Podcast Sejarah

Perang merosakkan gereja, 1914

Perang merosakkan gereja, 1914

Perang merosakkan gereja, 1914

Di sini kita melihat sebuah gereja yang mengalami perang semasa pertempuran pada tahun 1914. Pada peringkat awal ini, pemusnahan gereja dan bangunan lain masih mengejutkan, tetapi kemudian ini akan kelihatan kecil.


Perang merosakkan gereja, 1914 - Sejarah

W Perang 1 di Laut

NAVY AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN
Kaiserlich und Koniglich atau k.u.k Kriegsmarine

oleh Gordon Smith, Naval-History.Net

Perang Tentera Laut dalam Garis Besar
Gelaran kapal Austria
Nombor kapal perang & kerugian, 1914-18
Kerugian mengikut tahun
Kunci ciri utama termasuk torpedo Austria dan kaliber senjata
Jenis kapal utama - Dreadnoughts ke Kapal Selam

Selain dari satu armada utama dalam pengisytiharan perang antara Austria dan Itali pada 23 Mei 1915, dan yang dibatalkan pada bulan Jun 1918 ketika 'Szent Istvan' yang hilang, kapal-kapal berat Austria menghabiskan seluruh perang sebagai armada - berada di Laut Adriatik, menahan sebahagian besar armada pertempuran Itali dan Perancis serta unit Tentera Laut Diraja. Sebilangan besar aksi di Adriatik yang dilakukan melibatkan kapal pemusnah, kapal selam yang dikendalikan dengan baik dan pada tahap yang lebih rendah kapal penjelajah ringan dari Tentera Laut Austria.

Pasukan kapal selam Austria yang awalnya kecil tidak dapat memainkan peranan di luar Adriatik, dan pada awal tahun 1915 Jerman menghantar kapal-kapal U ke Laut Mediterania, sebahagiannya untuk menyerang armada Sekutu di Dardanelles. Oleh kerana Itali telah mengisytiharkan perang terhadap Austro-Hungaria tetapi bukan Jerman, kapal-kapal Jerman beroperasi di bawah panji-panji Austria dan ditugaskan sementara untuk menjadi tentera laut Austria. Setelah Jerman dan Itali berperang pada bulan Ogos 1916, kapal U Jerman beroperasi di bawah bendera mereka sendiri. Walaupun armada kapal selam Austria tidak bertambah banyak, ia mempunyai rekod yang mengagumkan - merosakkan 'Jean Bart' yang ditakuti oleh Perancis, dan tenggelam:

Kapal perang berperisai - 'Leon Gambetta' Perancis, 'Giuseppe Garibaldi' dari Itali

Destroyers - British 'Phoenix', Perancis 'Fourche' dan 'Renaudin', Itali 'Impetuoso' dan 'Nembo'

Kapal Selam - Perancis 'Circe', Itali 'Nereide'

Kunci untuk gelaran Austria

Erzherzog - Archduke Kaiser - Kaisar Kaiserin - Maharaja Konigen - Ratu Kronprinz - Putera mahkota Sankt - Saint

NOMBOR DAN KEHILANGAN WARSHIP - 1914-18

Kekuatan Ogos 1914

Penambahan masa perang

Kerugian 1914-18

RUGI SETIAP TAHUN - (Dalam pesanan tarikh dalam setiap tahun)

Tahun - Kapal hilang (semuanya di Laut Adriatik, kecuali 'Kaiserin Elisabeth' di Timur Jauh)
1914 - kapal penjelajah dilindungi 'Kaiserin Elisabeth', kapal penjelajah ringan / pengakap 'Zenta'
1915 - kapal selam 'U.12', 'U.3', kapal pemusnah 'Lika', 'Triglav'
1916 - kapal selam 'U.6', 'U.16'
1917 - kapal selam 'U.30', kapal pemusnah 'Wildfang', kapal pertahanan pantai 'Wien'
1918 - kapal selam 'U.23', kapal pemusnah 'Streiter', kapal selam 'U.20', 'U.10', dreadnoughts 'Szent Istvan', 'Viribus Unitis'

Kunci untuk Ciri Utama

Tegangan - anjakan standard Kepantasan - kelajuan yang dirancang pada anjakan standard, jarang dicapai dalam perkhidmatan Persenjataan utama - kadang-kadang berubah ketika perang sekunder berlanjutan biasanya berubah Pelengkap - waktu damai biasa. Melebihi perang dengan pengurangan ruang tempat tinggal dan korban pertempuran yang lebih tinggi Tahun - kelas tahun atau tahun siap dan biasanya memasuki perkhidmatan. Hanya termasuk kapal yang disiapkan hingga akhir perang Kedudukan Kehilangan - dianggarkan dari lokasi kecuali tersedia dari sumber yang boleh dipercayai Korban - jumlah lelaki yang hilang, atau yang terselamat dan yang terselamat, akan sering melebihi pelengkap masa damai.

Kaliber torpedo dan senapang Austria dalam inci:

Torpedo: 53.3cm - 21in 50cm - 19.7in 45cm - 17.7in

Senapang: 30.5cm - 12in 24cm - 9.4in 19cm - 7.5in 15cm - 5.9in 12cm - 4.7in 10cm - 3.9in 8.8cm - 3.5in 7.5cm - 2.9in 6.6cm - 2.6in

DREADNOUGHTS

Kekuatan Ogos 1914 (3)

1. Kelas TEGETTHOFF, PRINZ EUGEN, TEGETTHOFF, VIRIBUS UNITIS, kelas empat, 1 hilang, 1 selesai pada tahun 1915) - 20,000t, 20 knot, 12-30.5cm / 12-15cm / 20-6.6cm, 1912-14


SMS Viribus Unitis, dipercayai menembak menara depan (Kapal Foto)

Pada bulan Ogos 1914, tiga dreadnoughts 'Tegetthof' yang disiapkan dan tiga pra-Dreadnoughts 'Radetzky' membentuk Skuadron Pertempuran Pertama, menghabiskan sebahagian besar perang sebagai armada

UNITI VIRIBUS ('dengan kekuatan bergabung'), 1 November 1918, Laut Adriatik utara di pangkalan tentera laut Pola (Pula) (c 44-45 & # 146N, 13-45 & # 146E) - lombong kendiri Itali 'Mignata' (atau lintah). Dengan kejatuhan Empayar Austro-Hungaria, negara Yugoslavia dibentuk oleh Slavia selatan dan diisytiharkan di sisi Sekutu. 'Viribus Unitis' (Kapten Janko Vukovic de Podkapelski, juga komandan Armada Yugoslavia sementara) diambil alih pada 31 Oktober oleh Majlis Nasional Yugoslavia sebagai panji angkatan laut baru. Ternyata mengabaikan situasi politik yang baru, orang Itali meneruskan serangan yang dirancang terhadap Pola. Pada awal pagi 1 November dan dengan beberapa langkah pencegahan pertahanan yang sedang dilakukan, dua katak Itali, Jurutera Jurutera Tentera Laut, Raffaele Rossetti dan Doktor Lt Raffaele Paolucci, masuk ke pangkalan tentera laut dan memasang ranjau ke kapal 'Wien' yang ditakuti. Kedua kapal tenggelam, 'Viribus Unitis' terbalik dan terbenam sekitar subuh. Beberapa ratus orang mati termasuk Kapten yang baru.

1. Terakhir kelas Tegetthof, SZENT ISTVAN, hilang - seperti di atas

SZENT ISTVAN (Raja Stephen 1 dari Hungary), 10 Jun 1918, Laut Adriatik utara, tenggara Pola (Pula), sembilan batu di barat daya pulau Premuda (c 44-15 & # 146N, 14-30 & # 146E) - 2 torpedo dari motor Itali bot 'Mas.15'. Meninggalkan Pola pada tanggal 9, dia dan tiga 'Tegetthof' lain dari Divisi Pertempuran 1, Skuadron Pertempuran Pertama berlayar untuk menyokong serangan kapal penjelajah yang dirancang di Otranto Barrage, yang kini diyakini oleh Jerman sebagai halangan serius untuk kapal-U pergerakan. Dua kapal motor anti-kapal selam Itali - 'Mas.15' dan 'Mas.21', masing-masing 16 tan dan bersenjatakan torpedo dua-45cm, kebetulan berada di utara Adriatic, ditarik ke sana untuk misi menyapu ranjau. 'Mas.15' (Cdr Luigi Rizzo, yang menenggelamkan kapal pertahanan pantai 'Wien' pada bulan Disember 1917 - di bawah) memukul kapal amfibi 'Szent Istvan' pada pukul 03.30hrs pada 10hb. Dia berguling dan tenggelam pada jam 06.00 dengan 89 lelaki hilang. 'Mas.21' terlepas 'Tegetthoff', tetapi kedua-dua kapal Itali berjaya melarikan diri dan operasi Austria menentang Otranto Barrage dibatalkan.

