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Lark II YMS-76 - Sejarah

Lark II YMS-76 - Sejarah


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Lark II
(YMS - 76: dp. 270; 1. 136 '; b. 25', dr. 8 '; s. 15 k.; Cpl.
32; a.13 ", 220mm., 2dd., 1dcp.)

YMS ~ 76 telah ditetapkan oleh Greenport Basin and Construction Co., Greenport, Long Island, NY, 5 Januari 1943; dilancarkan 13 Mac 1943; dan ditugaskan di New York City 10 Ogos 1943, Lt. (jg) J. O. Wilson dalam arahan.

Selama baki tahun 1943 dan sepanjang tahun 1944, YMS-876 beroperasi terutamanya di New York di mana dia menyapu pendekatan dan jangkauan pelabuhan New York. Di samping itu, dia turut serta dalam operasi ASW pesisir berkala yang menghantarnya ke pesisir timur dari New Jersey ke Virginia dan ke Chesapeake Bay.

Ditugaskan untuk bertugas di Pasifik pada awal tahun 1945, YMS ~ 76 bertolak dari New York 16 Mac 1945 dan tiba di San Diego sebulan kemudian. Dia membersihkan pantai barat 28 April; dan, setelah menyentuh di Pearl Harbor, Pulau Johnston, dan Eniwetok, sampai di Guam 24 Mei. Dia bertugas di Marianas hingga 26 Jun ketika, sebagai unit MinRon 104, dia tiba di Okinawa untuk mengambil bahagian dalam tugas penting tetapi berbahaya untuk menyapu ranjau Jepun dari perairan sekitarnya. Dia kekal di Okinawa dan menjalankan tugas penting ini sepanjang perang.

Setelah penyerahan rasmi Jepun pada 2 September,
YMS76 dibawa ke Jepun 8 hingga 10 September dan mula menyapu lombong pesisir dari 'Sasebo. Selama 5 bulan berikutnya dia membersihkan ranjau dari pantai 'Honshu dan Rynabu dan di Laut Inland. Pada 18 Februari 19 "dia meninggalkan Robe ke Amerika Syarikat. Dengan menelefon melalui Kepulauan Marshall dan Hawaii, dia menyentuh San Francisco 1 April dan sampai di San Diego yang ke-9. YMS376 berhenti di sana pada 6 Jun 1946 dan memasuki Armada Pasifik Pasifik. Semasa dalam simpanan di San Diego, dia diberi nama Lark dan dikelaskan semula AMS-23 pada 17 Februari 1947.

Setelah tercetusnya pencerobohan bersenjata Komunis terhadap Republik 'Korea Selatan pada musim panas' 1950, Lark kembali ke Alameda, Calif '., 8 November 1950, Letnan E. W. Anderson yang memerintah. Ditugaskan untuk MinRon 5, dia tiba di San Diego 26 November dan memulakan latihan menyapu ranjau, .ASW, dan Naval Reserve. Dia menukar homeportnya ke Long Beach 11 Januari 1951, dan selama satu tahun berikutnya, terus berlatih jenis dan kesediaan sepanjang sepanjang pantai California dari Long Beach ke San Francisco.

Lark bertolak dari Long Beach 6 Julai 1952 dan, setelah menyentuh di San Francisco, tiba di Astoria, Oreg., 29 Julai. Dia berkhidmat di sana sehingga 13 November 1953 ketika dia berhenti dan memasuki Pacific Reserve Fleet. Dia diklasifikasikan semula MSC (0) -23 pada 7 Februari 1955. Dia ditransfer ke Jepun 14 Februari 1955 di bawah Program Bantuan Ketenteraan, melayani Angkatan Diri Sendiri Maritim Jepun sebagai Ninoshima (MSC262) hingga diserang pada tahun 1967

YMS 376 menerima tiga bintang pertempuran untuk perkhidmatan Perang Dunia II.


Wanita Pertama yang Menaiki Laluan Appalachian Sendiri Melakukannya sebagai & # 8216Lark & ​​# 8217

Gunung Katahdin

Maine

Kisah ini dipetik dan diadaptasi dari Jejak Appalachian: Biografi oleh Philip D & # 8217Anieri, diterbitkan pada bulan Jun 2021 oleh Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Pada 4 April 1948, veteran Angkatan Darat Earl Shaffer berangkat dari hujung selatan Appalachian Trail (AT) ke, seperti yang dia katakan dengan terkenal, & # 8220 berjalan keluar dari sistem saya. & # 8221 Ketika dia selesai di terminal utara , Gunung Mainah & # 8217, Katahdin, 124 hari kemudian, Shaffer menjadi orang pertama yang diketahui telah melalui jalan setapak sepanjang 2.000 batu yang melintasi tulang belakang pergunungan di timur Amerika Syarikat. Kurang dari satu dekad kemudian, seorang nenek berusia 67 tahun mengikat kasut bukan kasut hiking tetapi kasut, dan menjadi wanita pertama yang menaiki jejak itu sendiri *. Walaupun perjalanan Shaffer untuk mencari penebusan di jalan raya lebih terkenal, perjalanan Emma Gatewood & # 8217 sama menarik: Setelah kesusahan sepanjang hayat, dia hanya tertarik pada kebebasan berjalan-jalan.

