle dan 68 pelombong memunggah emas bernilai satu juta dolar di hadapan orang ramai 5.000 orang. Pada bulan Julai dan Ogos 1897, pelombong meninggalkan Seattle dan bandar-bandar lain untuk Klondike. Kapal yang membawa cap pertama tiba di Dyea dan Skagway, Alaska atau mengukus terus ke Sungai Yukon ke Dawson City. Oliver Millett dari Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, membuat tuntutan di Bukit Cheechako, jauh di atas Bonanza Creek, yang menghasilkan bernilai setengah juta dolar dari emas. Pada musim sejuk tahun 1897-98, penulis Jack London dan pasukan pelombong menginjak-injak jejak White and Chilkoot Pass. Pada musim bunga tahun 1898, ribuan meninggalkan Seattle dan bandar-bandar lain untuk Klondike. Ais di Tasik Lindemann dan Bennett Lake mencair dan armada lebih dari 7,000 kapal memulakan perjalanan perairan mereka ke Dawson City. Malangnya, lebih daripada 60 lelaki dan wanita terbunuh akibat kejadian salji di Chilkoot Trail. Dua tahun selepas The Great Seattle Fire pada 6 Jun 1889, kota ini mula mengumpul semula pusat bandar untuk memperluas kawasan komersial. Kira-kira $ 2.5 juta dikeluarkan pada tahun 1897 dan $ 10 juta pada tahun 1898. Pada musim bunga tahun 1899, harta tanah bernilai lebih dari satu juta dolar dan 117 bangunan musnah dalam kebakaran di Dawson City. Musim panas tahun 1899 membawa perubahan dan pertumbuhan ke wilayah emas Alaskan dan Kanada, jalan kereta api datang ke Alaska ketika kereta api Laluan Putih dan Yukon pertama berjalan dari Skagway, Alaska, ke Carcross, Yukon. Setahun kemudian, jalan menuju Whitehorse adalah selesai. Sebuah kapal pengukus tiba di Seattle pada bulan Oktober 1899; kapal itu membawa penambang dan emas Nome. Pada awal tahun 1900, dari Januari hingga Mei, satu hingga 2,000 pelombong turun dari Yukon ke Nome, dan kapal-kapal berlayar dari Seattle untuk pantai emas Nome dengan jumlah penumpang 20,000 orang. Dari tahun 1901 hingga 1904, perkara besar berlaku di Alaska dan di Seattle. Terima kasih kepada Alaskan dan Kanada Gold Rush dan pembangunan semula Seattle dan San Francisco, jumlah perniagaan tahunan di Seattle mencapai lebih dari $ 50 juta. Alaska Club, sebuah organisasi pelombong di Seattle yang berjaya menjadikannya kaya di wilayah emas Alaskan dan Kanada dan peniaga Alaska yang lain, telah dibuat. Antara tahun 1906 dan 1916, Seattle berkembang dengan ketara dalam ukuran dan pengiktirafan. Pameran Alaska-Yukon-Pasifik adalah pameran dunia yang diadakan di Seattle dengan alasan University of Washington, pada tahun 1909, mempublikasikan pengembangan Pacific Northwest. Reka bentuk lapangan dicapai oleh Olmsted Brothers. Juga pada tahun 1909, Patung William Seward ditempatkan di Taman Sukarelawan Seattle. Perdagangan yang dilalui oleh laut di Seattle mencapai paras tertinggi baru $ 155 juta pada tahun 1914. Pada tahun 1916, Pembinaan Bangunan Arktik di Seattle adalah manifestasi fizikal karya reka bentuk A. Warren Gould.


Apa itu Klondike Gold Rush?

Walaupun terdapat banyak laluan ke Klondike, kebanyakan menggunakan laluan Chilkoot atau White Pass.

Teriakan "Emas! Emas! Emas di Klondike!" memulakan perlumbaan. 100,000 pelombong harapan berlari ke arah Alaska dan Yukon dengan melihat kekayaan. Komuniti Alaska Native and First Nations menyesuaikan diri dengan jenis kekayaan lain: budaya, tanah, dan cara hidup mereka.

Pada bulan Ogos 1896, Skookum Jim dan keluarganya menemui emas berhampiran Sungai Klondike di Wilayah Yukon Kanada. Penemuan mereka mencetuskan salah satu kenaikan emas yang paling menakutkan dalam sejarah. Pelombong berhampiran segera berbondong-bondong ke Klondike untuk mempertaruhkan sisa tuntutan baik. Hampir setahun kemudian, berita menyala dunia luar. Gelombang pencari emas membeli bekalan dan menaiki kapal di Seattle dan bandar pelabuhan pantai barat yang lain. Mereka menuju ke utara dengan berfikir bahawa mereka akan menganggapnya kaya.

Laluan mana yang harus diambil?
Stampeders menghadapi beberapa laluan ke Klondike. Sebilangan memilih semua jalan air atau "jalan orang kaya." Berlayar di sekitar Alaska dan ke sungai Yukon memang mudah, tetapi mahal. Beberapa penyekat mencuba berjalan sepanjang jalan dengan salah satu jalan darat. Ini sering menjadi kekacauan. Orang yang mengambil beberapa laluan ini tiba dua tahun selepas orang lain. Stampeders lain cuba melintasi glasier berhampiran Yakutat dan Valdez. Di lautan menara berais, kebanyakan orang ini tersesat atau buta salji.

Sebilangan besar penyekat memilih laluan paling murah dan paling langsung - Laluan Putih dan Laluan Chilkoot. Seorang penunjuk jalan yang mengambil jalan "orang miskin" ini melintasi Inside Passage. Mereka turun, lalu mendaki gunung Coast Range untuk sampai ke hulu Sungai Yukon. Dengan menaiki kapal buatan sendiri, stampeders menempuh perjalanan lebih dari 500 batu di tepi sungai untuk mencapai ladang emas.

Melalui musim gugur dan musim sejuk tahun 1897-98, kapal menghantar pencari emas ke Skagway dan Dyea, Alaska yang berdekatan. Kedua-duanya berkembang dari khemah ke bandar dalam beberapa bulan. Pedagang membina dermaga sejauh dua batu di pantai di mana orang Tlingit secara tradisional memancing. Bos penjenayah Jefferson "Soapy" Smith menjadi mangsa pencari emas naif. Pelacur menghasilkan lebih banyak wang daripada tukang cuci, tukang masak, pembuat pakaian, atau jururawat.

Skagway, di kepala White Pass Trail, didirikan oleh bekas kapten kapal uap bernama William Moore. Rumah kediamannya yang kecil dibanjiri oleh kira-kira 10,000 penduduk sementara yang berjuang untuk mendapatkan peralatan dan bekalan yang diperlukan sepanjang tahun di Pegunungan dan menuruni hulu Sungai Yukon di tasik Lindeman dan Bennett. Dyea, tiga batu jauhnya di hadapan Taiya Inlet, mengalami aktiviti boomtown yang sama paniknya ketika para pencari emas mengalir ke darat dan mengambil jalan Chilkoot Trail ke Kanada.