(Penyelidikan terkini menunjukkan kemungkinan bahawa 'Szent Istvan' terkena 3 torpedo - dua kali oleh MAS 15 dan sekali oleh MAS 21. Oleh kerana keadaan - senja dll, MAS 21 mungkin menyerangnya dan bukan 'Tegetthof' seperti yang dinyatakan di atas. maklumat belum disahkan secara rasmi. Lebih banyak terdapat di bahagian bawah http://www.geocities.com/tegetthoff66/szent.html dan http://www.beyondmagazine.co.uk/wreck/svent.htm. Maklumat sekali lagi diberikan oleh Danijel Zavratnik dari Slovenia)

Kekuatan Ogos 1914 (3)

2. Kelas RADETZKY, ERZHERZOG FRANZ FERDINAND, RADETZKY, ZRINYI, 3 kapal - 14,500t, 20 knot, 4-30,5cm / 8-24cm / 20-10cm, kru 890, 1910/11


SMS Radetsky (Kapal Foto)

Pada bulan Ogos 1914, tiga 'dreadnoughts' Radetzky & # 146s 'dan tiga' Tegetthof 'yang lengkap telah membentuk Skuadron Pertempuran Pertama

Ketiga-tiga kapal, yang berfungsi sebagai Divisi Pertempuran ke-2, Skuadron Pertempuran Pertama, mengambil bahagian dalam pengeboman pantai Mei 1915 di pantai Itali dengan ketiga-tiga ketakutan, tetapi selepas itu tetap tidak aktif di Pola sebagai armada

PERTANDINGAN PRE-DREADNOUGHT

Kekuatan Ogos 1914 (6)

3. Kelas HABSBURG, ARPAD, BABENBERG, HABSBURG, 3 kapal - 8,230t, 18 knot, 3-24cm / 12-15cm, 625 awak, dilancarkan 1900-02

Pada bulan Ogos 1914, keenam-enam pra-dreadnoughts membentuk Skuadron Pertempuran Kedua. Ketiga-tiga 'Habsburg & # 146s' berfungsi sebagai Bahagian Pertempuran ke-4, tetapi kemudiannya dinyahaktifkan sebagai penjaga pelabuhan

4. ERZHERZOG KARL kelas, ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX, ERZHERZOG FRIEDRICH, ERZHERZOG KARL, 3 kapal - 10,500t, 19 knot, 4-24cm / 12-19cm, 750 awak, dilancarkan 1903-05

Pada bulan Ogos 1914, tiga 'Erzherzog Karl & # 146s' membentuk Bahagian Pertempuran ke-3 dari Skuadron Pertempuran Kedua

Kekuatan Ogos 1914 (4)

5. KRONPRINZ ERZHERZOG RUDOLF, KRONPRINZ ERZHERZOG RUDOLF, Kapal pertahanan tempatan, Cattaro (Kotor) Bay - 6,830t, 16 knot, 3 old 30.5cm / 6-12cm, 455 awak, dilancarkan 1887

6. Kelas MONARCH, BUDAPEST, MONARCH, WIEN, 3 kapal, 1 hilang - 5,500t, 17 knot, 4-24cm / 6-15cm, 435 anak kapal, 1897

Ketiga-tiga kapal membentuk Bahagian Pertempuran ke-5, tetapi tetap berada dalam simpanan

WIEN (Vienna), 10 Disember 1917, Laut Adriatik utara, di luar Muggia di Teluk Trieste (c 45-30 & # 146N, 13-45 & # 146E) - torpedoed oleh kapal motor Itali 'Mas.9'. Berdasarkan 'Budapest' di Trieste dan digunakan untuk menyokong tentera Austria yang bertempur di front Itali, kedua kapal lama itu bersiap untuk melakukan pengeboman di pantai. Dua daripada kapal motor bersenjata torpedo seberat 16 tan, 2-45cm, 'Mas.9' dan 'Mas.13' ditarik dari Venice oleh kapal torpedo 9PN dan 11PN hingga dalam jarak 10 batu dari Trieste. Menembusi kapal penjaja berat yang melindungi pelabuhan kedua kapal itu menerobos dan melancarkan torpedo mereka. 'Mas.9' (Lt Luigi Rizzo - lihat 'Szent Istvan' di atas) memukul 'Wien' yang turun dengan cepat, tetapi 'Mas.13' terlepas 'Budapest'. Mereka berdua selamat kembali ke Venice. Sebilangan besar kru 'Wien & # 146s berjaya diselamatkan

Kekuatan Ogos 1914 (3)

7. KAISERIN BAWAH KONIGEN MARIA THERESIA jenis, KAISERIN UND KONIGEN MARIA THERESIA, KAISER KARL VI, SANKT GEORG, 3 kapal - 5,330-7,300t, dilancarkan 1893-1903

Kapal-kapal ini membentuk Divisi Cruiser 1, tetapi Kaiserin und Konigen Maria Theresia menghabiskan tahun 1914-16 sebagai penjaga pelabuhan, Sebenico (Sibenik) dan dari tahun 1917 sebagai kapal penginapan U-boat Jerman, Pola

Kekuatan Ogos 1914 (3)

8. Kelas KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I, KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I, KAISERIN ELISABETH, 2 kapal, 1 hilang - 4,000t, 6-15cm, 1892

Kaiser Franz Joseph I tidak lama lagi dinyahaktifkan sebagai kapal pertahanan pelabuhan

KAISERIN ELISABETH, 2 November 1914, perairan China, di luar Tsingtao (Qingdao) di Teluk Kiaochow (c 36-00 & # 146N, 120-15 & # 146E) - diletupkan dan tersendat. Mewakili Tentera Laut Austria di Stesen Timur Jauh di Tsingtao. Sebilangan besar kru senapang dan senjatanya didarat sebagai Bateri 'Elisabeth' untuk mempertahankan pangkalan tentera laut Jerman semasa pengepungan Jepun. Kapal penjelajah lama yang kebanyakannya dilucutkan senjata itu diserang lima hari sebelum penyerahan akhir pada 7 November

Kekuatan Ogos 1914 (4)

9. Kelas ZENTA, ASPERN, SZIGETVAR, ZENTA, 3 kapal, 1 hilang, mangsa yang selamat dari tahun 1918 sebagai kapal penginapan atau sasaran - 2.300t, 8-12cm, 300 kru, 1899

ZENTA (Pertempuran Austria-Uthmaniyyah Zenta), 16 Ogos 1914, Laut Adriatik selatan, di luar Antivari (Bar), Montenegro (c 42-00 & # 146N, 18-30 & # 146E) - tembakan berat Perancis. 'Zenta' (Cdr Paul Pachner) dan pemusnah pengawal 'Ulan' menyekat pantai Montenegran dalam keadaan kelam kabut ketika dikejutkan oleh kapal perang utama Perancis di bawah Adm Lapeyrere, yang kini berpusat di Malta dengan tujuan untuk memastikan armada Austria terkunci di Adriatik. 'Ulan' melarikan diri ke utara, tetapi 'Zenta' terputus dan menerima sekurang-kurangnya dua tembakan tempurung berat dari 'Courbet' yang sangat ditakuti. Cedera parah, dia meletup dan tenggelam sekitar sepuluh minit kemudian, tetapi kebanyakan kru 300nya dilaporkan mendarat di perahu mereka

10. SPAUN ADMIRAL - 3,500t, 27 knot, 7-10cm, 330 kru, 1910

11. Kelas ADMIRAL SPAUN yang diubahsuai, HELGOLAND, NOVARA, SAIDA, 3 kapal - 3,500t, 27 knot, 9-10cm, 340 kru, 1914-15

Helgoland mengambil bahagian dalam serangan Disember 1915 ke Adriatik untuk mengganggu pengasingan tentera Serbia dari sekutu

Ketiga kapal penjelajah itu mengambil bahagian dalam serangan Mei 1917 ke atas pasukan drift Britain yang melakukan rondaan di barisan serangan Otranto

Kekuatan Ogos 1914 (25)

12. METEOR - 430t, dilancarkan 1887

13. Kelas BLITZ, BLITZ, KOMET, MAGNET, PLANET, SATELIT, TRABANT, 6 kapal - 380-605t, dilancarkan 1888-1896

14. Kelas HUSZAR, CSIKOS, DINARA, HUSZAR, PANDUR, REKA, SCHARFSHUTZE, STREITER, TURUL, ULAN, USKOKE, VELEBIT, WILDFANG, 12 kapal, 2 hilang - 390t, 28 knot, 6-6.6cm / 2-45cm tt, c 70 kru, dilancarkan 1906-10