Gunung Katahdin, dengan ketinggian 5,267 kaki, menandakan hujung utara Jejak Appalachian. Shawn Patrick Ouellette / Portland Press Herald / Getty Images

Gatewood, tidak seperti kebanyakan pejalan kaki di Appalachian Trail, sebenarnya berasal dari Appalachia, wilayah tanah tinggi selatan yang ditentukan oleh kawasannya yang curam dan ekonomi sosial yang berbeza. Dia dibesarkan di kaki bukit Allegheny di tenggara Tenggara Ohio, dan persekitarannya sehari-hari lebih banyak persamaan dengan Virginia Barat, tepat di seberang Sungai Ohio, daripada dengan tanah pertanian dan bandar industri di seluruh negeri asalnya.

Dia dilahirkan Emma Caldwell di Gallia County pada tahun 1887, yang ke-12 dari 15 anak, dan dibesarkan secara berturut-turut di ladang ketika keluarganya berulang kali mencari peluang yang lebih baik. Bagi Caldwells dan ribuan orang yang mencari nafkah di perbukitan, tidak seperti rakan mereka di bandar dan bandar, kawasan luar rumah adalah tempat kerja untuk mencari rezeki, bukan pemandangan yang dapat dikagumi dan dijelajahi. Pada usia 18 tahun, dia memperoleh 75 sen seminggu sebagai bantuan langsung ketika dia bertemu P. C. Gatewood. Keduanya berkahwin pada musim bunga tahun 1907. Hampir dari hari pertama perkahwinan mereka, menurut keturunan dan penulis biografinya, Ben Montgomery, suami Emma Gatewood & # 8217 melihatnya sebagai milik, dan kekerasan sebagai alat kawalannya. Selepas dia memukulnya untuk pertama kalinya, menurut Montgomery:

Dia terfikir untuk meninggalkannya pada hari itu dan malam itu dan seterusnya, tetapi ke mana dia akan pergi? Dia tidak mempunyai pekerjaan, gaji, dan pendidikannya berakhir di kelas lapan. Dia tidak dapat pulang dan menjadi beban ibunya, yang masih sibuk membesarkan anak-anak. Oleh itu, dia menggigit lidahnya dan tinggal bersama P.C.

Menyelamatkan suaminya dan menyediakan keluarga yang terus berkembang akan menentukan kehidupan berkahwin Gatewood selama tiga dekad akan datang. Dia membesarkan 11 orang anak, menguruskan rumah tangga, dan melakukan buruh tani. Melalui semua itu, dia melakukan apa sahaja untuk melindungi dirinya dan anak-anaknya daripada suaminya. Dia membela diri, dia melawan, dan kadang-kadang dia melarikan diri ke hutan, di mana idea perlindungan di antara pokok-pokok itu bukan kiasan sastera, tetapi masalah hidup dan mati yang terlalu nyata. Ada masa gembira juga. Anak-anak mengingati ibu mereka terutamanya menikmati membawanya berjalan-jalan.

Gatewood berhampiran Tasik Lonesome di New Hampshire pada tahun 1957, semasa kenaikan kedua di Appalachian Trail. Peter Brandt / Kelab Gunung Appalachian

PC Gatewood disabitkan dengan pembunuhan selepas dia membunuh seorang lelaki pada tahun 1924. Dia dijatuhkan hukuman gantung kerana kepercayaan pengadilan bahawa dia perlu dapat memberi nafkah kepada isteri dan anak-anaknya, tetapi ganti rugi yang diperintahkan untuk dibayarnya diperlukan menjual separuh ladang, dan memulakan kitaran ekonomi ekonomi keluarga yang semakin teruk.

Keganasannya terhadap Emma berterusan. Pada tahun 1937, dia meninggalkan anak-anaknya yang lebih muda untuk menjaga adik-beradik dewasa mereka, dan melarikan diri ke California, di mana ibunya dan dua adik-beradiknya tinggal. Dia berkomunikasi dengan anak-anaknya dengan surat yang tidak memiliki alamat pengembalian, dan ditulis dengan teliti untuk mencegah P. C. menentukan keberadaannya yang tepat. Pada akhirnya, dia pulang dari kewajiban kepada anak-anak, mengetahui bahawa ia membuatnya lagi dalam bahaya.

Tidak lama kemudian, P. C. berpindah bersama Emma dan tiga anak bongsu, berusia 11 hingga 15 tahun, ke sebuah ladang kecil di pinggir sungai Virginia Barat. Pada tahun 1939, dia berjaya menahan Emma setelah bertengkar di antara mereka berdua yang menyebabkannya teruk. Tetapi acara itu ternyata menjadi permulaan akhir untuk perkahwinan Gatewoods & # 8217, dan kehadiran P. C. & # 8217 dalam kehidupan Emma & # 8217. Pada awal tahun 1941, setelah lebih dari 30 tahun berkahwin, Emma Gatewood telah bercerai. Pada awal 50-an, dia akan membina kehidupan baru dengan syaratnya sendiri. Istilah-istilah itu akhirnya akan merangkumi beberapa jalan yang sangat panjang.