Tangga Emas memimpin Chilkoot Pass dari Timbangan pada tahun 1898

Perkhidmatan Taman Negara, Taman Sejarah Nasional Klondike Gold Rush, Perpustakaan KLGO SS-32-10566

Stampeders menghadapi kesukaran terbesar mereka di Chilkoot Trail dari Dyea dan White Pass Trail dari Skagway. Terdapat pembunuhan dan bunuh diri, penyakit dan kekurangan zat makanan, dan kematian akibat hipotermia, longsoran salju, dan mungkin juga patah hati. Chilkoot Trail adalah yang paling sukar bagi lelaki kerana haiwan pek tidak dapat digunakan dengan mudah di lereng curam menuju hantaran. Sehingga landasan kereta api dibina pada akhir tahun 1897 dan awal tahun 1898, stampeders harus membawa semuanya di belakang mereka. Jejak Laluan Putih adalah pembunuh haiwan, kerana para pencari yang cemas membebani dan memukul haiwan kesayangan mereka dan memaksa mereka melewati kawasan berbatu hingga mereka jatuh. Lebih daripada 3,000 haiwan mati di jalan ini, banyak tulang mereka masih tergeletak di bahagian bawah Dead Horse Gulch.

Pada tahun pertama terburu-buru, dianggarkan 20,000 hingga 30,000 pencari emas menghabiskan rata-rata tiga bulan mengemas pakaian mereka di laluan dan melewati laluan ke tasik. Jarak dari air pasang ke tasik hanya kira-kira 35 batu, tetapi setiap individu berjalan beratus-ratus batu berulang-alik di sepanjang jalan, bergerak dari cache ke cache. Sebaik sahaja para calon mencari peralatan yang lengkap ke tasik, mereka membina atau membeli kapal untuk mengapung selebihnya 560 km ke arah Dawson City dan daerah perlombongan Klondike di mana bekalan nugget emas yang hampir tidak terbatas dikatakan berbohong.

Menjelang musim panas tahun 1898, terdapat 18,000 orang di Dawson, dengan lebih daripada 5,000 orang bekerja menggali. Menjelang bulan Ogos, banyak penyekat telah mula pulang ke rumah, kebanyakan dari mereka rosak. Tahun berikutnya menyaksikan eksodus penambang yang lebih besar ketika emas ditemui di Nome, Alaska. Klondike Gold Rush yang hebat berakhir dengan tiba-tiba ketika ia bermula. Bandar seperti Dawson City dan Skagway mula merosot. Yang lain, termasuk Dyea, hilang sama sekali, hanya meninggalkan kenangan tentang apa yang dianggap oleh banyak orang sebagai pengembaraan besar terakhir abad ke-19.

  • Baca lebih banyak cerita dari Klondike Gold Rush
  • Temui penjaga emas yang telah menyimpan sejarah di Skagway
  • Penyelidikan genealogi stampeder

Banyak penerbitan Taman Bersejarah Nasional Klondike Gold Rush kini tersedia dalam talian percuma melalui laman Sejarah Taman Perkhidmatan Taman Negara.

Stampeders, sarat dengan gear, tunggu sebaris memulakan Chilkoot Pass.

Perkhidmatan Taman Negara, Taman Sejarah Nasional Klondike Gold Rush, Koleksi Candy Waugaman, Perpustakaan KLGO SS-126-8831


21 Foto Menyampaikan Sejarah Visual Klondike Gold Rush

Klondike Gold Rush merupakan penghijrahan oleh para calon pelanggan ke Wilayah Yukon di Kanada barat laut. Emas pertama kali ditemui di Bonanza Creek oleh penambang tempatan pada 16 Ogos 1896. Ketika berita penemuan itu sampai ke Seattle dan San Francisco, kira-kira 100,000 lelaki mengembara ke utara untuk mencari rezeki.

Sebilangan besar calon mencari melalui Pelabuhan Dyea dan Skagway di Tenggara Alaska dan kemudian akan menyusuri Laluan Chilkoot atau Laluan Putih ke Sungai Yukon dan berlayar ke Klondike. Laluan Laluan Putih adalah jalan berbahaya di atas pergunungan, yang pada bahagiannya hanya selebar dua kaki. Keadaan berbahaya ini menyebabkan kematian banyak kuda dan Laluan Laluan Putih dikenali sebagai & acirc & # 128 & # 152Dead Horse Trail & rsquo. Chilkoot Trail naik ke ketinggian yang lebih tinggi daripada White Pass, tetapi lebih sering digunakan. Seorang peniaga mengukir tangga ke dalam ais dan membebankan calon pencari setiap hari untuk menggunakan & acirc & # 128 & # 152Golden Steps & rsquo.

Setiap pencari diperintahkan oleh Pihak Berkuasa Kanada untuk membawa bekalan makanan selama setahun untuk mengelakkan kebuluran besar-besaran. Semua makanan, perkakas, peralatan perkhemahan, dan barang keperluan lain yang sering diambil oleh lelaki itu seberat satu tan. Kuda, untuk menanggung beban, sering dijual dengan harga $ 700 ($ 19,000 pada masa ini).

Dawson City ditubuhkan di mana Klondike dan Yukon Rivers bertemu. Pada tahun 1896 hingga 1898 populasi meletup dari 500 hingga 30,000 orang. Dari semua penduduk Kota Dawson ini, hanya 4,000 emas yang dipukul dan hanya beberapa ratus menjadi kaya. Teknologi perlombongan hidraulik yang ada terlalu berat untuk dibawa ke Klondike, jadi pelombong akan membuat kebakaran besar untuk mencairkan lapisan es. Kotoran itu kemudian dapat dikeluarkan. Penambang di sepanjang dasar sungai akan menggunakan kotak rocker untuk memisahkan kotoran dan batu dari serpihan emas.

Emas itu dijual pada harga $ 16 ($ 430) per auns.

Pada tahun 1899, emas dijumpai di Nome, Alaska dan dalam satu minggu sahaja, 8,000 calon meninggalkan Klondike. Klondike Gold Rush telah berakhir.

Kem perlombongan Klondike ca. 1898. Wikimedia Packers menaiki puncak Chilkoot Pass, 1897-98, dalam perjalanan ke Klondike Gold Rush. Perpustakaan dan Arkib Kanada Peneroka menuju ke Klondike, 1897. Ensiklopedia Britannica Pelombong emas mencari melalui batu dan kotoran untuk mencari emas. emas bawah Sluice digunakan untuk pemisahan emas dari kotoran dengan air. Pinterest Perlumbaan emas bermula di Klondike, ketika pencari bertuah pertama tiba di Seattle, 1897. isolafelice.forumcommunity Prospek di Dyea Wharf dikelilingi oleh bekalan yang diperlukan untuk perjalanan ke ladang emas pada sekitar tahun 1899. Arkib Yukon Wanita menarik kereta luncur yang penuh dengan peruntukan melalui jalan-jalan Skagway, Alaska pada tahun 1898. Pinterest Dalam beberapa minggu setelah berita mengenai penemuan emas Klondike sampai di Seattle pada musim panas tahun 1897, Skagway, Alaska diubah menjadi kota boom perbatasan dengan salun, hotel murah dan rumah-rumah mewah. peachridgeglass Calon Dawson City 1897. Pinterest