PEMANDU (Fighter), 16 April 1918, Laut Adriatik utara di luar Laurana di saluran Quarnero (sekarang The Kvarner, Croatia) (c 45-00 & # 146N, 14-15 & # 146E) - perlanggaran dengan SS 'Petka'. Konvoi pengawal 'Streiter' termasuk 'Petka'

WILDFANG (Tomboy), 4 Jun 1917, Laut Adriatik utara, sebelah barat Pulau Peneda, Kepulauan Brioni (Brijuni) di luar pangkalan tentera laut Pola (Pula) - dilombong. Dipercayai berpusat di Cattaro (Kotor) pada masa itu. Pada rondaan pengintipan ketika tenggelam oleh lombong terapung

15. Kelas TATRA, BALATON, CZEPEL, LIKA, ORJEN, TATRA, TRIGLAV, 6 kapal, 2 hilang - 850t, 32 knot, 2-10cm / 6-6.6cm / 2-45cm tt, 105 kru, dilancarkan 1912-13

LIKA (wilayah di Kroasia), 29 Disember 1915, Laut Adriatik selatan, di luar Durazzo (Durres), Albania (c 41-15 & # 146N, 19-15 & # 146E) - lombong Itali. Dua kapal pemusnah Itali dilaporkan membawa tentera ke Durazzo pada masa pengungsian Serbia dalam menghadapi tentera Austria yang perlahan maju. Pasukan pengawal Austria 'Helgoland' dan lima kapal pemusnah 'Tatra' diperintahkan untuk mencari orang Itali, dan jika tidak berjaya memusnahkan sebarang penghantaran di Durazzo. Setelah tenggelam kapal selam Perancis 'Monge' di laluan ke selatan. kapal pemusnah memasuki pelabuhan pada waktu fajar, tenggelam tiga kapal kecil dan ketika bateri pantai dibuka, berubah menjadi ladang ranjau. 'Triglav' dan 'Lika' meletupkan ranjau, 'Lika' tenggelam sekaligus mangsa yang selamat dijemput oleh kapal saudaranya

TRIGLAV (gunung di Slovenia), 29 Disember 1915, Laut Adriatik selatan, di luar Cape Rodini, Albania (c 41-30 & # 146N, 19-00 & # 146E) - bergegas setelah menyerang lombong Itali di Durazzo. Dalam misi yang sama dengan 'Lika', 'Triglav' rosak teruk di kawasan lombong yang sama. 'Czepel' berusaha membawanya ke belakang, tetapi mengotori baling-baling, dan pekerjaan itu diambil alih oleh 'Tatra'. Ketika pasukan Austria yang lumpuh kembali perlahan-lahan ke utara dengan jarak 6 knot, kapal-kapal Sekutu berada di antara mereka dan pangkalan Cattarro mereka. 'Triglav' ditinggalkan, tetapi usaha untuk memukulnya gagal. Dia diselesaikan oleh lima pemusnah Perancis kumpulan 'Casque', termasuk 'Casque' sendiri

16. WARASDINER - 390t, 30 knot, 6-6.6m / 4-45cm tt, 75 kru, dilancarkan 1912

17. Ersatz (bersamaan) Kelas TATRA, DUKLA, LIKA (2), TRIGLAV (2), UZSOK, 4 kapal - 880t, 32 knot, 2-10cm / 6-6.6cm / 4-45cm tt, 115 kru, dilancarkan 1917

Kekuatan Ogos 1914 (5)

18. Kelas U.1, U.1-U.2, 2 kapal - 230 / 250t, 10/6 knot, 3-45cm tt, 17 kru, dilancarkan 1909

19. U.3 kelas, U.3-U.4, 2 kapal, 1 hilang - 240 / 300t, 12/8 knot, 2-45cm tt, 21 kru, dilancarkan 1909

U.3 , 13 Ogos 1915, Laut Adriatik Selatan, NE dari Brindisi (41-00 & # 146N, 18-15 & # 146E) - tembakan pemusnah Perancis 'Bisson'. AMC Itali 'Citta di Catania' yang melakukan rondaan di ujung utara Selat Otranto diserang oleh 'U.3' buatan Jerman (Lt Cdr Karl Strnad) pada 12, tetapi tidak terkena. 'U.3' dipercayai telah ditabrak dan rusak parah sebagai balasan, dan tidak dapat tenggelam. Pemusnah sekutu dipanggil dan keesokan harinya pada tanggal 13 dia terlihat di permukaan dan tenggelam oleh tembakan 'Bisson's' 7 orang hilang termasuk Lt Strnad, dan 14 orang yang selamat berjaya dijemput

U.4 kapal penjelajah berperisai Itali dan tenggelam 'Giuseppe Garibaldi' di Adriatik tengah pada bulan Julai 1915

20. U.5 kelas, U.5-U.6, kelas 3 kapal, 2 siap sebelum perang, 1 hilang - 240 / 275t, 8/6 knot, 2-45cm tt, 19 kru, 1910/11

U.5 kapal penjelajah berperisai Perancis dan tenggelam 'Leon Gambetta' di Adriatic selatan pada April 1915

U.6 , 13 Mei 1916, Laut Adriatik Selatan di Selat Otranto, 12m ENE Cape Otranto (40-10 & # 146N, c 18-45 & # 146E) - jaring hanyut dan tembakan Inggeris. Mencuba menerobos Otranto Barrage pada waktu malam, 'U.6' (Lt Cdr Hugo von Falkenhausen) menggegarkan jaring ikan pancing rondaan 'Calistoga', muncul dan dilindungi olehnya dan 'Dulcie Doris' dan 'Evening Star II '. Perahu Austria itu hancur dan semua 15 kru diselamatkan. Satu sumber memberikan tarikh tersebut pada 10 Mei. Sepanjang perang, hanya dua kapal U yang disahkan tenggelam di Otranto Barrage - 'U.6' Austria pada masa ini dan 'UB.53' Jerman pada bulan Ogos 1918

21. Kelas U.7, U.7-U.11, dalam pembinaan di Jerman dan dijual kepada Tentera Laut Jerman pada bulan November 1914. Ditugaskan sebagai Jerman U.66-70

20. (di atas - disimpulkan) Kelas U.5 selesai pada tahun 1914 dengan 'U-12'

U.12 torpedoed dan rosak Perancis yang ditakuti 'Jean Bart' di Laut Adriatik pada bulan Disember 1914

U.12 , 8 Ogos 1915, Laut Adriatik utara, di luar Venice, NE Itali - lombong Itali. Sebilangan besar sumber menganggap dia hilang di ranjau pada atau sekitar 11 atau 12 ketika cuba menembusi pertahanan pelabuhan di Venice. 'U-Boats Destroyed' Kemp lebih spesifik - 'U.12' (Lt Cdr Egon Lerch) sedang melakukan rondaan di luar Venice dan pada 6 Ogos dirosakkan oleh kapal pemusnah Itali 'Rossolina Pilo'. Dua hari kemudian, letupan diperhatikan di lombong pertahanan dan penyelam diturunkan. Bangkai kapal 'U.12' dengan buritannya yang rosak ditemui 7.6 batu dengan jarak 104 darjah dari rumah api Punta Sabbioni di lagun Venesia dan semua 13 anak kapal hilang bersamanya

22. Kapal pesisir kelas U.10, U.10-U.11, U.15-U.17, 5 kapal, 2 hilang - 125 / 140t, 6/5 knot, 2-45cm tt, 17 anak kapal, dilancarkan 1915.

Diangkut dari Jerman ke Pola dalam beberapa bahagian, 'U.10' pada mulanya ditugaskan sebagai Jerman 'UB.1', 'U.22' sebagai 'UB.15'

U.10 (bekas Jerman 'UB.1'), rusak 9 Julai 1918, Laut Adriatik utara, di luar Caorle, NE Itali di Teluk Venice (c 45-30 & # 146N, 13-00 & # 146E) - lombong Itali. Kerosakan yang teruk oleh sebuah lombong, 'U.10' (Letnan Cdr Johann von Ulmansky) berada di antara Caorle dan muara Sungai Tagliamento. Dia diselamatkan dan ditarik ke Trieste, tetapi tidak diperbaiki sebelum berakhirnya perang, semua kru dari 13 orang diselamatkan

U.16 , 17 Oktober 1916, Laut Adriatik selatan, di luar Valona (Vlore), Albania (c 40-45 & # 146N, 19-00 & # 146E) - kapal dan pengiring konvoi Itali. Semasa serangan konvoi, 'U.16' (Lt Cdr Oerst von Zopa) menumpaskan pemusnah Itali 'Nembo', tetapi kemudian tenggelam sendiri. Dia mungkin telah ditabrak dan rusak parah oleh salah satu kapal konvoi, kapal pengukus Itali 'Borminda' (atau 'Bermida'), dan tergendala. Atau sebaliknya, tenggelam oleh dakwaan meletup 'Nembo' yang belum ditetapkan sebagai 'selamat' sebelum dia menurunkan 11 anak kapal 'U.16 & # 146s' termasuk CO-nya hilang dan dua orang yang terselamat dijemput

23. U.14 - 400 / 550t, 12/9, 1-53.3cm tt / 6-53.3cm torpedo luaran / dipersenjatai semula dengan 1-8.8cm, 28 kru, dilancarkan semula pada tahun 1915.