Menjelang akhir Perang Dunia II, Emma telah kembali ke Ohio. Bebas untuk menjalani kehidupan dengan syaratnya sendiri, dia menghabiskan beberapa tahun ke depan untuk beralih ke pekerjaan dan pengaturan yang berbeza, merawat kerabat yang sakit, dan bekerja di bidang kesihatan. Pada suatu ketika, dia menemui sebuah artikel tahun 1949 di Geografi Nasional mengenai Appalachian Trail. Ia menyebutkan bahawa seorang pemuda dari Pennsylvania, Earl Shaffer, telah menjadi yang pertama menaiki sepanjang jalan dalam satu perjalanan.

Pada tahun 1954, Gatewood, ketika itu berusia 66 tahun dan nampaknya tidak tahu apa-apa lagi mengenai jejak itu daripada apa yang muncul Geografi Nasional, membuat keputusannya sendiri untuk menaikkan AT sepenuhnya. Dia tidak akan pernah memberikan jawapan yang baik mengapa dia tertarik dengan kenaikan, melainkan fakta bahawa jejak itu menarik baginya, dan dia menghargai memiliki kebebasan untuk melakukan sesuka hatinya. The Geografi Nasional artikel telah mengatur tinjauannya dari utara ke selatan, dan pada bulan Julai Gatewood tiba di Baxter State Park di Maine untuk memulakan perjalanannya. Walaupun hari pertama di jejak itu berjaya, dia dengan cepat menghadapi masalah. Pada hari kedua kembara penuh, dia secara tidak sengaja meninggalkan jejak, salah satu situasi paling berbahaya bagi pejalan kaki AT. Di hutan yang dalam di Maine, jarak yang sangat dekat dari jalan setapak dapat membuatnya benar-benar tidak terlihat, di mana laut pohon di sekitarnya menjadi seragam dan tanpa arah, dan disorientasi cepat masuk. Setelah dua malam di padang belantara, dan melanggarnya cermin mata, Gatewood entah bagaimana berjaya menemui semula jejak dan kembali ke tempat dia bermula. Dengan dorongan kuat dari renjer taman, termasuk perjalanan ke stesen kereta api terdekat oleh pengawas taman & # 8217, Gatewood menghentikan kenaikannya dan kembali ke Ohio.

Penanda biru menunjukkan jalan untuk pejalan kaki melalui kawasan yang mencabar berhampiran Appalachian Trail & # 8217s utara terminal, di Maine & # 8217s Gunung Katahdin. Shawn Patrick Ouellette / Portland Press Herald / Getty Images

Musim bunga berikutnya dia mencuba lagi, kali ini menuju ke utara dari Georgia. Seperti tahun sebelumnya, Gatewood tidak memberitahu siapa pun, termasuk keluarganya sendiri, apa yang dia inginkan. Dia tidak mahu mereka bimbang, atau cuba menghalangnya.

Sejak awal, Gatewood membuat sedikit perbezaan antara jejak yang dia lalui dan wilayah yang lebih besar yang dilaluinya. Dia mencari makanan dan tempat tinggal dari dunia di sekelilingnya, sama ada memetik buah beri di jalan atau meminta bermalam di ladang berdekatan. Alih-alih memakai pakaian khusus, dia memakai kasut dan menyelongkar beberapa barangnya dengan selimut di atas bahunya. Gatewood telah menghabiskan hampir seluruh hidupnya di lanskap Appalachian yang bekerja, berkeliling dengan berjalan kaki, membuat hubungan dengan apa yang ada. Kenaikannya di AT akan dimainkan sebagai lanjutan dari kehidupan itu, memanjakan sesuatu yang dia nikmati, dan bukannya ekspedisi sadar diri ke alam.

Malam pertamanya, dia kehilangan jejak tetapi sampai di sebuah rumah yang pemiliknya membiarkannya bermalam, dan dia mengembara kembali pada waktu pagi. Malam kedua, dia menggunakan gubuk yang ditinggalkan di dekat jalan untuk berteduh. Kemudian di Georgia dia bermalam di sebuah gereja. Pada malam yang lain, dia diberitahu oleh seorang lelaki bahawa dia tidak dapat tinggal di hartanya, kerana dia milik keluarganya dan tidak berjalan-jalan sendiri.

Hari demi hari, dia bergantung pada kepeduliannya sendiri dan akal untuk mendapatkannya, dan pada kemurahan hati orang lain. Seperti halnya Shaffer, kata Gatewood & lorong di sepanjang jalan mula mendahuluinya, dan wartawan tempatan mengejarnya untuk menulis cerita. Seorang wartawan sangat berminat. Ketika Gatewood mendekati Bear Mountain di New York, Mary Snow, yang merangkumi sukan wanita & # 8217 Sukan yang digambarkan, mengatur untuk berjalan kaki dengannya selama kira-kira lima batu, membeli makan malamnya, dan membayar kabin.