Klondike Gold Rush

Mencari Emas. Pada musim panas tahun 1897 orang Amerika mengalami demam emas. Tidak ada yang menarik pencarian lelaki Amerika untuk pengembaraan jantan, individualisme kasar, dan wang sebagai emas Klondike. Pada bulan Julai, jutawan yang dipenuhi dengan emas yang pertama bergegas mendarat di dermaga San Francisco, menyeret beg pakaian, karung kanvas, dan kadbod lama yang berat dengan emas. Dalam beberapa minit sahaja, pergaduhan Klondike bermula. Pada puncak kegelapan emas pada tahun 1898 dan 1899, lebih dari satu juta orang membuat rancangan untuk pergi ke wilayah Klondike di Wilayah Yukon pada tahun 1898 dan 1899 di Kanada barat laut, dan seratus ribu sebenarnya berangkat. Prospek pengembaraan

dan kekayaan menarik bagi banyak lelaki Amerika yang mendapati diri mereka melakukan kerja berulang-ulang, kusam, dan bergaji rendah setiap hari. Bagi lelaki yang ingin melombong emas dan bagi peniaga dan wanita yang melihat peluang untuk memberikan perkhidmatan kepada calon pelanggan, kenaikan emas tahun 1898 dan 1899 menjanjikan kekayaan yang besar untuk kerja keras dan penggunaan kecerdasan & # x201C Yankee . & # x201D

Penetapan keluar. Pada pertengahan bulan Julai 1897 kapal-kapal yang dianggap tidak layak pada bulan Juni sedang dalam perjalanan mengangkut lelaki, kuda, anjing, dan bekalan ke Alaska, untuk memulakan perjalanan darat yang panjang ke Wilayah Yukon. Para penambang kapal yang dihancurkan bersama-sama di kapal tidur di tempat tidur yang sesak atau di geladak terbuka, kadang-kadang menunggu tujuh jam untuk makan dan menderita ribut, letupan, kelaparan, bangkai kapal, dan bahkan pemberontakan. Setelah sampai di tanah kering, para pencari menghadapi penipu dan pekedai yang ingin mendapatkan keuntungan di bandar khemah Skagway dan Dyer. Salun, rumah pelacuran, dan pejabat tanah adalah antara perniagaan yang makmur. Makanan dijual dengan harga yang tidak masuk akal di bandar-bandar khemah ini kerana ia adalah tempat terakhir untuk membeli bekalan untuk perjalanan ke pedalaman Yukon, dan setiap pencari harus membawanya dengan bekalan makanan selama setahun.

Perjalanan ke Dawson. Dalam jarak beberapa batu dari Skagway jalan menjadi jalan berliku yang sempit. Jejak sejauh empat puluh lima batu itu melilit sekitar gunung curam. Dilemahkan oleh kuku yang dijangkiti, beban berat, pemukulan tanpa henti, dan cuaca sejuk-dingin, haiwan pekak mati oleh

beribu-ribu. Tubuh mereka mengotori jalan dan memberi inspirasi kepada penulis Amerika Jack London, yang pergi ke Yukon pada musim gugur 1897, untuk menyebutnya sebagai & # x201C Dead Horse Trail. & # x201D Di sebalik keadaan yang begitu teruk, para pencari terus mendaki gunung, masing-masing membawa lebih dari enam puluh lima paun bekalan. Garis lelaki dijarakkan dengan begitu rapat sehingga barisan boleh melepasi titik tertentu selama lima jam lurus tanpa rehat.

Tangga Emas. Tepat di bawah puncak pegunungan pesisir, para pencari harus meninggalkan haiwan kesayangan mereka dan naik dengan berjalan kaki melalui Chilkoot Pass di atas gunung. Gunung-gunung ditutupi dengan salji berais tebal sepanjang tahun. Kaki jejak lelaki yang kelihatan tidak berkesudahan memotong & # x201C langkah & # x201D ke dalam ais hantaran yang dikenali sebagai Tangga Emas. Kerana sukar mencapai puncak, lelaki membagi bekalan mereka menjadi lebih kecil dan melakukan beberapa perjalanan dari perkemahan ke puncak. Butuh banyak prospek selama tiga bulan untuk memindahkan bekalan mereka ke puncak gunung. Mereka yang selamat dari Tangga Emas harus menunggu di seberang pergunungan agar ais mencair di tasik dan sungai di Lembah Yukon. Ketika mereka menunggu, mereka membina perahu dari pelbagai jenis, membentuk sebuah perkampungan berperahu yang luar biasa yang dilengkapi dengan latihan, paku, dan alat. Ketika ais di tasik dan sungai akhirnya mencair, 7.124 kayak, burung gagak, dan sampan mengembara sejauh lima ratus batu melalui gaung dan jeram. Kapal pertama mendarat di Dawson, pusat aktiviti perlombongan Yukon, pada 8 Jun 1898, dan kapal terus tiba tanpa rehat selama lebih dari sebulan.

Dawson. Bandar Dawson yang berkembang pesat berbeza dengan wilayah Yukon yang kosong. Ketika boom terus berlanjutan, kapal uap besar membawa kayu, minuman keras, makanan, kuda, dan semakin banyak orang ke kota yang penuh dengan kedai, hotel, dewan tarian, pejabat pos, dan surat khabar. Sebilangan besar lelaki yang berjuang untuk mencapai Dawson akhirnya tidak pernah membuat tuntutan untuk diri mereka sendiri dan bekerja melombong emas lelaki lain. Yang lain mendapati kerja di bandar. Ketika kota ini berkembang, ribuan pencari emas memanjakan diri dalam suasana perayaan dan dramatis ketika perjudian, teater, dan pelacuran berkembang untuk memenuhi permintaan penduduk. Pada 26 April 1899, sebuah kebakaran telah memusnahkan bandar itu sepenuhnya, tetapi pada akhir musim panas Dawson baru telah dibina, lebih menarik dan lebih Victoria daripada kota perbatasan yang kasar. Pada masa itu emas telah ditemukan di Nome, Alaska, dan pesta emas itu siap untuk terus maju. Dalam satu minggu pada bulan Ogos, lapan ribu orang meninggalkan Dawson ke Nome dan Fairbanks, Alaska. Demam emas terus berlanjutan bagi lelaki Amerika yang gelisah dengan harapan akan pengembaraan dan wang.


Klondike Gold Rush

Pada 16 Ogos 1896, Yukon Indian Skookum Jim Mason dan Tagish Charlie, bersama dengan Seattleite George Carmack menemui emas di Rabbit Creek, dekat Dawson, di wilayah Yukon Kanada. Anak sungai itu segera diganti menjadi Bonanza Creek, dan banyak penduduk tempatan mulai mengajukan tuntutan. Emas secara harfiah dijumpai di semua tempat, dan sebahagian besar pihak berkepentingan awal ini (yang dikenali sebagai & quotKlondike Kings & quot) menjadi kaya.

Oleh kerana Yukon begitu jauh, berita mengenai penemuan ini tersebar secara perlahan selama hampir satu tahun. Pada 17 Julai 1897, sebelas bulan setelah penemuan emas awal, kapal uap Portland tiba di Seattle dari Dawson dengan & quot; lebih dari satu tan emas & quot, menurut Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Dengan lafaz itu, Klondike Gold Rush menyala!

Dalam masa enam bulan, kira-kira 100,000 pencari emas berangkat ke Yukon. Hanya 30,000 yang menyelesaikan perjalanan. Banyak Klondikers mati, atau hilang semangat dan berhenti di tempat mereka berada, atau berpatah balik di sepanjang jalan. Perjalanan itu panjang, sukar, dan sejuk. Klondikers harus berjalan hampir sepanjang jalan, menggunakan haiwan atau kereta luncur untuk membawa bekalan beratus-ratus pound. Polis Northwest Mounted di Kanada menghendaki semua Klondikers membawa bekalan bernilai setahun bersama mereka. Walaupun begitu, kelaparan dan kekurangan zat makanan adalah masalah serius di sepanjang jalan. Kisah Klondiker yang merebus but untuk minum kuahnya telah dilaporkan secara meluas, dan mungkin benar. Sejuk adalah masalah serius lain di sepanjang jalan. Suhu musim sejuk di pergunungan British Columbia utara dan Yukon biasanya -20 darjah F., dan suhu -50 darjah F. tidak terdengar. Khemah biasanya merupakan tempat perlindungan terhangat yang diharapkan oleh Klondiker.