Bekas 'Curie' Perancis, tenggelam di Pola pada bulan Disember 1914, dibesarkan dan diperbaiki

24. Perahu pesisir kelas U.20, U.20-23, 4 kapal, 2 hilang - 175 / 210t, 12/9 knot, 2-45cm tt / 1-6.6cm, 18 kru, dilancarkan 1916/17

U.20, 4 Julai 1918, Laut Adriatik utara, di luar muara Sungai Tagliamento, sebelah barat Trieste (45-29 & # 146N, 13-02 & # 146E) - torpedo sekali oleh kapal selam Itali 'F.12'. Serangan pada 'U.20' (Lt Cdr Ludwig Muller) oleh 'F.12' yang muncul pada malam 4/5 dari jarak 650 ela. Sumber lain menyatakan tarikhnya pada 6 atau 9 Julai 1918 semua anak buahnya hilang. Bahagian kapal selam dan menara 'U.20 & # 146s' dipamerkan di Muzium Heeresgeschichtliches, Vienna

U.23, 21 Februari 1918, Laut Adriatik selatan, di luar Valona (Vlore), Albania di Selat Otranto (40-26 & # 146N, 19-02 & # 146E) - kapal torpedo Itali 'Airone'. 'U.23' (Lt Cdr Klemens von Bezard) pertama kali dilihat di permukaan oleh 'Airone' yang cuba menggegarkan. Setelah tenggelam kapal pemusnah itu tenggelam dengan paravane letupan yang ditarik. Sumber berbeza pada aktiviti 'U.23 & # 146s' pada masa ini - dia sama ada menyerang konvoi Sekutu atau cuba menerobos Selat Otranto, atau mungkin kedua-dua anak buahnya hilang

25. Kapal pesisir kelas U.27, U.27-U.32, U.40-U.41, 8 kapal, 1 hilang - 265 / 300t, 9/7 knot, 2-45cm tt / 1-7.5cm senapang, 23 kru, dilancarkan 1916/17, dibina di Pola untuk reka bentuk 'UB-II' Jerman

U.30 , awal April 1917, mungkin Laut Adriatik selatan di kawasan Selat Otranto - hilang. 'U.30' (Lt Cdr Friedrich Fahndrich) belayar dari Cattaro (Kotor) pada 31 Mac 1917 untuk rondaan Mediterranean antara Malta dan Kreta, dan tidak pernah dilihat lagi. Beberapa sumber menunjukkan bahawa dia hilang sekitar 1 atau 2, menyebabkan tidak diketahui, tetapi mungkin dilombong di Otranto Barrage atau kemalangan di luar Cape Otranto. Dia mungkin juga telah turun di Mediterranean, salah satu dari beberapa kapal U yang hilang di kawasan itu pada tahun 1917 semua anak buahnya hilang

26. Kapal pesisir kelas U.43, U.43, U.47, 2 kapal - 265 / 290t, 9/6 knot, senapang 2-50cm tt / 1-8.8cm, 22 kru, 1917.

Asalnya Jerman 'UB.43' dan 'UB.47' dari tahun 1916, tetapi dijual kepada Tentera Laut Austria dan beroperasi semula pada bulan Julai 1917

Catatan - Terima kasih kepada Danijel Zavratnik dari Slovenia kerana menyatakan bahawa sebilangan besar nama tempatnya adalah ejaan Itali dan banyak yang telah berubah sejak Perang Dunia 1.

Nama lama Itali dan bahasa Kroasia, Montenegran dan Albania moden adalah seperti berikut:

ITALIAN = CROATIAN:
Brioni = Brijuni
Laurana = Lovran
Pola = Pula
Quarnero = Kvarner
Sebenico = Sibenik

ITALIA = MONTENEGRAN:
Antivari = Bar
Cattaro = Kotor

ITALIA = ALBANIAN:
Durazzo = Durres
Valona = Vlore


Bencana Perang Dunia Winston Churchill

Menjelang tahun 1914, kesimpulannya yang berdarah, & # x201CGreat War & # x201D telah berubah menjadi mengerikan di sepanjang 500 batu yang dilanda pertempuran di Front Barat. Britain dan Perancis telah menderita hampir satu juta korban dalam perang itu selama empat bulan pertama, dan jalan buntu yang mematikan di parit semakin mengecewakan Lord of the Admiralty yang berusia 40 tahun Britain yang meminta perdana menteri, & # x201CAre tidak ada alternatif lain selain mengirim tentera kita untuk mengunyah kawat berduri di Flanders? & # x201D Bintang politik Britain yang sedang meningkat naik itu, Winston Churchill, percaya dia mempunyai jalan keluar untuk memecahkan kebuntuan & # x2014a depan kedua.

Walaupun ketua politik Tentera Laut Diraja, Churchill yang bercita-cita tinggi juga membayangkan dirinya sebagai ahli strategi ketenteraan. & # x201CSaya memilikinya untuk menjadi askar yang berjaya. Saya dapat menggambarkan pergerakan dan kombinasi hebat, & # x201D dia mempercayai rakannya. Menteri muda itu mencadangkan pukulan berani yang akan memenangkan perang. Meninggalkan rancangan awalnya untuk menyerang Jerman dari Laut Baltik ke utara, dia sekarang memperjuangkan satu lagi cadangan yang sedang dipertimbangkan oleh tentera untuk menyerang lebih dari 1.000 batu ke timur. Dia mencadangkan untuk memasukkan armada angkatan lautnya melalui jarum Dardanelles, selat 38 batu sempit yang memutuskan Eropah dan Asia di barat laut Turki, untuk merebut Konstantinopel dan menguasai saluran air strategik yang menghubungkan Laut Hitam di timur dengan Laut Mediterania di Barat. Churchill percaya bahawa pencerobohan itu akan memberi jalan keluar yang jelas kepada Britain kepada sekutu mereka, Rusia dan mengalahkan Empayar Uthmaniyyah yang sedang pudar, & # x201Dan orang-orang Eropah yang & # 39; meyakinkan satu atau semua negara neutral Yunani, Bulgaria dan Romania untuk bergabung dengan Sekutu.

Kabinet perang Britain menyokong rancangan itu, yang telah dipertimbangkan sebelum Kerajaan Uthmaniyyah bergabung dalam perang. Langkah pertama adalah serangan di Semenanjung Gallipoli di sebelah utara Dardanelles, sebuah operasi yang Churchill, yang kini menjadi ketua peguam bela rancangan, tahu akan berisiko. & # x201CHarga yang harus dibayar untuk mengambil Gallipoli sudah pasti berat, & # x201D dia menulis, & # x201Tapi tidak akan ada perang lagi dengan Turki. Pasukan yang bagus dengan kekuatan 50,000 & kekuatan laut & # x2014 itulah penghujung ancaman Turki. & # X201D

Pejabat Perang Inggeris, bagaimanapun, menolak untuk mengirim pasukan sebanyak yang dia kehendaki, tetapi Churchill tetap mengirim armada itu. Serangan ke Gallipoli bermula pada pagi 19 Februari 1915, dengan pengeboman jarak jauh di semenanjung oleh kapal perang Inggeris dan Perancis. Walaupun berjaya pada awalnya, serangan itu terhenti ketika cuaca bertambah buruk dan penyapu ranjau bersekutu mengeluarkan api yang kuat. Di bawah tekanan dari Churchill untuk meneruskan serangan, komander tentera laut Britain di wilayah itu, Laksamana Sackville Carden, mengalami keruntuhan saraf dan digantikan oleh Wakil Laksamana John de Robeck. Beberapa hari kemudian pada pagi 18 Mac, kapal perang Britain dan Perancis memasuki selat dan melancarkan serangan. Sekali lagi, Sekutu berada di puncak pada jam-jam awal sehingga ranjau yang tidak dapat dikesan menenggelamkan tiga kapal dan merosakkan tiga yang lain. Dengan separuh daripada armadanya tidak ada komisen, de Robeck memerintahkan penarikan. Churchill mahu komandannya terus menekan, tetapi de Robeck ingin menunggu pasukan sokongan tentera, yang kini sudah disediakan. Ketika armada ragu-ragu, ia kehilangan kelebihan.