Tidak seperti banyak liputan lain, yang menggambarkan Gatewood sebagai kisah eksentrik, Snow & # 8217, artikel halaman belakang pendek, yang berfokus pada keseriusan cabaran yang dia lalui:

Puan Gatewood, bersendirian dan tanpa peta, mula mengikuti jejak api putih pada awal Mei, dan minggu ini dari Connecticut & # 8217s Cathedral Pines, Nenek Gatewood dapat melihat kembali sejauh 1,500 batu yang terbaik dan terburuk di alam ini. Dia dengan hati-hati menghindari mengganggu tiga kepala tembaga dan dua ular ular di jalan, membalik satu penyerang menyerang dengan tongkat. Ketika terperangkap tanpa tempat perlindungan berdekatan, dia telah memanaskan beberapa batu dan tidur di atasnya agar tidak membeku. Untuk makanan ringan Nenek menggigit huckleberry liar, menggunakan sorrel untuk salad dan menghirup kiub bouillon untuk mengatasi kehilangan garam badan.

Lanskap Iconic Appalachian Trail merangkumi pemandangan dari New Hampshire & # 8217s Crawford Path, yang ditunjukkan di sini sekitar tahun 1965. Courtesy Appalachian Mountain Club

Ketika Gatewood sampai di Baxter State Park, dia ditemui oleh Snow dan wanita yang telah melaporkan kesimpulan kenaikan Shaffer & # 8217 tujuh tahun sebelumnya, Puan Dean Chase. (Chase diketahui, kerana banyak wanita pada masa itu, dengan nama suaminya. Artikel salji & # 8217 di Gatewood berjalan tanpa garis.) Kedua wanita itu akan mengiringi Gatewood selama beberapa hari ke depan, tetapi dia naik Katahdin sendirian, untuk kali kedua hanya dalam setahun, untuk menyelesaikan kenaikannya pada pagi 25 September 1955.

Ditanya mengapa dia melakukan perjalanan itu, Gatewood menjawab, & # 8220Karena aku ingin, & # 8221 dan kerana hal-hal memikat yang dia baca mengenai Appalachian Trail. Kenyataan itu mengecewakan. & # 8220Artikel itu menceritakan tentang jalan yang indah, seberapa baik tanda itu, bahawa ia telah dibersihkan dan bahawa terdapat tempat perlindungan di akhir hari yang baik & # 8217 kenaikan, & # 8221 katanya. & # 8220Saya fikir ia akan menjadi ikan yang bagus. Ia & # 8217t & # 8221

Walaupun dia kecewa, dan kembali ke kehidupannya di Ohio, pada musim bunga 1957, Gatewood terbang ke Georgia sekali lagi dan menaiki AT untuk kali kedua dalam tiga tahun, menyelesaikan beberapa minggu sebelum ulang tahunnya yang ke-70. Pada tahun 1959, dia berjalan di sepanjang jalan yang mengikuti jejak Oregon yang lama, dari Independence, Missouri, ke Portland, Oregon, kemajuannya dijejaki di surat khabar, dan keramaian penonton di penghujungnya membuatnya begitu kecewa sehingga dia memukul seorang jurugambar dengan payungnya. Pada tahun 1964, pada usia 77, dia menyelesaikan kenaikan bahagian AT, yang terakhir dari siri perjalanan yang terpisah selama bertahun-tahun, menandakan ketiga kalinya dia berjalan sepanjang Jalan Appalachian.

Pada awal 70-an, Gatewood berjalan di sepanjang jalan yang mengikuti jejak Oregon yang bersejarah, dari Missouri ke Pacific Northwest. Gambar Denver Post / Getty

Dalam tempoh ini, penumpang AT tetap jarang berlaku. Baru pada akhir 1960-an, dan mempercepat pada & # 821770-an, populariti mendaki melonjak, sehingga ratusan calon pejalan kaki akan berangkat dari Gunung Springer Georgia & # 8217 setiap musim bunga.

Peningkatan Earl Shaffer & # 8217s 1948 menjadi kisah asal untuk budaya mendaki yang memainkan peranan yang lebih besar dan lebih besar dalam kehidupan AT itu sendiri, yang digambarkan sebagai pengalaman belantara di mana kemahiran dan pengetahuan backpacking memberi jalan masuk ke alam semula jadi yang terpisah dan lebih tinggi. Tetapi Gatewood menunjukkan bahawa AT dapat dinaikkan bersama-sama dengan dunia bangunan dan orang-orang yang meresapnya, tidak semestinya bertentangan dengan mereka, dan itu adalah pentas bukan hanya untuk kepahlawanan seorang pemuda, tetapi untuk mendapatkan duniawi -dengan wanita tua. Ya, ini boleh menjadi tujuan pencarian selama bertahun-tahun untuk mencipta semula diri. Tetapi itu juga dapat & # 8220a tersembunyi, & # 8221 berdasarkan saran tidak ada yang lebih besar daripada pertemuan kebetulan dengan artikel majalah.

Gatewood terus mengembara dan mengembara hingga akhir hayatnya. Bermula pada tahun 1967, dia memimpin kenaikan musim sejuk tahunan di sepanjang jejak, yang sekarang dinamai namanya, di Ohio & # 8217s Hocking Hills. Kenaikan itu menarik 2.500 peserta pada tahun 1973, tidak lama kemudian Gatewood memulakan perjalanan dengan bas di sekitar Amerika Syarikat dan beberapa bahagian Kanada. Beberapa hari setelah pulang ke rumah, dia jatuh sakit parah, dan keadaannya cepat merosot. Emma Gatewood meninggal pada bulan Jun 1973, pada usia 85 tahun.