Masalah yang lebih besar adalah jalan mereka sendiri. Klondikers mempunyai dua pilihan: Chilkoot Trail atau White Pass Trail. Laluan White Pass berasal dari Skagway, Alaska, di mana Jefferson & quotSoapy & quot Smith, seorang penipu dari Denver, telah mengambil alih bandar ini. Smith telah mengatur operasi di sebuah salon / kasino yang disebut Jeff's Place dan mengetuai sekumpulan 300 orang, yang disebutnya sebagai & quot; petak & quot nya untuk mengejar Klondikers yang tiba untuk mengambil bahagian dalam perebutan emas. Dia juga melakukan penipuan telegraf pertama di Alaska. Smith memasang tiang dan wayar, tetapi sebenarnya tidak tersambung dengan apa-apa. Walaupun begitu, dia mengambil wang tunai dari Klondikers yang ingin pulang ke rumah. Chilkoot Trail, di sisi lain, bukan pilihan yang lebih baik, walaupun mempunyai lebih sedikit peraturan. Ia lebih curam daripada Laluan Laluan Putih, dan hanya sedikit yang bersedia sepenuhnya untuk betapa sukarnya. Banyak yang mengalami kekurangan zat makanan dan / atau mati di sepanjang jalan. Sebilangan Klondikers jatuh sakit atau mati kerana memakan daging kuda mati yang terdapat di White Pass Trail, dan ia kemudian dikenali sebagai & quotDead Horse Trail & quot. Lelaki dilaporkan tidak siuman di jalan. Ada kemungkinan bahawa diet ini (atau kekurangannya) menyumbang kepada laporan kegilaan.

Dengan kemasukan 30,000 orang yang berhasil melewati jalan setapak, Dawson buat sementara waktu menjadi bandar terbesar di utara San Francisco. Itu bukan lagi kota khemah, tetapi kota yang baik, dengan lebih banyak kemudahan daripada yang dapat dibayangkan. Dawson mempunyai pili bomba di jalanan, dan merupakan kota pertama di Kanada barat yang mempunyai lampu elektrik. Orang juga merasa selamat di Dawson. Polis Northwest Mounted mematuhi perintah di Kanada, dan watak-watak jahat seperti Soapy Smith tidak dibenarkan masuk. Pertumbuhan Dawson sebahagian besarnya bertanggungjawab untuk mewujudkan Wilayah Yukon sebagai Wilayah Kanada yang baru pada 13 Jun 1898.

Juga bukan Dawson satu-satunya bandar di Kanada yang mengalami pertumbuhan dramatik kerana Klondike Gold Rush. Vancouver, British Columbia menyaksikan jumlah penduduknya meningkat dua kali ganda, dan di Alberta, populasi Edmonton meningkat tiga kali ganda.

Klondike Kings dengan cepat menjadi sangat kaya. Dianggarkan bahawa emas bernilai lebih satu bilion dolar ditemui, disesuaikan dengan standard akhir abad ke-20. Yang lain mendapati kemasyhuran dan kekayaan mereka dengan cara yang berbeza. Jack London menjadi terkenal dengan menulis pengalamannya di Klondike. Klondikers yang berjaya juga tidak terhad kepada lelaki. Belinda Mulroney menjadi kaya dengan menjalankan hotel dan menjual barang keperluan. Banyak wanita mendapati kekayaan mereka menjalankan dewan tarian. Martha Black membeli kilang papan dan kemudian menjadi Ahli Parlimen wanita kedua Kanada. Malah ada yang tidak pergi ke Klondike berjaya menjadi kaya dari Gold Rush. Lebih dari 1,000 batu jauhnya, perniagaan Seattle menghasilkan lebih dari $ 1 juta (tidak disesuaikan) menjual makanan dan bekalan yang diperlukan untuk perjalanan ke ladang emas. Walikota Seattle W.D. Wood seharusnya tinggal di Seattle dan memanfaatkan kekayaan yang dibawa oleh Klondikers ke bandar. Sebaliknya, dia melepaskan jawatannya sebagai walikota dan berangkat ke Yukon. Dia adalah salah satu daripada banyak orang yang berpatah balik.

Malangnya bagi mereka yang berjaya sejauh Klondike, hanya sedikit yang menjumpai kekayaan yang diharapkan. Pada saat massa tiba, semua anak sungai telah dituntut, dan para pendatang baru mendapati mereka harus bekerja untuk Klondike Kings, bukan untuk mereka sendiri. Bayarannya tidak buruk, antara $ 1-10 sehari, tetapi ini bukan yang dilakukan oleh Klondikers. Banyak Klondikers tidak pernah menanggung kos perjalanan, yang rata-rata $ 1200 (tidak disesuaikan). Walaupun begitu, ketika emas ditemui di Nome, Alaska pada tahun 1899, beberapa Klondikers ini berhenti memikirkan apa yang baru mereka alami. Pada tanda pertama emas, sebahagian besar Dawson naik dan pergi ke Nome, di mana sebahagian besar pencari emas sekali lagi kehilangan ketenaran dan kekayaan.


Raja Klondike: Clarence (C.J.) Berry

C.J. Berry adalah seorang petani buah yang berjuang di Selma, California yang menjual segala-galanya untuk mencari kekayaan di Utara. Dari pesta 40 yang menyeberangi Chilkoot Pass pada tahun 1894, hanya Berry dan dua yang lain yang berjaya ke Forty Mile. Ini bukan kali terakhir Berry menewaskan peluang & # 8212 dia mati kaya dan mempertaruhkan kekayaan emasnya menjadi kerajaan perniagaan yang bertahan hingga ke hari ini.

Namun, kejayaan tidak datang dengan segera. Berry berjuang untuk bertahan di musim sejuk Utara tahun 1894-95, setelah dua bulan makan kacang hanya ketika terperangkap di kawasan terpencil. Dari First Nations tempatan, Berry mengambil petua penting mengenai cara menavigasi iklim yang keras. Pada tahun 1895, dia mengembara kembali ke California dan menikahi kekasih masa kecilnya, kembali bersama dia dan saudaranya. Berry merawat bar di Forty Mile ketika George Carmack mampir pada akhir Ogos 1896 dan membayar minuman kerasnya dengan nugget emas yang mengagumkan. Berry segera pergi ke Rabbit (Bonanza) Creek dan berjaya membuat tuntutan di sana.

Tetapi kekayaan Berry benar-benar dilahirkan dalam pertemuan saloon kebetulan dengan Anton Stander beberapa minggu kemudian di Forty Mile. Kedua-dua lelaki itu menyimpan semula tetapi Stander tidak mempunyai dana dengannya dan ditolak perkhidmatan di kedai umum. Berry mencengkeramnya, dan Stander yang bersyukur memperdagangkan Berry separuh tuntutan Eldorado untuk separuh daripada tuntutan Bonanza Berry. Tuntutan Eldorado (Six Eldorado) ternyata menjadi salah satu tanah terkaya di Bumi, tuntutan yang dikerjakan oleh Berry dan dua orang saudaranya. Berry dan Stander kemudian membeli dua tuntutan bersebelahan dan kemudian membelah keseluruhan pakej tanah di antara mereka. C.J. dan Ethel Berry membuat kemenangan mereka kembali ke Amerika pada Portland, kapal yang berlabuh di Seattle pada 17 Julai 1897 ketika orang ramai yang demam menunggu.