Setelah serangan tentera laut yang gagal, Sekutu melancarkan serangan darat besar di Gallipoli pada 25 April. Kelewatan selama sebulan itu membolehkan orang Turki melancarkan bala bantuan ke semenanjung dan meningkatkan pertahanan mereka, dan British, Perancis dan anggota Kor Tentera Darat Australia dan New Zealand (ANZAC) tidak dapat mencapai kemajuan sedikit dari sudut pantai mereka. Perairan pirus di Laut Aegea berubah menjadi merah ketika penentangan Turki yang kencang melanda gelombang pasukan Sekutu yang membasahi darat. Pertempuran Gallipoli menjadi pembantaian dan dengan cepat berubah menjadi jalan buntu sama berdarah, sama sia-sianya seperti di Front Barat. Pada bulan pertama setelah menyerang semenanjung, sekutu kehilangan 45,000 orang. Kempen Gallipoli yang malang berlangsung sembilan bulan sebelum pengungsian tentera Sekutu terakhir pada Januari 1916. Setiap pihak mengalami 250,000 korban dengan 46,000 tentera Bersekutu dan 65,000 tentera Turki mati.

Pencerobohan itu diselesaikan oleh ketidakcekapan dan keraguan oleh komandan tentera, tetapi, secara adil atau tidak adil, Churchill adalah kambing hitam. Bencana Gallipoli melemparkan pemerintah ke dalam krisis, dan perdana menteri Liberal terpaksa membawa Konservatif pembangkang menjadi pemerintah gabungan. Sebagai sebahagian daripada perjanjian mereka untuk berkongsi kekuasaan, Konservatif menginginkan Churchill, seorang politikus pemberontak yang telah mengalahkan parti mereka sedekad sebelumnya, keluar dari Admiralty. Pada bulan Mei 1915, Churchill diturunkan ke jawatan kabinet yang tidak jelas.

& # x201CI menjadi mangsa intrik politik, & # x201D dia meratapi rakannya. & # x201CI saya sudah selesai! & # x201D Mempamerkan tekad tegas yang akan melayani dia dengan baik dalam Perang Dunia II, namun, Churchill yang terpinggir tidak mundur dari pertarungan. Pada bulan November 1915, negarawan itu menjadi tentera. Churchill mengundurkan diri dari pemerintah, mengambil pistol dan menuju ke barisan depan di Perancis sebagai pegawai infanteri dengan Royal Scots Fusiliers. Setelah beberapa kali mengalami kematian, dia kembali ke politik pada tahun 1917 sebagai menteri peluru dalam pemerintahan gabungan baru yang diketuai oleh Perdana Menteri Liberal David Lloyd George.

Churchill, bagaimanapun, tetap dihantui oleh Gallipoli selama beberapa dekad. & # x201Mengingati Dardanelles, & # x201D lawan politiknya mengejek ketika dia berdiri untuk berbicara di Dewan Rakyat. Semasa mencalonkan diri untuk Parlimen pada tahun 1923, para penjahat memanggil, & # x201CBagaimana dengan Dardanelles? & # X201D The & # x201CBritish Bulldog & # x201D merangkul Gallipoli sebagai kegagalan yang cemerlang. & # x201CDardanelles mungkin telah menyelamatkan berjuta-juta nyawa. Jangan bayangkan saya melarikan diri dari Dardanelles. Saya mulia di dalamnya, & # x201D dia bertindak balas.

Walaupun banyak yang berkongsi pandangan orang dalam politik yang pada tahun 1931 berspekulasi bahawa & # x201Hantu Gallipoli akan selalu bangkit untuk menjatuhkannya lagi, & # x201D Churchill menjadi perdana menteri pada tahun 1940 dengan Britain sekali lagi terlibat dalam perang. Setelah menjawat jawatan, dia menulis, & # x201Semua kehidupan masa lalu saya telah menjadi persiapan untuk jam ini dan untuk percubaan ini. & # X201D Itu termasuk Gallipoli.


Gereja Ablain-Saint-Nazaire yang hancur

Lihat semua gambar

Reruntuhan batu dari gereja abad ke-16 menonjol di tengah sekumpulan rumah moden yang berbumbung merah di perkampungan Perancis Ablain-Saint-Nazaire. "Gereja Tua," seperti yang disebut oleh penduduk tempatan, adalah peringatan muram akan kerosakan dan tragedi yang disebabkan oleh Perang Dunia I.

Pada bulan Oktober 1914, pada bulan-bulan awal Perang Besar, pasukan Jerman merebut kampung tersebut kerana lokasinya yang strategik di sepanjang pangkalan Lorette Spur. Orang Perancis membalas beberapa kali tanpa kejayaan.

Pasukan sekutu menghabiskan masa sekitar satu tahun untuk merebut kembali kampung dan lokasi berdekatan yang lain. Mereka menyerang Ablain-Saint-Nazaire, akhirnya meninggalkan hampir semuanya hancur. Gereja yang dikasihi pun tidak terlepas.

Daripada membangun kembali struktur tersebut, para pejabat lokal memilih untuk mempertahankannya dalam keadaan hancur sebagai kesaksian terhadap korban perang (walaupun kekurangan dana mungkin juga mempengaruhi keputusan mereka). Semasa gereja baru sedang dibangun, penduduk kampung mengadakan khidmat mereka di sebuah pondok yang disumbangkan oleh orang Kanada.

Sekarang, ia adalah tempat yang tenang berhampiran salah satu perkuburan tentera terbesar di Perancis. Perbezaan antara rumput yang dipelihara dan runtuhan runtuh adalah tajam. Lubang tempurung dan grafiti yang diukir oleh tentera Jerman, Kanada, Inggeris, dan Perancis memungkinkan untuk membaca sejarah yang tertulis di batu gereja. Orang boleh berkeliaran di sekitar reruntuhan tanpa bumbung, dan bahkan berkelah dengan alasan pada hari-hari yang jarang berlaku ketika matahari Perancis utara berani menunjukkan wajahnya.

Ketahui Sebelum Anda Pergi

Sekiranya anda menuju ke sana, jangan ketinggalan jejak WWI. Ia menampilkan Notre Dame de Lorette dengan tanah perkuburannya dan 580,000 nama di peringatan pekeliling, muzium (percuma) tepat di atas bukit, dan Peringatan Vimy Ridge.


Perang Dunia Kedua

Imej Merton Memories telah dibahagikan kepada 16 koleksi utama atau bidang subjek.
Untuk memilih koleksi, cukup klik pada kotak gambar yang berkaitan seperti di bawah. Sebagai pilihan, pilih dari senarai yang muncul semasa anda mengklik anak panah ke bawah yang ditunjukkan di bawah Penapis Koleksi (paling kanan halaman ini.)

Anda kemudian akan disajikan dengan subkumpulan yang berbeza untuk koleksi foto pilihan anda. Anda boleh memilih salah satunya menggunakan kaedah yang sama.

Koleksi utama kami adalah seperti berikut:

Pandangan Udara: Ini adalah gambar-gambar wilayah yang diambil dari udara, atau dari sudut pandang tinggi. Koleksi ini dibahagikan kepada foto udara Merton dan Morden, Mitcham dan Wimbledon. Terdapat juga subkoleksi gambar yang diambil oleh RAF pada tahun 1946.
Ini menunjukkan kesan pengeboman masa perang pada pemandangan tempatan.

Arkeologi: Koleksi ini memaparkan gambar-gambar penggalian arkeologi yang telah berlaku di Merton dan gambar penemuan arkeologi. Ia merangkumi gambar-gambar
Laman penggalian Merton Priory dan penemuan dari tanah perkuburan Anglo-Saxon utama di Mitcham.

Bangunan: Kumpulan gambar ini merangkumi seni bina Merton. Ia mempunyai subkumpulan yang menunjukkan jenis kediaman tertentu termasuk rumah kedai, rumah persendirian dan juga kafilah gipsi.
Subkumpulan yang berkaitan memuatkan gambar kawasan perumahan tempatan seperti di High Path,
Jambatan Phipps, Pollards Hill dan StHelier Estate.

Subkumpulan lain mempunyai bangunan dengan tujuan tertentu termasuk perpustakaan tempatan, pub, teater dan pawagam. Terdapat juga subkoleksi untuk harta tanah yang mempunyai kepentingan sejarah utama seperti Merton Priory, Morden Lodge dan bekas rumah Lord Nelson, Merton Place.
Subkoleksi Bangunan Tersenarai mempunyai ciri-ciri kepentingan seni bina yang diiktiraf termasuk Eagle House, Mitcham Morden Park House dan Old Rectory, Wimbledon.

Pendidikan: Koleksi ini terbahagi kepada gambar taska, sekolah dan kolej. Ia merangkumi foto bangunan tertentu seperti Sekolah Tinggi Raynes Park, King's College School dan Merton / South Thames College. Turut dipaparkan ialah pemandangan taman permainan dan gambar kelas dan acara sekolah.

Events and Organisations: One of our largest collections, this features images of Merton clubs and societies, cultural events, pageantry and local celebrations of national events. It also includes subcollections featuring opening ceremoines and images of major incidents from Merton's past.