* Pembetulan: Petikan ini sebelum ini tidak menjelaskan bahawa Emma Gatewood adalah wanita pertama yang menaiki Appalachian Trail sahaja. Pada tahun 1952, Mildred Norman dan rakan kembara lelaki menyelesaikan & # 8220flip-flop, & # 8221 hiking bahagian jalan penuh dalam satu arah, kemudian melakukan perjalanan ke hujung yang lain dan mendaki selebihnya ke arah yang bertentangan.


BAHAGIAN II (b)Latihan Amfibi Angkatan Darat oleh Pasukan Amfibi Ketujuh

Pengenalan

Latihan amfibi tentera Darat ditugaskan sebagai tanggungjawab Angkatan Laut dengan tindakan Ketua Staf Gabungan. Sejalan dengan ini, Markas Besar Daerah Pasifik Barat Daya mengeluarkan arahan pada 8 Februari 1943 yang menugaskan Pasukan Amfibi Pasifik Barat Daya dengan pelaksanaan dan koordinasi semua latihan amfibi, kecuali latihan untuk jarak dekat, pantai, pantai -kerjasama Briged Khas Jurutera. Akan diperhatikan bahawa hanya dalam fungsi khusus ini, latihan amfibi pasukan tentera, Laksamana Muda BARBEY bertanggung jawab langsung kepada Markas Besar dan bukan melalui Komandan Pasifik Barat Daya Pasifik seperti dia dalam semua hal lain.

Semua aktiviti latihan amfibi kemudian berfungsi diletakkan di bawah perintahnya. Ini merupakan:

(a) Sekolah Latihan Operasi Bersama Luar Negara di Port Stephens, New South Wales. Kegiatan ini telah beroperasi secara langsung di bawah Markas Besar dan terlibat dalam program latihan amfibi asas bagi pegawai Amerika Syarikat dan Tentera Australia. Batalion infanteri Australia dengan sebilangan artileri berfungsi sebagai pasukan sekolah dan memberikan demonstrasi pendaratan pada skala pasukan pendaratan batalion. Sebuah unit pangkalan tentera laut maju yang terdiri daripada 3 pegawai dan 40 orang yang mendaftar dengan 40 kapal pendaratan jenis LCP 36 'dilampirkan ke sekolah ini. Unit pangkalan canggih ini juga terlibat dalam memberi arahan kepada anggota tentera laut Diraja Australia dalam operasi kapal pendaratan jenis A.S.

(b) Di Toorbul, Queensland, satu lagi unit tentera laut yang terdiri daripada 3 orang pegawai dan 60 orang yang mendaftar dengan 10 kapal pendaratan jenis LCP 36 'juga terlibat dalam latihan dasar anggota Tentera Laut Diraja Australia dalam pengendalian kapal pendaratan.

(c) Di Kem DOOMBEN, Queensland, di sekitar Brisbane terdapat 21 petugas dan 250 orang yang telah dilatih yang telah dilatih

operasi kapal pendaratan dan yang sedang menunggu ketibaan kapal pendaratan dari Amerika Syarikat. Anggota ini kemudian dipindahkan ke Amphibious Training Command di Port Stephens ketika Komando itu ditubuhkan.

(d) Tentera Laut Diraja Australia mempunyai pangkalan latihan amfibi di Port Stephens, yang dikenali sebagai HMAS Assault. Pada 25 Februari 1943, Lembaga Angkatan Laut Komanwel Australia mengarahkan agar HMAS Assault dan juga HMAS Infantri Kapal Pendaratan Australia Manoora diletakkan di bawah kawalan operasi Komander Pasukan Amfibi Barat Daya Pasifik. The HMAS Kanimbla dan Westralia, dua LSI tambahan juga akan diberikan sebaik sahaja penukarannya selesai.

Latihan Amfibi di Australia

Operasi Permulaan

Pada 1 Mac 1943, Sekolah Latihan Luar Negara Bersama Operasi, HMAS Assault dan Unit Pangkalan Lanjutan A.S. semuanya digabungkan untuk membentuk Komando Latihan Amfibi di bawah arahan sementara Kapten K. J. CHRISTOPH, USN. Dia dibebaskan pada bulan berikutnya oleh Kapten J. W. JAMISON, USN yang mempunyai banyak pengalaman dalam latihan amfibi di Atlantik dan yang pernah berkhidmat sebagai Beachmaster semasa Pendaratan Afrika Utara.

Bahagian Ketujuh, Pasukan Imperial Australia adalah pasukan pertama yang dijadualkan menjalani latihan amfibi. Sebagai persediaan untuk latihan berskala besar, latihan khas dilakukan untuk pegawai bahagian yang terpilih. Subjek yang dibahas adalah pesta pantai dan pantai, komunikasi, sokongan tembakan tentera laut, sokongan udara, pengintai amfibi dan tugas-tugas pengawal pengangkutan. Enam puluh empat pegawai mengikuti kursus ini.