Berry berasa tenang, rajin dan bercita-cita tinggi di sebuah kem di mana kebanyakan calon yang berjaya mensia-siakan kekayaan mereka pada anggur, wanita dan lagu. Dengan murah hati juga: dia meninggalkan bekas minyak berisi nugget emas dan sebotol wiski di pintu kabin Eldorado, mengundang orang yang lewat untuk menolong diri mereka sendiri. Berry mengeluarkan $ 1.5 juta pada tahun 1897 dolar dari Eldorado mendakwa bahawa dia dan saudara-saudaranya kemudian membuatnya kaya kali kedua di Alaska, sebelum kembali ke California dan membeli ladang minyak. Dia mempelopori penggunaan wap untuk mencairkan permafrost dan C.J. Dredging Co. miliknya menambang emas menggunakan kapal korek di Alaska. Kekayaan yang dibina Berry hingga ke hari ini & # 8212 Berry Petroleum Corp. diperdagangkan sebagai BRY di Nasdaq. Dan dana C.J. Berry Foundation merangkumi seni dan budaya, kesihatan, pendidikan dan pemuliharaan.


Hasil dan Kos Perlombongan

Pada puncak Klondike Gold Rush, Dawson City (ditubuhkan pada tahun 1896), bandar Kanada yang paling dekat dengan lombong emas Klondike, mempunyai populasi lebih dari 40,000 orang. Dari mereka yang tinggal di sana, hanya sekitar 15,000 yang akhirnya menjadi calon. Dari jumlah tersebut, hanya sekitar 4,000 emas yang dipukul dan hanya segelintir yang menjadi kaya. Pada saat kebanyakan stampers tiba pada tahun 1898, tempat terbaik di sungai telah dituntut. Malangnya, apa yang tidak disedari oleh banyak penyekat ketika mereka memulakan perjalanan ke Klondike ialah perlombongan memerlukan masa dan modal.

Kayu di sekitar lombong harus dibersihkan. Operasi perlombongan diperlukan untuk membakar kayu untuk mencairkan tanah. This could cost at least $1,500 ($42,000 today). An additional $1,000 ($28,000) to construct a dam, $1,500 again for ditches and up to $600 ($16,800) for sluice boxes (equipment that helps to separate gold from other materials). The total for such an initial investment would be $4,600 or $128,000 in today’s dollar value.

For many prospectors, the investment was worth it. Once gold was found, it was often highly concentrated, making the Klondike creeks fifteen times richer in gold than those in California. In fact, in just two years during the initial period of the Klondike prospecting, $230,000 ($6,440,000) worth of gold was brought up from claim number 29 on the Eldorado Creek alone.

However, once Klondikers obtained a license to mine, which they could do in Dawson or en route from Victoria, they could only prospect for gold. Once they found a suitable location, they could lay claim over mining rights. To stake a claim, a prospector needed to drive a stake into the ground at a measured distance and then return to Dawson to register the claim. Of course, all these licenses and claims cost money. Miners only had three days to make a claim and only one claim was allowed per person. In the case of married couples, the wife was allowed to register a claim for herself, doubling their amount of land.


In prehistoric times the area was used for hunting/gathering by the Hän-speaking people of the Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in and their forebears. The heart of their homeland was Tr'ochëk, a fishing camp at the confluence of the Klondike River and Yukon River, now a National Historic Site of Canada, just across the Klondike River from modern Dawson City. This site was also an important summer gathering spot and a base for moose-hunting on the Klondike Valley.

The current settlement was founded by Joseph Ladue and named in January 1897 after noted Canadian geologist George M. Dawson, who had explored and mapped the region in 1887. It served as Yukon's capital from the territory's founding in 1898 until 1952, when the seat was moved to Whitehorse.

Dawson City was the centre of the Klondike Gold Rush. [5] It began in 1896 and changed the First Nations camp into a thriving city of 40,000 by 1898. By 1899, the gold rush had ended and the town's population plummeted as all but 8,000 people left. When Dawson was incorporated as a city in 1902, the population was under 5,000. St. Paul's Anglican Church, also built that same year, is a National Historic Site.

The population dropped after World War II when the Alaska Highway bypassed it 300 miles (480 km) to the south. The economic damage to Dawson City was such that Whitehorse, the highway's hub, replaced it as territorial capital in 1953. [5] Dawson City's population languished around the 600–900 mark through the 1960s and 1970s, but has risen and held stable since then. The high price of gold has made modern placer mining operations profitable, and the growth of the tourism industry has encouraged development of facilities. In the early 1950s, Dawson was linked by road to Alaska, and in fall 1955, with Whitehorse along a road that now forms part of the Klondike Highway.

In 1978, another kind of buried treasure was discovered when a construction excavation inadvertently uncovered a forgotten collection of more than 500 discarded films on highly flammable nitrate film stock from the early 20th century that were buried in (and preserved by) the permafrost. These silent-era film reels, dating from "between 1903 and 1929, were uncovered in the rubble beneath [an] old hockey rink". [6] (See Dawson Film Find.) Owing to its dangerous chemical volatility, [7] the historical find was moved by military transport to Library and Archives Canada and the U.S. Library of Congress for both transfer to safety film and storage. A documentary about the find, Dawson City: Frozen Time, was released in 2016. [8]

The City of Dawson and the nearby ghost town of Forty Mile are featured prominently in the novels and short stories of American author Jack London, including The Call of the Wild. London lived in the Dawson area from October 1897 to June 1898. Other writers who lived in and wrote of Dawson City include Pierre Berton and the poet Robert Service. The childhood home of the former is now used as a retreat for professional writers administered by the Writers' Trust of Canada. [9]

Dawson City lies on the Tintina Fault. This fault has created the Tintina Trench and continues eastward for several hundred kilometres. Erosional remnants of lava flows form outcrops immediately north and west of Dawson City.

Edit Iklim

Dawson City has a dry-summer subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsc), similar to the territory capital of Whitehorse. The average temperature in July is 15.7 °C (60.3 °F) and in January is −26.0 °C (−14.8 °F). [10] The highest temperature ever recorded is 35.0 °C (95 °F) on 9 July 1899 [11] and 18 June 1950. [12] The lowest temperature ever recorded is −58.3 °C (−73 °F) on 3 February 1947. [13] It experiences a wide range of temperatures surpassing 30 °C (86 °F) in most summers and dropping below −40 °C (−40 °F) in winter. [10]

The community is at an elevation of 320 m (1,050 ft) [4] and the average rainfall in July is 49.0 mm (1.93 in) and the average snowfall in January is 27.6 cm (10.87 in). Dawson has an average total annual snowfall of 166.5 cm (65.55 in) and averages 70 frost free days per year. [10] The town is built on a layer of frozen earth, which may pose a threat to the town's infrastructure in the future if the permafrost melts. [14] [15]