Examples include: Photographs of Merton events to mark Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee and the 1953 coronation Mitcham Charter Day MItcham Fair Morden and Carshalton children's outings and the passage of the Olympic flame through Wimbledon.

Open Spaces: Merton is a surprisingly green borough. This collection is divided into photographs of allotments, common land, private gardens, local parks, recreation grounds and open countryside. It includes pictures of Mitcham Common, Wimbledon Common, Cannizaro Park, Cricket Green, John Innes Park and Morden Park.

People: Merton has been home to many famous and pioneering individuals of both local and national significance. This collection features photographs of notable people from politicians, actors and sportsmen, to clergymen, scientists, businessmen and members of the gentry. There is a subcollection for memorials commemorating particular individuals. In response to public requests we have also created a subcollection for images of gypsies and travellers,
as they have particular relevance to the history of Mitcham.

The People collection includes portraits of Tudor chancellor William Cecil, naval hero
Horatio Nelson property developer John Innes and suffragette Rose Lamartine Yates.

Places of Worship: This collection features images of Merton's religious heritage. Subcollections cover Anglican, Roman Catholic and nonconformist Christian churches chapels local mosques, temples and synagogues.

Examples include: photographs of Merton's parish churches - St.Mary's, Merton St. Lawrence Church, Morden St.Mary's, Wimbledon and St. Peter and St.Paul, Mitcham the Bhuddhapadipa Temple and the Baitul Futuh Mosque.

Further subcollections feature images of local convents, cemeteries and crematoriums.

Public Services: This collection features a range of images associated with those who serve the local community. Subcollections include photographs of the emergency services, local hospitals, retirement homes, council offices, courts and post offices.

Examples of particular interest include pictures of the Vestry Hall, Mitcham
Wimbledon Town Hall and Merton Civic Centre the early fire brigade and local hospitals
such as Atkinson Morley Nelson Hospital, Merton and the Wilson Hospital, Mitcham.

Rivers and Waterways: Images are divided into subcollections featuring local ponds, streams, rivers and wells. Highlights include photographs of the River Wandle Queensmere on Wimbledon Common Seven Islands Pond, Mitcham Common Cannon Hill Lake and the Pickle, Merton.

This collection also includes pictures of flooding in different parts of Merton and photographs of the local drainage network.

Sports and Leisure: Merton residents have always enjoyed a range of leisure pursuits and the borough has a number of famous sporting associations. This photographic collection has been divided into images of particular sports, pastimes and associated venues including
Leisure Centres.

Collection highlights include photographs of the historic Mitcham Cricket Club the National Rifle Association meetings on Wimbledon Common Wimbledon Football Club the All England Lawn Tennis Championships Mitcham Athletics Club and the St. Helier Girls Choir.

Streets: This collection features photographs of streets throughout Merton. These have been divided into alphabetical subcollections.

Please note: We do not yet have photographs of every street in the borough. We are working to fill the gaps and make the collection as comprehensive as possible.

Coillection highlights include historic images of the main shopping thoroughfares on
Kingston Road, Merton High Street, Wimbledon Broadway London Road, Morden and
Fair Green, Mitcham.

Tom Francis Collection: Produced by local businessman, historian and keen photographer Thomas Francis, this unique collection features images of Mitcham from c.1869 to the 1930s. Topics include village characters, local events, buildings and industry. The collection also includes a number of contemporary caricatures produced by Mitcham cartoonist Mr.Collingsby.

Pengangkutan: Merton has been shaped by its transport network. This collection is divided into images of transportation from horsedrawn vehicles and trains, to trams, buses and cars.
Other subcollections feature transport infrastructure such as roads, level crossings and station buildings.

HIghlights include Victorian photographs of Wimbledon Station Jack the trace-horse leading wagons up Wimbledon Hill trams crossing Mitcham Fair Green and 1930s pictures of
Morden Underground Station.

Perang: Charting Merton's military history, this collection is grouped into pre-1914 images,
the First World War, the Second World War and post 1945 conflicts. We have a number of images from the two world wars, so the respective subcollections have been divided into relevant topics for ease of use. These include army camps, fundraising, bomb damage,
Civil Defence and war memorials.

Highlights include photos of pamphlets dating from the Napoleonic War a First World War
army camp on Wimbledon Common the Mitcham Home Guard bomb damage on the
St. Helier Estate and V.E.Day street parties in Wimbledon Park.

Work and Industry: Merton has a rich and varied industrial heritage of local, national and international significance. This photographic collection has been divided into subcollections featuring images of historic working practices, associated sites and buildings. It includes everything from farms and horticulture, to mills, factories and the textile industry. We have also included a subcollection for shops and retail, including local restaurants.

Notable examples include photographs of the Morris & Co. arts and crafts works
the Liberty Print Works the cultivation of Mitcham lavender Carters Tested Seeds
Connolly's Leather Works Bradbury & Wilkinson Ltd and Merton Park Film Studios.


World War I and the Papacy

One hundred years ago this week, Christian Europe commenced the horrific Great War that spread globally, raged from August 1914 to November 1918, and was responsible for the death of more than 15-million soldiers and civilians.

Dalam Krisis Dunia, Winston Churchill’s six-volume account of the struggle, he observed that the warriors employed “Every outrage against humanity or international law.” And when it was over, “torture and cannibalism were the only two expedients that the civilized, scientific, Christian states had been able to deny themselves: they were of doubtful utility.”

The conflict’s catalyst? On June 28, 1914, the Roman Catholic heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne, Archduke Ferdinand and his morganatic wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were gunned down in Sarajevo, Bosnia, by a Serbian terrorist, Gavrilo Princip. The Serbian nationalist assassin, committed to liberating his Slavic people from the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, believed his crime would strike a blow for freedom.

During the next month, as historian Christopher Clark puts it, European rulers “who prided themselves on their modernity and rationalism, stumbled through crisis after crisis and finally convinced themselves that war was the only answer.”

While some monarchs pleaded for peace, war plans designed years earlier were dusted off, ultimatums were delivered, and general mobilizations of armed forces commenced.

On August 3, 1914, Germany declared war on France and invaded Belgium. Britain, committed to Belgium neutrality, declared war on Germany the next day. By month’s end, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey found themselves at war with Britain, France, Russia, Japan, Serbia, and Montenegro.

One person not surprised by the events of August 1914, was the Vicar of Christ, Pope Pius X. As early as 1912, the pontiff, distraught by European saber-rattling, told his secretary of state, Cardinal Merry del Val, “Le cose vanno male, viene il guerrone.” (“Things are going badly, the Great War is approaching.”)

In an audience with a Brazilian minister in May 1913, Pius said, “You are fortunate, sir, to be going back to your home in Brazil, you will not witness the world-wide war.”

In July 1914, Pius sent a letter to Emperor Franz Joseph pleading that he find a peaceful answer to the Serbian crisis. When the Austrian ambassador asked the pope to bless the arms of his country, he replied: “I do not bless arms but peace.”


St. Pius X

Fearful war was eminent On August 2, 1914, Pius issued, “A call to the Catholics of the whole world.” In it, he said, “Now that almost the whole of Europe is being swept along in the maelstrom of this frightful war whose dangers, destruction and consequences nobody can contemplate without being stricken with grief and horror, We too are full of anxiety and sorrow. . . .We realize quite well what these distressful times the love of a father and the apostolic mission of the pope demand of Us. We must lead the souls of all people to Him from Whom alone relief can be expected, to Christ, the Prince of peace, the powerful mediator between God and Man.”

The Holy Father called on Catholics, “to implore God that he may have mercy on His people by putting a speedy end to this catastrophe and by inspiring the leaders of the peoples to peaceful thoughts and actions.”

Afterwards, Pius went into seclusion and spent his time in continuous prayer. As the guns of August began firing, he was heard saying “How glad I would have been to offer my miserable life to God, if thereby I could have prevented the slaughter of so many of my young sons.”

On August 20, at 1:15 p.m., Pope Pius died. Cardinal Merry del Val, who believed the pope died of grief, said that his death fulfilled a prophecy Pius made a year earlier at the Shrine of our Lady of Lourdes in the Vatican Gardens: “I pity my successor. I shall not see it, but it is only too true that the Religio depopulate [religion laid waste] is at hand.”

Giacomo della Chiesa, only named a cardinal in Pius X’s last consistory on May 25, 1914, was elected pontiff on September 3, 1914 and took the name Benedict XV. In his first statement to the faithful, he declared he was “stricken with inexpressible horror and anguish before the monstrous spectacle of this war with its streams of Christian blood.”

Calling the war “horrible butchery,” he informed the belligerents that “The pope is not neutral, he is impartial.” When attacked by opposing Catholic countries for not supporting their causes, he replied: “We reprove all violations of rights, wherever committed, but to involve the papal authority in the disputes of belligerents would be neither useful nor appropriate.”