Bahagian Ketujuh tidak dapat memenuhi tarikhnya untuk latihan pasukan kerana kesukaran dalam organisasi, kekurangan pengganti, dan sejumlah besar kakitangan yang mengalami malaria berulang. Dianggarkan bahawa bahagian itu tidak akan bersedia untuk memulakan latihan sehingga akhir April.

Komander Pasukan Amfibi Pasifik Barat Daya mengesyorkan agar Bahagian Laut Pertama, kemudian di

sekitar Melbourne, disediakan untuk latihan. Ini telah diluluskan dan latihan bahagian ini dilakukan di Kawasan Pantai Dromana, Port Phillip, Victoria, dari 28 Mac hingga 15 Mei. Dalam tempoh ini, pegawai Bahagian Ketujuh Australia memerhatikan latihan pasukan Marinir tetapi tidak ada latihan pasukan yang diberi bahagian ini.

The HMAS Manoora dan USS Henry T. Allen pada mulanya digunakan untuk latihan amfibi Bahagian Laut Pertama. The H.T. Allen tiba di kawasan itu pada 13 Mac dari Pasifik Selatan. Keadaan material kapal ini sedemikian rupa sehingga terpaksa ditarik dari latihan pada 10 April untuk lima minggu ketersediaan baik pulih di Sydney. Direncanakan bahawa LST, LCI dan LCT ketika mereka tersedia di kawasan ini akan mengambil bahagian dalam latihan ini, bermula sekitar 15 April. Namun demikian, kerajinan seperti itu diperlukan untuk pergerakan pasukan ke depan segera setelah mereka tiba. Hanya Manoora yang masih ada untuk latihan, dengan membawa satu pasukan pendaratan batalion pada satu masa.

Corak Latihan

Semasa latihan penyegaran First Marine Division berlangsung di Port Phillip, persiapan dibuat untuk melatih pasukan di Port Stephens. Prosedur operasi standard dikembangkan untuk Parti Pantai, Sokongan Tentera Laut dan Sokongan Udara, Komunikasi Angkatan Pendarat, Pengangkut Pasukan Pengangkut, dan Pemuatan Tempur, Perilaku Pasukan di Kapal Amfibi dan Kapal, Teknik Tentara dalam Penghantaran dari Kapal Amfibi dan Kapal.

Bahagian Infantri ke-32 merupakan unit pertama yang menghadiri Pusat Latihan Amphibious. Kaedah pengajaran didapati berjaya dan diadopsi sebagai pola untuk semua latihan masa depan. Kursus staf dan komando, kursus pakar dan kursus untuk instruktur pasukan diberikan sebelum latihan unit pasukan.

Pegawai yang menghadiri kursus kakitangan dan komando adalah Bahagian atau Penolong Komander Bahagian Perisikan, Operasi, dan Pegawai Logistik, Bahagian Jurutera Bahagian Kakitangan Regimen dan Batalion dan Komandan Regimental dan Pasukan Batalion.

Minggu pertama kursus kakitangan dan komando terdiri daripada

ceramah, perbincangan dan demonstrasi yang merangkumi semua fasa operasi amfibi. Minggu kedua dikhaskan untuk masalah sekolah yang mengharuskan pelajar menyiapkan rancangan, pesanan lapangan, dan perintah pentadbiran untuk pendaratan Regimental Combat Team. Kakitangan RCT dan BLT bekerja sebagai kumpulan dalam menyelesaikan masalah ini.

Sekolah Pakar dibahagikan kepada beberapa bahagian. Komunikasi yang dihadiri oleh pegawai komunikasi bahagian, regimental dan batalion Naval Gunfire Support oleh pemerhati hadapan, pegawai perhubungan dan S-3s Field Artillery Battalions Shore Party oleh pegawai terpilih dari Batalion Jurutera, Platun Perintis dan unit Infantri Bahagian Quartermaster Pengangkutan yang dihadiri oleh dua pegawai dari setiap Batalion Perubatan mengikut Bahagian, Regimental dan Batalion Surgeons.

Pelajar di Sekolah Pakar menghadiri ceramah dan perbincangan minggu pertama Kursus Komando dan Kakitangan yang menarik bagi semua pihak. Baki tempoh dua minggu dihabiskan untuk kepakaran tertentu dengan ceramah, perbincangan, masalah sekolah, dan kerja praktikal.

Sekolah penolong pasukan-instruktur diadakan untuk setiap RCT satu minggu sebelum latihan pasukan yang dijadualkan untuk unit itu. Ia dihadiri oleh seorang pegawai dan satu setengah di pegawai yang tidak ditugaskan dari setiap syarikat, bateri, atau unit serupa. Tujuan kursus ini adalah untuk menyediakan personel yang berkelayakan untuk memberi petunjuk dan membetulkan setiap askar semasa latihan pasukan dan oleh itu teknik penekanan, penangkapan, prosedur individu di atas pengangkutan, pemakaian peralatan, dll.

Pegawai menghadiri Sekolah Kakitangan dan Komando dan Pakar bertugas sementara. Semasa latihan pasukan, semua Pegawai Memerintah tetap mengawal unit mereka. Pusat Latihan Amphibious menerbitkan jadual latihan dan Komando Pasukan melaksanakannya. Tenaga pengajar bertindak sebagai penyelia latihan dan penasihat kepada Pegawai Memerintah & # 9632: d unit yang menjalani latihan.