Climate data for Dawson City Airport, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1897–present
Sebulan Jan. Feb. Mac Apr. Mungkin Jun Jul Ogos Sep Okt. Nov Dis Tahun
Record high humidex 9.7 8.8 10.7 22.4 34.9 35.0 39.4 37.9 24.9 19.5 10.0 5.0 39.4
Rekod tinggi ° C (° F) 9.7
(49.5)
9.5
(49.1)
14.2
(57.6)
23.0
(73.4)
34.7
(94.5)
35.0
(95.0)
35.0
(95.0)
33.5
(92.3)
26.1
(79.0)
20.1
(68.2)
12.8
(55.0)
12.8
(55.0)
35.0
(95.0)
Purata tinggi ° C (° F) −21.8
(−7.2)
−15.8
(3.6)
−3.8
(25.2)
7.5
(45.5)
15.5
(59.9)
21.8
(71.2)
23.1
(73.6)
19.4
(66.9)
12.1
(53.8)
−0.4
(31.3)
−14.3
(6.3)
−18.7
(−1.7)
2.1
(35.8)
Purata harian ° C (° F) −26.0
(−14.8)
−21.5
(−6.7)
−12.1
(10.2)
−0.1
(31.8)
8.2
(46.8)
14.0
(57.2)
15.7
(60.3)
12.3
(54.1)
5.8
(42.4)
−4.7
(23.5)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−4.1
(24.6)
Purata rendah ° C (° F) −30.1
(−22.2)
−27.1
(−16.8)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−7.7
(18.1)
0.9
(33.6)
6.2
(43.2)
8.2
(46.8)
5.2
(41.4)
−0.5
(31.1)
−9.0
(15.8)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−27.1
(−16.8)
−10.3
(13.5)
Catat rendah ° C (° F) −56.1
(−69.0)
−58.3
(−72.9)
−47.8
(−54.0)
−40.6
(−41.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−3.3
(26.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
−11.0
(12.2)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−36.5
(−33.7)
−47.9
(−54.2)
−54.4
(−65.9)
−58.3
(−72.9)
Record low wind chill −59.8 −58.6 −47.7 −37.9 −18.2 −3.5 0.0 −9.2 −25.8 −41.0 −50.9 −63.8 −63.8
Purata pemendakan mm (inci) 19.4
(0.76)
12.8
(0.50)
9.9
(0.39)
8.2
(0.32)
30.8
(1.21)
38.2
(1.50)
49.0
(1.93)
43.4
(1.71)
34.0
(1.34)
31.4
(1.24)
25.5
(1.00)
22.0
(0.87)
324.4
(12.77)
Purata hujan mm (inci) 0.1
(0.00)
0.0
(0.0)
0.3
(0.01)
2.6
(0.10)
28.4
(1.12)
38.2
(1.50)
49.0
(1.93)
43.1
(1.70)
29.7
(1.17)
9.4
(0.37)
0.1
(0.00)
0.4
(0.02)
201.3
(7.93)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 27.6
(10.9)
18.2
(7.2)
12.1
(4.8)
7.2
(2.8)
2.5
(1.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.4
(0.2)
4.6
(1.8)
26.7
(10.5)
36.3
(14.3)
31.0
(12.2)
166.5
(65.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 11.7 8.7 6.3 4.5 10.9 12.0 14.4 13.7 11.0 12.7 12.7 11.5 130.2
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.2 0.0 0.2 2.0 10.6 12.0 14.4 13.6 10.0 3.8 0.3 0.1 67.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 12.3 9.8 6.5 3.2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.5 9.9 13.5 12.2 69.8
Source: Environment Canada [10] [11] [16] [17]

Dawson was incorporated as a city in 1902 when it met the criteria for "city" status under the municipal act of that time. It retained the incorporation even as the population plummeted. When a new municipal act was adopted in the 1980s, Dawson met the criteria of "town", and was incorporated as such although with a special provision to allow it to continue to use the word "City", partially for historical reasons and partially to distinguish it from Dawson Creek, a small city in northeastern British Columbia. Dawson Creek is also named in honour of George M. Dawson. This led the territorial government to post the following signs at the boundaries of the town: "Welcome to the Town of the City of Dawson". [ rujukan diperlukan ] As of the 2001 Municipal Act, the town's official legal name is now simply the "City of Dawson". [1]

In 2004, the Yukon government removed the mayor and the town council, as a result of the town going bankrupt. The territorial government accepted a large portion of the responsibility for this situation in March 2006, writing off $3.43 million of the debt and leaving the town with $1.5 million still to pay off. Elections were set for June 15, 2006. John Steins, a local artist and one of the leaders of the movement to restore democracy to Dawson, was acclaimed as mayor, while 13 residents ran for the four council seats. Steins was succeeded in office by former mayor Peter Jenkins, who in turn was succeeded by the current mayor, Wayne Potoroka. [18]

Other past mayors of Dawson City have included Art Webster, Colin Mayes, Yolanda Burkhard, Mike Comadina and Vi Campbell.

In the Legislative Assembly of Yukon, Dawson City is in the electoral district of Klondike, currently represented by Sandy Silver of the Yukon Liberal Party.

The government of Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in, now a self-governing First Nation, is also located in Dawson.

Today, Dawson City's main industries are tourism and gold mining.

Energy Edit

Electricity is provided by Yukon Energy Corporation (YEC). Most of the grid power is hydroelectric power through the north-south grid from dams near Mayo, Whitehorse and Aishihik Lake. After the local hydroelectric power plant for the gold dredges was shut down in 1966, YEC provided electrical power from local diesel generators. In 2004 YEC connected Dawson to its grid system. Since then the diesel generators function as a backup to the grid. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Gold mining Edit

Gold mining started in 1896 with the Bonanza (Rabbit) Creek discovery by George Carmack, Dawson Charlie and Skookum Jim Mason (Keish). The area's creeks were quickly staked and most of the thousands who arrived in the spring of 1898 for the Klondike Gold Rush found that there was very little opportunity to benefit directly from gold mining. Many instead became entrepreneurs to provide services to miners. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Starting approximately 10 years later, large gold dredges began an industrial mining operation, scooping huge amounts of gold out of the creeks, and completely reworking the landscape, altering the locations of rivers and creeks and leaving tailing piles in their wake. A network of canals and dams were built to the north to produce hydroelectric power for the dredges. The dredges shut down for the winter, but one built for "Klondike Joe Boyle" was designed to operate year-round, and Boyle had it operate all through one winter. That dredge (Dredge No. 4) is open as a National Historic Site of Canada on Bonanza Creek. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

The last dredge shut down in 1966, and the hydroelectric facility, at North Fork, was closed when the City of Dawson declined an offer to purchase it. Since then, placer miners returned to the status of being the primary mining operators in the region until recently. In 2016, Goldcorp announced a takeover of Kaminak Gold's Coffee Project south of Dawson. [19] This marked a shift in the region, drawing the interest of the major gold mining companies in the Yukon. In 2017, Newmont Mining Corporation, Barrick Gold and Agnico Eagle Mines Limited have all committed significant investment, engaging in the exploration of properties across the Central Yukon. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Suntingan Pelancongan

There are eight National Historic Sites of Canada located in Dawson, [20] including the "Dawson Historical Complex", a National Historic Site encompassing the historic core of the town. [21]

The Downtown Hotel at Second Avenue and Queen Street has garnered media attention for its unusual Sourtoe Cocktail, which features a real mummified human toe. [22] [23] [24] The hotel and the toe received increased attention in June 2017 after the toe was stolen it was soon returned to the hotel by mail along with a written apology. [25]

Bonanza Creek has two National Historic Sites the Discovery Claim and the Dredge No. 4.