Although impartial, Benedict was not a spectator. While his plea for a Christmas truce in 1914 was ignored, his proposals for exchanging wounded prisoners of war and interned civilians – particularly women and children – were enacted. He created a Vatican office that worked with the International Red Cross procured agreements that permitted religious services in POW camps and inspections by apostolic visitors. He also contributed 82 million gold liras to support war-related relief programs.

Seeking a “stable and equitable” peace through negotiations, Benedict issued in July 1915, a plan that included planks calling for the creation of a free Poland, freedom of the Dardanelles Strait, and the establishment of an international body that would require nations to arbitrate their differences. President Wilson would later incorporate several of the pope’s suggestions into his Fourteen Points.

The First World War was the most devastating war in the history of mankind until the Second World War. Millions were killed or wounded in campaigns that gained, at best, a few miles of mud in No Man’s Land.

At the Battle of Verdun (February-December 1916) there were 750,000 French and German casualties. On the first day of the Battle of the Somme, July 1, 1916, the British suffered 60,000 casualties – the worst in their history. By the end of the campaign in December 1916, wounded and dead on all sides totaled 1.1 million. At Passchendaele, there were 244,000 British and 400,000 German casualties between July and November 1917.


Benedict XV

Overall, 60 million troops were mobilized and when the armistice took effect on November 11, 1918, dead soldiers totaled 10 million. The British Empire lost 1.1 million France 1.4 million Germany 2 million Austria-Hungary 1.1 million Italy 700,000 Russia 1.8 million and the United States 114,000. Another 21 million were wounded.

Three Christian monarchs fell: the Lutheran Kaiser Wilhelm, the Orthodox Czar Nicholas, and the Roman Catholic Emperor Charles of Austria.

Although the Church had had an official presence at the 1814 Congress of Vienna Peace Conference after the defeat of Napoleon, when the victors met at Versailles in 1919 to negotiate the peace, the Holy See was excluded. Italy, fearing discussions of the Rome-Vatican problem, insisted the Church not be involved.

In retrospect, the pope’s exclusion from the discussion was good. The Church had no part in the underhanded agreements that planted the seeds for the rise of Fascism and Nazism, the spread of Communism, the Great Depression, the present crisis in the Middle East, and the Second World War.

Benedict was mindful that some of the Versailles Conference agreements were seriously flawed. In his 1920 Encyclical, Pacem Dei Munus, he remarked, “Though treaties of peace have been signed, the germ of ancient discords has not been destroyed.”

Two aspects of the treaty did please the Holy Father. The first was the creation of an independent Catholic Poland. The future Pius XI, Archbishop Achille Ratti, was named the first papal nuncio to the new nation. The other was the League of Nations. Benedict publicly blessed the organization and he permitted the Catholic Union of International Studies to establish permanent relations with it.

Although the Vatican was not invited to be a member of the League, the Holy See was consulted on matters including the role of religious missions in newly established third-world territories. Benedict also urged the League to call for an end of slavery in Africa and Muslim countries and to send aid to people in Russia suffering from famine.

After Pope Benedict XV died in January 1922, Joseph Motta, President of the Swiss Confederation, told an assembly of League of Nation delegates, “If mankind manages one day to get rid of war – and that day is perhaps as yet far distant – it will owe that priceless achievement to the principle of arbitration as proposed by Benedict XV.”

Throughout the First World War, Pope Benedict was the lone voice calling for a cessation of hostilities. And eighty-five years later when Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger took the name of Benedict XVI, he rightfully referred to his predecessor of that name “the courageous prophet of peace.”


It Changed The British Approach to Bombing

Prior to the Rotterdam bombings, the Royal Air Force was to only bomb military zones and infrastructure of importance, including railways, ports etc. They were to avoid densely populated civilian areas. Now those areas were occupied by the enemy, that policy had to change.

The first orders for the Royal Air Force was to attack targets in the Ruhr that could have killed civilians as well as military personnel. This included oil plants, as well as other industrial plants that could be fueling the German war effort.


Lihat senarai isi penuh dan cari kisah anda seterusnya untuk dibaca.

Both the war and the peace that followed have marked our world in indelible ways. Especially Europe. The deaths of more than 110,000 Americans in uniform, half to the Spanish flu, were equivalent to just one-quarter of the death toll in the French army alone during the first four months of the war. Europe suffered a bloodbath such as the world had never seen. Two million German soldiers died, along with about 1 million British troops, counting those from the colonies and dominions. Proportionately higher losses were suffered in Russia, Serbia, and Ottoman Turkey, where a war of 20th-century firepower was fought under 19th-century sanitary conditions.

The contrast between American and European perceptions of the world order in the 20th and 21st centuries is incomprehensible without considering the catastrophe of 1914–18. Ever since, Europe has felt an underlying pessimism, a sense of danger and disorder that the United States hasn’t shared. Americans have continued to believe that progress is built into history. Most Europeans, other than Marxists, dropped this notion once the Great War began.

Europeans still call it the Great War—not only because it was huge and momentous, but also because it changed the nature of war itself.

How so? First, by obliterating the distinction between civilian and military targets. After the early battles of 1914 resulted in a bloody stalemate, the conditions of civilian life behind the lines of occupying armies deteriorated. The Great War created internment camps all over Europe and beyond, to house enemy aliens in the wrong country at the wrong time. Still worse was the treatment of ethnic minorities suspected of disloyalty. After a series of defeats in 1915, the Russian army sent hundreds of thousands of Jews in Galicia from the battlefront to the interior, in case they might welcome German invaders. Armenians in Turkey fared still worse more than 1 million died in the 20th century’s first European genocide.

The bombardment of cities by artillery and aircraft also brought the war to civilians. The German naval warfare against civilian shipping ultimately drew the United States into the war. The Allied blockade of European ports, which continued after the armistice in 1918, was a clear violation of international law.

And consider the changes in mood the war wrought in the United States. The 20 years before the war had seen waves of immigrants arrive from central and eastern Europe, inspiring the use of an epithet—“hyphenated Americans”—that intensified in the course of the war. The loyalties of German Americans, in particular, were thrown into question. The intolerance of wartime continued and grew more vitriolic once a prosperous peace returned. Government witch hunts conducted after the war, such as the so‑called Palmer raids against suspected radicals and anarchists, many of them foreign-born, had their origins in the war itself.

Nine months after the war broke out, the fighting turned even uglier. In April 1915, modern chemical warfare was born on the battlefields of Belgium, and soon became a tolerated (although never legalized) form of weaponry used by all combatants on a frightening scale. In 1918, one of every four shells fired on the western front contained poison gas.

The clouds of chlorine, then phosgene, then mustard gas did not bring any tactical or strategic breakthrough. For one thing, their effectiveness depended on the wind’s direction and the absence of precipitation. When it rained, as it did frequently in Flanders, the gas never rose above ankle level, meaning a soldier could survive if he stayed on his feet. But gas warfare changed the rules of engagement. Gas masks were rudimentary, and left men (and animals) in no-man’s-land without adequate protection. Gas didn’t change the balance of power, but it did change the balance of horror that soldiers faced on the battlefield.

Later, poison gas was used outside Europe—allegedly in Iraq as early as the 1920s, then in Manchuria and Ethiopia in the 1930s. Fear of retaliation, stemming from military leaders’ firsthand experience of gas as soldiers themselves during the Great War, apparently deterred its use against soldiers in World War II, although the Nazis employed Zyklon B, previously known as a powerful pesticide, in concentration camps.

Might gas warfare have come into widespread use without the Great War? Perhaps, but the huge investment in weapons of mass destruction in 1914–18 left a precedent that could not be eradicated. The use of poison gas is with us still, notably in Syria.

The peace treaties signed at the end of the war left a damaged world with an impossible legacy: they handed over control of German colonies in Africa and the Pacific to the victorious powers and inspired hope around the world that Woodrow Wilson’s notion of self-determination for subject peoples would lead to the end of empires. Tidak cukup. Self-determination was the property of the former nations, such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Serbia—all predominantly Caucasian—embedded in the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman Turkish, and Russian empires. Populations of color would have to wait until, under the mandate of the imperial powers, they reached the “maturity” needed for self-government. When would that be? Nobody could say.

Besides, no matter what was decided during the postwar peace conference at Versailles, the imperial powers had already made their own plans for the Middle East. In 1915, the British high commissioner in Egypt promised the keeper of the holy sites in Mecca independence for Arabs in return for their participation in fighting the Ottoman empire. Two years later, Britain’s Balfour Declaration promised Zionists the opposite: a Jewish homeland in Palestine. And these incompatible promises were complicated even more by the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement in 1916, which divided the post-Ottoman Middle East between French and British spheres of influence and drew arbitrary borders—in Iraq, for instance—that have caused instability and conflict ever since.