Pada bulan Mei 1943, Sekolah Latihan Operasi Gabungan di Toorbul, Queensland diserahkan kepada Komander Pasukan Ketujuh Amfibi. Sekolah ini telah dikendalikan oleh Tentera Australia pertama dan telah melatih Batalion Infantri, Kumpulan Anti-Pesawat, dan Brigade Perisai yang terpisah.

Pusat Latihan Amphibious, Cairns, Queensland adalah

ditubuhkan pada 25 Jun 1943. Kapten P. A. STEVENS, USN, bekas Pegawai Memerintah USS Henry T. Allen, ditugaskan sebagai Pegawai Memerintah. Briged Khas Jurutera ke-2 yang terdiri daripada Pasukan Tentera Darat terlatih amfibi, terletak di Cairns dan diletakkan di bawah kawalan operasi Komandan Pasukan Amfibi Ketujuh untuk digunakan dalam melatih Divisi Australia ke-6 dan ke-9.

Unit Terlatih

Berikut adalah latihan yang dilakukan oleh pusat latihan amfibi di Australia pada tahun 1943:

Unit ATC Tarikh Inklusif
Inf A.S. ke-32 Div
Staff & amp Komando & amp Pakar Sekolah Pelabuhan Stephens 31 Mei-14 Jun
Latihan Pasukan Pelabuhan Stephens 16 Jun-28 Ogos
Cav A.S. pertama Div
Kakitangan & Komando & amp Sekolah Khas Pelabuhan Stephens 2-16 Ogos
Latihan Pasukan
Briged ke-1 Pelabuhan Stephens 13 Sept-4 Oktober
Briged ke-2 Toorbul 13 Sept-4 Oktober
Div Australia ke-9
Latihan Pasukan Cairns 1 Julai-10 Ogos
Div Australia ke-6
Latihan Pasukan Cairns 16 Ogos-18 Sept.
Inf A.S. ke-24 Div.
Staff & amp Command & amp Specialist School Pelabuhan Stephens 15-30 September
Latihan Pasukan Toorbul 5 Okt-11 Dis.

Unit ATC Tarikh Inklusif
Inf A.S. ke-41 Div.
Staff & amp Command & amp Specialist School Toorbul 6-18 Dis.
Latihan Pasukan Toorbul 20 Dis .-- 29 Jan.

Kapal & amp Kraf Terdapat

Sepanjang tempoh ini, latihan dilumpuhkan oleh kekurangan peralatan dan terutama oleh kurangnya jumlah kapal dan kapal pendaratan yang diperlukan. Tidak lebih daripada empat pengangkutan (1 APA dan 3 LSI) tersedia dalam satu masa. Semasa latihan sedang berlangsung di Port Stephens, Toorbul, dan Cairns, secara serentak, hanya dua pengangkutan yang tersedia dua yang lain (Henry T. Allen dan Westralia) mengangkat pasukan dari Australia ke New Guinea sebagai persiapan untuk operasi yang akan datang. Rata-rata satu LST, empat LCI, 3 LCT, 40 LCV, dan 8 LCM tersedia di setiap Pusat selama tempoh latihan. Oleh kerana kekurangan peralatan ini, improvisasi harus dilakukan. Kadang-kadang LST dicurangi dengan jaring debarkasi dan digunakan sebagai pengangkutan, membawa sebanyak pasukan pendaratan batalion di atas kapal. Sisi kapal dibina di atas air dan pasukan melepaskannya ke kapal pendaratan, mensimulasikan penyingkiran dari pengangkutan.

Pesta Pantai

Walaupun Briged Khas Jurutera tiba di teater ini, mereka diperlukan untuk penggunaan operasi segera dan tidak tersedia sebagai Pesta Pantai semasa latihan di beberapa bahagian. Akibatnya, Markas Besar mengarahkan agar bahagian-bahagian yang berkenaan mengatur Shore Parties untuk digunakan dalam latihan. Situasi ini tidak diingini tetapi menjadikan beberapa unit menyedari masalah Shore Party. Sebaliknya, kebanyakan pasukan tidak memandang serius latihan Shore Party, kerana pada umumnya dipercayai bahawa unit Briged Khas Jurutera akan disediakan untuk operasi menentang musuh. Sebilangan besar bahagian juga tidak dapat memperoleh peralatan mekanikal yang mencukupi dan mencukupi untuk Shore Party yang betul, seperti bull-dozer, crane, trak, trailer, dll.

Sokongan Senjata Tentera Laut

Kerana kekurangan kapal tempur selama periode ini, para petugas yang diinstruksikan dalam bantuan tembakan angkatan laut memiliki sedikit peluang untuk latihan praktikal dengan kapal-kapal tersebut.

Sakit

Semasa tempoh latihan mereka, Bahagian Laut 1, Bahagian Infantri A.S. ke-32 dan Bahagian Australia ke-6 dan ke-9 berada di bawah kekuatan 30% kerana malaria berulang di antara pasukan.