Tr'ochëk is the site of a traditional Han fishing camp on the flats at the confluence of the Klondike River and Yukon River. The site is owned and managed by the Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in First Nation. In addition to the fishing camp remains, the site includes traditional plant harvesting areas and lookout points.

Diamond Tooth Gertie's Gambling Hall puts on nightly vaudeville shows during tourist season, from May to September. [26]

Yukon School of Visual Arts, a university level accredited art program, is based in Dawson City.

Robert Service School, Dawson City's only grade school, is named in honour of British-Canadian poet and writer Robert William Service (January 16, 1874 – September 11, 1958). The Robert Service School offers Kindergarten - Grade 12 and is one of only 28 schools in the Yukon Territory. [27]

Every February, Dawson City acts as the halfway mark for the Yukon Quest International Sled Dog Race. Mushers entered in the event have a mandatory 36-hour layover in Dawson City while getting their rest and preparing for the second half of the world's toughest sled dog race. [28]

Dawson City also hosts a softball tournament which brings teams from Inuvik in late summer. Furthermore, a volleyball tournament is held annually at the end of October and is attended by various high schools across Yukon.

The city was home to the Dawson City Nuggets hockey team, which in 1905 challenged the Ottawa Silver Seven for the Stanley Cup. Travelling to Ottawa by dog sled, ship, and train, the team lost the most lopsided series in Stanley Cup history, losing two games by the combined score of 32 to 4. [29]

Historical populations
TahunPop. ±%
189840,000
18998,000−80.0%
19019,142+14.3%
1911615−93.3%
19411,043+69.6%
1956835−19.9%
1961846+1.3%
1971762−9.9%
1981697−8.5%
1986896+28.6%
19911,089+21.5%
19961,287+18.2%
20011,251−2.8%
20061,327+6.1%
20111,319−0.6%
20161,375+4.2%
[ rujukan diperlukan ] [30] [31] [32] [3]

According to the 2016 Census, the town is predominately European Canadian with 76.7% of the population with First Nations accounting for 15.3% of the population and Filipino accounting for 4.4% of the population. No other visible minority exceeds 2% of the population. [33]


How to Find Your Gold Rush Relative: Sources on the Klondike and Alaska gold rushes, 1896-1914

This guide is intended to provide a basic list of Alaska and Yukon genealogical resources for individuals who were in the north during the Klondike and Alaska Gold Rushes (1896-1914). While not comprehensive, the information includes promising and up-to-date sources with others that may be obscure and un-indexed.

Many of the repositories have guides to their archival, manuscript, and photograph collections and specific finding aids to their Gold Rush materials. The list of active genealogical societies includes information on how to hire individuals or groups to do research. The Internet has become a valuable genealogical research tool and, as such, addresses for sites particularly in Alaska and Yukon are included. The sources listed are at the larger Alaska or Yukon libraries some items may be borrowed on interlibrary loan through your local public library.

For the next decade or so, readers will see many books celebrating the centenary of the Alaska-Yukon Gold Rushes. For additional information on the Klondike and Alaska Gold Rushes, see the following sources:


The Scales

The Scales, a staging area before stampeders climbed the steep Chilkoot Pass (left) or longer Peterson Pass (right).

National Park Service, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Candy Waugaman Collection, KLGO Library SS-32-10566.

“The Scales” denotes a small, flat basin along the Chilkoot Trail. The Scales is at the top of Long Hill and at the base of the “Golden Stairs.” During the gold rush it was a short lived encampment, lunch stop, and freighting point. Several surface tramways operated from the Scales to the summit of Chilkoot Pass. Two aerial tramways also passed through the Scales area. There are no standing ruins at the Scales today, only structural scatters. Hundreds of smaller artifacts remain visible in the area.

The elevation at the Scales is approximately 2750 feet, a thousand feet or more above timber line. During the winter, snow can build up to a depth of ten feet or more here. Snow has fallen every month of the year, and the winter snow pack sometimes lingers into August. Wind, fog, and rain are also frequent in this area. Fog in particular reduces the area's visibility to thirty feet or less. Because of the great snow pack, even a sunny day can be dangerous. Several historic photographs show travelers wearing crude sun goggles. In some accounts stampeders suffered from snow blindness. For these reasons, the site was hardly an attractive place to camp or cache goods. Nevertheless, thousands did so during the epic winter of 1897-98.

Pre-Klondike Gold Rush
The Scales had been a well-known site before the Klondike Gold Rush began. Alaska Natives passed through on their way to and from the Canadian Interior. Later, Ben Moore and the Ed Lung-Bill Stacey party were among those who cached their goods here. Most early prospectors, however, did not linger in the area. They typically camped at Sheep Camp or Stone House. From there they shuttled their goods forward to the summit of Chilkoot Pass. Then they moved their base camp all the way to Lake Lindeman. Once camp was moved they ferried their load from the pass down to their new base camp.

Traffic over Chilkoot Pass increased as news of gold discoveries began in the 1880s and 90s. Shortly after the rush to Circle City began, improvements to the pass began. An entrepreneur named Peter Peterson first installed a crude rope tramway up from the Scales up Chilkoot Pass. After testing his tramway in Juneau, he installed it on the pass in the spring of 1894. The following year, he again established an operation, this time with the help of Ben Moore. J. T. Field, an owner of trading posts in Dyea and Juneau, also sponsored the scheme. The tramway system consisted of a series of ten sleds attached to ropes. It featured heavy poles dug into the snow. Loads were shunted up and down the pass on an endless rope. The system was powered by loading the sleds at the top with snow. This tram probably operated over the so called Peterson Route. This route went east of the present day trail. It was a longer, more roundabout alternative to the climb directly over Chilkoot Pass. Before the winter of 1896-97, most stampeders preferred it because of its more gradual ascent.

The success of Peterson's scheme is debatable. Moore claimed that the system proved impractical and was soon abandoned. Juneau newspapers, however, reported that the tram was successful. Peterson remained in the area most of the spring season. He carried enough freight to anger the local Tlingits. They claimed that the tram had "forever put an end to the packing from Dyea to Lake Lindeman which formerly was a source of considerable revenue." Shortly afterwards, Peterson left the area and headed down to Yes Bay, south of Wrangell. But in the spring of 1896, he opened an improved tramway operation over Chilkoot Pass.

National Park Service, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, George and Edna Rapuzzi Collection, KLGO 55832a. Gift of the Rasmuson Foundation.

Klondike Gold Rush

In the spring of 1897, the first wave of Klondike stampeders headed north. With them, the demand for hauling goods over Chilkoot Pass increased. In anticipation, sourdough Archie Burns had claimed the summit area as a trading and manufacturing site the previous fall. Several months later, he began operating a horse drawn whim which pulled sleds from the Scales to the summit, directly up Chilkoot Pass. J. H. E. Secretan, who passed by in April 1897, noted that the lift was powered by "two wretched horses" plodding around in a circle, "winding up sleigh loads of supplies and passengers at one and one half cents per pound." Remnants of a whim still lie on top of Chilkoot Pass.

Soon after news of the gold rush broke, the Scales began to witness increased activity. For perhaps the first time, the site became a summer camping area. In mid September the Scales hosted "some score of tents and huge piles of baggage." Even in summer, it was described as

Other parties camping there that month had a similarly inhospitable experience.

Before August 1897, passers by called the site "the foot of the summit," "the foot of the pass," or "the foot of Chilcoot Summit." People heading north in mid summer, however, began to call the area "the Scales." By late September the place name was described without reference to quotation marks.