As a result, violence exploded outside of Europe in 1919–21, when people who had served the Allied cause militarily and otherwise discovered that their recompense would be pious words and nothing more. This happened first in Egypt, then India, then Korea, then China. The wartime collapse of the Ottoman empire brought down its sultan, the all-powerful caliph, and created a crisis in Islam, which lost its spiritual center Muslim-dominated countries remained colonies ruled (often poorly) by imperial powers under the aegis of the League of Nations. The Muslim Brotherhood, founded in Egypt in 1928 to counter Western exploitation of the Islamic world, was the precursor to al-Qaeda.

The Great War cast its geopolitical shadow across the Far East as well. The extent to which the war fueled the continuing hostility between China and Japan is rarely recognized. The problem arose from the Treaty of Versailles. Both nations, traditionally rivals, were among the victorious delegations. China, however, was the weaker power, plagued by internal strife after its 1911 revolution. Japan had helped the Allies during the war, by convoying Australia’s and New Zealand’s troops across the Indian Ocean and by sending naval cruisers to protect the west coast of Canada. At Versailles, Japan tried to exploit its newly acquired leverage, proposing that the charter of the League of Nations include a commitment to racial equality. President Wilson, as a southern-born politician, knew that any such language would ensure the treaty’s defeat in the U.S. Senate. To prevent the Japanese from walking out of the peace negotiations once their request was turned down, the leaders of Britain, France, and the United States backed Japan’s proposal to grant it temporary control—until 1922, as it turned out—of the Chinese province of Shandong, south of Beijing, which the Germans had controlled during the war.

So much for the principle of self-determination. When push came to shove, Wilson chose to reward Japanese naval power and ignore political justice. When Wellington Koo, a Chinese delegate in Paris, sent home the decision on Shandong, students in Beijing responded with shock and outrage, quickly calling for a mass demonstration at Tiananmen Gate to protest the treaty. At a rally the next day, they formed a new organization called the May Fourth Movement, out of which emerged China’s Communist Party. Ponder this: Woodrow Wilson was its godfather.

Next year, China will host the 22nd Congress of the International Committee of Historical Sciences. Where? In the city of Jinan, the provincial capital of Shandong, a choice likely intended to remind historians that both Japan and the West have a history of humiliating China. Those days are over, but the memories linger.

Beyond the advances in the science of murder and the geopolitical reworkings, the Great War created a deep shift in the public attitude toward war itself. The Great War discredited the concept of glory, a word that many Europeans simply could not swallow. The British poet Wilfred Owen, killed late in the war, wrote that anyone who witnessed a soldier suffocating slowly from poison gas would never repeat “to children ardent for some desperate glory / the old Lie” that it was noble to die for one’s country.

The “old Lie” had been told time and again in the popular press and public rhetoric. The use of literature and painting in the service of war was mocked mercilessly in the nonsense verse of the Dada movement and in the nightmare paintings of the surrealists. To clean away the damage that propaganda had done to the literary arts—and indeed to language itself—radical steps were necessary. No longer could dismembered or mangled corpses be sanitized as “the fallen,” nor the butchery of the trenches portrayed as heroic. Artists throughout Europe denounced the obscenities of a war fought for what the poet Ezra Pound called a “botched civilization.” The millions of men slaughtered deserved more than elevated prose they deserved the unadulterated truth.

At the same time, the arts saw a counterrevolution, a movement back in time that highlighted the power of classical, religious, and romantic forms to memorialize the dead. Modernism excited, shocked, and stimulated, but it did not help people mourn. For that, a bereaved generation turned to the classical art of Edwin Lutyens’s cenotaph in London, the religious art of Rouault, and the sculptures and lithographs of mothers mourning their dead sons created by the German artist Käthe Kollwitz, whose own son had been killed in Belgium in 1914.

After the war, a generation of soldiers wrote their memoirs, which sold by the millions. The story they told was binary—the jarring contrast between innocence and experience, between hope and disillusionment. It depicted the unimaginable awfulness of the war, during which the millions of men in the trenches entered a world as inhospitable and desolate as the dark side of the moon. There they encountered artillery fire—the great killer of the Great War—on a scale the world had never seen before.

As a consequence, 5 million of the men who died in the war have no known graves. The stalemated war on the western front meant that unceasing bombardments pulverized the corpses buried in makeshift cemeteries. On the eastern front, the war was so fluid and covered such distances that finding bodies, let alone identifying and burying them, wasn’t possible. In effect, war had been transformed from a killing machine into a vanishing act.

For fully half the men who were killed in the war, nothing was left but their names. That, and the scarier, shakier, more intolerant world that the war to end all wars created.


St Mark's Church - WW1

The image is free to reuse for non-commercial purposes under the IWM Non Commercial Licence. By downloading any images or embedding any media, you agree to the terms and conditions of the IWM Non Commercial Licence, including your use of the attribution statement specified by IWM. For this item, that is: © Mike Berrell (WMR-26298)

Benamkan

Peringatan perincian

Lokasi sekarang

St Mark's Church
Worsley Brow
Worsley
Salford
Greater Manchester
M28 2YA
Inggeris

OS Grid Ref: SD 74569 00696
Denomination: Church of England

  • Perang Dunia Pertama (1914-1918)
    Total names on memorial: 106
    Served and returned: 0
    Died: 106
    Kira tepat: ya
    Information shown: surname,forename
    Order of information: surname
  • Menyeberang
    Measurements: Undefined
    Materials: Granite - Cornish
  • Plinth
    Measurements: Undefined
    Materials: Granite - Cornish
  • Pangkalan
    Measurements: Undefined
    Materials: Granite - Cornish
  • Langkah-langkah
    Measurements: Undefined
    Materials: Granite - Cornish
  • Langkah-langkah
    Measurements: Undefined
    Materials: Granite - Cornish
  • Worsley War Memorial
  • Gred II
  • Peringatan ini dilindungi, dan disenaraikan dalam Senarai Warisan Nasional untuk England yang dikendalikan oleh Historic England. Lihat entri senarai
  • Lebih banyak mengenai penyenaraian dan perlindungan tempat bersejarah boleh didapati di laman web Historic England
  • Worsley (St Mark's Church cross)
  • WMO ID: 97882
  • Condition: Good [last updated on 24-04-2019]
  • War Memorials Trust WM2354 www.warmemorials.org/search-grants/?gID=536

Rekod ini merangkumi semua maklumat yang dipegang oleh Peringatan Peringatan Perang IWM untuk peringatan ini. Di mana kita menyimpan senarai nama untuk peringatan, maklumat ini akan dipaparkan pada catatan peringatan. Sila periksa semula kerana kami menambahkan lebih banyak nama ke pangkalan data.

Maklumat ini disediakan di bawah lesen Creative Commons BY-NC.

Ini bermaksud anda boleh menggunakannya semula untuk tujuan bukan komersial sahaja dan mesti mengaitkannya kepada kami menggunakan pernyataan berikut:


A History Of The Great War by Peter McConnell

Mrs Mitton is an elderly lady, when the story opens, living in her home outside Bairnsdale. She looks forward to church on Sunday, followed by her preparations for a roast dinner. And she remembers.

She remembers her parents, emigrants from Britain, farmers in East Gippsland. She remembers 1914, when as Ida Hallam and working as a shop assistant in Bairnsdale, she meets Ralph Mitton a land surveyor. Their plans to marry are put on hold when Ralph enlists to fight in the Great War. Ralph returns, a changed and damaged man. He is in constant pain because of the shrapnel fragments in his legs. He and Ida marry, they have two sons. Ralph is unable to work: he is bad-tempered and drinks too much but his pension and the money Ida makes from her needlework keeps them going.

Reading this novel transports me back sixty years, to the home of my grandparents in Launceston: net curtains catching the breeze, the wooden kitchen table scrubbed white, my grandmother’s exquisite needlework stored in the linen press. They were born around the same time as the Fittons and were each shaped by their experiences of the Great War. My grandfather was in the First AIF, he was medically discharged and returned to Tasmania before the war ended. My grandmother lost her intended husband in the conflict: my grandparents met and married in 1918.

I bring myself back to the novel, to the Fittons, to hardship and tragedy. And to Ida Fitton’s mysterious trunk in the parlour. We learn, at the end, what is in that trunk. I hoped that Ida’s work would survive long enough for her granddaughter to understand, value, and keep it.

I found this novel very moving. Yes, it is a low-key, detached telling of a story which would be repeated in many homes in every state of Australia. Ironically, I think it is the detached telling of Ida’s story which made it resonate so strongly for me. Images and mannerisms that remind me of loved ones long gone.

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Tonton videonya: Феномен Бруно Грёнинг документальный фильм ЧАСТЬ 1 (Disember 2021).