As Alfred Daly and others have stated, the area got its name because "there is a tradition that some time or other there was a pair of scales where they weighed out the packs for the packers to take over the summit." Later, during the winter and spring of 1897 98, a large "steelyard scales" existed at the site. The namesake scales may have dated from Archie Burns' operation during the spring of 1897, or from scales the Indians used that same spring.

The Scales probably remained a tent camp through the fall of 1897. But in December, a semblance of permanence began when Archie Burns returned to the Scales. He may have started up his horse powered tram again, and he installed a steam powered hoisting drum, followed soon afterwards by a gasoline powered tramway. Burns installed both machines on or near the top of the pass. His office and storage area were at the Scales.

At about the same time that Burns arrived, the Dyea Klondike Transportation (DKT) Company moved into the area. The Company built a powerhouse at the south end of the Scales. They constructed a simple two bucket tramway from there to the top of the pass. The tramway lines hung well above the Scales area. The first DKT tramway tower was located at the false summit. It is not known when construction of the powerhouse began, but the powerhouse (and tramway) were operating by March 14, 1898.

Several other tramways were soon put into operation. One was Peterson's tram, which had previously operated from the spring of 1895 and 1896. Peterson, however, did not operate it in 1898. He leased it to J. F. Hielscher in mid February. Hielscher operated the tram over the Peterson Route that spring. Two other tramways built towers through the area, but neither operation had an office or powerhouse here.

A temporary community sprang up among the various tramway buildings during the winter and spring of 1898. It was a convenient cache location, a temporary stopping place, and occasional camping area. Probably no one camped there in early January. By early April, the Dyea Trail noted that "the town is composed of about 40 tents and five or six [wooden] buildings." At some point, the Scales supported the following businesses: six restaurants or coffee houses, two hotels, a saloon, two tramway offices and a possible warehouse. The area encompassed "a few city blocks square." A stampeder noted on April 22, "there is five acres of ground covered with supplies." During at least part of the gold rush, the southern boundary of the Scales was marked by a red flag.

While some of the businesses were in wooden buildings, others operated out of large framed tents. Most of the wood framed tents were scattered along the west side of the trail at the south end of camp. There were probably only five or six wooden buildings. The north end of the camp was dominated by two substantial buildings. One was a restaurant, the other a possible warehouse. Nearby was a striking octagonal building its function was unknown. A large set of scales, operated by Archie Burns and used by the Alaska Native packers, was another prominent feature of the camp.

The Scales settlement sprawled across the basin at the foot of Chilkoot Pass. The main trail entered the southwest end. Near the center of the assemblage of structures and goods the trail forked in two. The main trail veered left the Peterson Route trail angled right. Except for paths connecting the two trails to buildings, no cross streets existed. None of the town's residents or business owners recorded lots at the site, and no plat or survey of the site has been found.

The Scales was a major transfer point for goods going over the trail. Pack animals or sleds could be used below the Scales, but only the intrepid (or foolish) dared take their animals beyond.

By the time they reached the Scales, most horses were exhausted, and many were of little further use to stampeders. As at Sheep Camp, many horses were abandoned and left to die here. Robert Medill, who crossed the pass in September 1897, looked down on the Scales from midway up the summit climb and remembered that

Stampeders ascend "the Golden Stairs."

National Park Service, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Hooper Collection, KLGO 0004.005.001.0005 38.

The climb from the Scales to the summit created one of the most dramatic scenes of the Klondike Gold Rush. Here, several stampeders noted, the trail climbed approximately a thousand feet in half a mile. The main trail was treacherous at any time of year. In the winter snowdrifts, ice and avalanches were hazards. In the summer, huge boulders made the going difficult. Diaries and photographs dating from the fall and early winter of 1897-98 suggest that stampeders ascended the steep slope over several different routes. Different parties climbing the pass at the same time often chose separate approaches.

In February, two entrepreneurs carved a series of three foot wide steps into the slope below the false summit. They strung a guide rope along the right side of the pathway, and carved out a bench every twenty steps as a rest area. Midway up the slope, they constructed two wooden archways over the route. These may have been designed to keep the tramway buckets from striking the stampeders. They were in place for only a short time. The operators charged a fee for their improvements. This fee allowed unlimited use of the steps for one day. Estimates vary widely on the length of time required to ascend the slope. Edward Banon, who climbed it in March, claimed the trip took only 30 minutes. Historian Pierre Berton stated that during the height of the rush the trip took six hours. This meant that most stampeders could only make one trip up the slope each day. The number of steps has been variously estimated at 1378, 1500, and "between 1100 and 1200." These so called "Golden Stairs" remained until the snow melted in June.

Post Gold Rush

With the decreasing stampeders, the Scales and other Chilkoot communities faded quickly away. The stampeders and most of the merchants moved north. The surface tramways were forced to close down when the snow melted. The DKT Company ceased operations in the summer of 1898. Soon, all that remained at the site were the remains of a few wooden buildings and tent frames. For awhile the camp may have been entirely deserted, but a minor revival took place during the winter of 1898-99. One of Archie Burns' tramways, and possibly two restaurants, operated for some or all of the winter.

The completion of the White Pass and Yukon Route railroad to the summit of White Pass effectively eliminated traffic over the Chilkoot Trail. In early 1900, crews came into the area to disassemble portions of all three aerial tramways. That fall, Archie Burns also visited the site to remove his own tramway equipment. Based on what remains today in the area, however, he was only partially successful in his mission.

The Scales in 1899.

National Park Service, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, George and Edna Rapuzzi Collection, KLGO 59644. Gift of the Rasmuson Foundation.

“A Sea of Debris”

Since 1900, the Scales area has continued to decay. By September 1906, only two buildings still stood at the site. They were still standing five years later. A post gold rush photo shows one of the two remaining buildings was the former Scales restaurant. The use of the other building is unknown.

By the time the Chilkoot Trail opened for recreation use in the 1960s there were no standing structures. The sixty intervening years had reduced the site to a large, scattered sea of debris.

J. R. Lotz, who passed through in the summer of 1963, noted that the area had been "swept away by slides". Five years later, a guide book noted a large number of artifacts. These included "horseshoes, muleshoes, spiked creepers, remnants of harness, old cable, galvanized telegraph wire, utensils, kerosene lamps, axes, shovels, tram parts and where protected, items of discarded clothing." In 1973 Archie Satterfield advised that the site contained "evidence of cabins, machinery, cooking utensils, tools, sleds, clothing and other debris slowly rotting away."

Since then, many items have been lost to weathering, rock slides, theft, and vandalism. Reports from NPS rangers say that artifact removal and burning of historic wood has been a continuing problem. Reports generated from archeological field work noted the ongoing destruction of the resources.

Despite the loss of artifacts over the years, many remnants of the gold rush remain at the Scales. A 1979 archeological survey team located two structural scatters, a boiler, and "hundreds of domestic and industrial artifacts . seen among the rocks." These included cable, wire, pots, pans, shoes, clothes, pulleys, bandings, tin cans, ceramics, wheels, rod, pipe, shovels, basins and other materials. In 1982-83 archeological survy teams inventoried historic materials at the Scales. These surveys located, identified, and catalogued hundreds of artifacts.

Today this area is closed to camping to protect the gold rush remnants. Each summer several thousand backpackers pass through this area. Most use the area like the stampeders, as a resting spot before climbing up to the pass.

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Tonton videonya: City of Gold (Januari 2022).