Latihan Amfibi, Kawasan New Guinea

> Ibu Pejabat Am. Kawasan Pasifik Barat Daya pada 11 Januari 1944 mengarahkan agar latihan di ATC TOORBUL dihentikan selewat-lewatnya pada 5 Februari 1944 setelah tamat latihan Bahagian Infantri ke-41 dan personel, peralatan dan rekod dipindahkan ke ATC, MILNE BAY, GUINEA BARU. Arahan ini dipatuhi dengan ATC di MILNE BAY dilancarkan pada 26 Januari 1944 dan baki kemudahan di TOORBUL diserahkan kepada Tentera Asutralia.

Pusat Latihan Amphibious, Milne Bay, yang didirikan di pesisir Stringer Bay, terdiri dari kolam bot, bengkel, tempat untuk kakitangan yang ditugaskan, satu dewan kuliah besar (pondok quonset 40 '& kali 100') dan tujuh bilik darjah kecil (2o ') & kali 40 'pondok quonset) dengan sisi kapal mock-up terbentuk di atas air dan dicabut dengan jaring debarkasi. Ini adalah pemasangan jenis yang sama yang digunakan di Pusat di Australia kecuali bahawa kemudahan tempat tinggal atau kekacauan tidak tersedia untuk pelajar kerana dijangkakan bahawa unit yang dilatih di pusat ini akan dipentaskan di kawasan Milne Bay dan dapat berulang-alik ke ATC dari kem mereka.

Kursus Latihan

Kursus latihan di ATC Milne Bay mengikuti corak yang sama seperti yang digunakan di Pusat-pusat di Australia Staff and Command and Specialists School, Assistant Troop Instructors Course, dan akhirnya, Troop Training.

Bahagian Infantri A.S. ke-6 memasuki tempoh latihan pada 28 Februari 1944. Selain pegawai kebiasaan * sekolah

selama dua minggu pertama, setiap RCT menjalani latihan tiga minggu menggunakan pengangkutan, LCI, dan LST. Namun, pada 8 April latihan terpaksa ditangguhkan kerana semua pengangkutan yang tersedia dan kapal pendaratan jenis yang lebih besar diperlukan untuk Operasi Aitape-Humboldt Bay-Tanamerah yang akan datang.

Oleh kerana latihan akan berhenti sehingga selesai fasa awal operasi ini, instruktur ATC diperincikan sebagai pemerhati dengan pelbagai elemen Pasukan Petugas dan Pasukan Pendaratan. Langkah ini sangat berharga bagi tenaga pengajar kerana memberi mereka peluang untuk melihat dua divisi, 24 dan 41, dalam operasi amfibi pertama mereka sejak tamat latihan di ATC Toorbul.

ATC Milne Bay meneruskan latihan Bahagian Infantri A.S. ke-6 pada 1 Mei dan menyelesaikan kerja dengan bahagian itu pada 5 Jun 1944.

Unit Latihan Bergerak

Sebagai hasil dari pendaratan Teluk Aitape-Hollandia-Tanamerah, Teluk Milne menjadi lokasi kawasan belakang dan jelas tidak ada pasukan tempur lain yang akan bergerak dari sana. Kesukaran pengangkutan menghalang pergerakan tentera ke Milne Bay untuk latihan. Oleh itu, diputuskan untuk mengatur Unit Latihan Bergerak yang secara kiasan akan membawa Pusat Latihan kepada pasukan. Tiga unit sedemikian dibentuk, masing-masing mampu melatih satu bahagian. Unit-unit ini terdiri daripada pegawai, pengangkutan dan kapal pendaratan yang tersedia di Pusat. Since the 33rd U.S. Infantry Division was the only one on the training program which had had no previous amphibious work, officers of this organization attended the last Staff and Command and Specialists Course held at Milne Bay during the period 5-17 June 1944. Troop training for the 33rd was carried out at its staging area, Finschhafen.

The remaining divisions on the program were given refresher training only, since they had all had basic amphibious work and had been in at least one amphibious operation. The following chart shows organization of the Amphibious Training Group based on the use of Mobile Training Units:

Units Trained

Following is a list of the units trained by the Amphibious Training Group, Seventh Amphibious Force, during the New Guinea Phase:

Unit Place Inclusive Dates
6th U.S. Inf. Div.
Staff & Specialist School Milne Bay 28 Feb--11 Mar 1944
Troop Training Milne Bay 13 Mar.-8 Apr. & 1 May-5 June
33rd U.S. Inf. Div.
Staff & Specialist School Milne Bay 5-17 June 1944
Troop Training Finschhafen 26 June-29 July 1944

Unit Place Inclusive Dates
6th U.S. Ranger Bn.
Troop Training Finschhafen 17--29 July 1944
37th U.S. Inf. Div.
Troop Training Bougainville 13 July-24 Aug 1944
43rd U.S. Inf. Div.
Troop Training Aitape 28 Aug-26 Sept 1944
31st, 33rd, 43rd Divs' Arty. 120th, 126th, 129th F.A. Bns.
Naval Gunfire Support Aitape 12-20 August 1944
112th U.S. Cav. RCT Aitape 28 Sept-12 Oct 1944
25th U.S. Inf. Div.
New Troop Training New Caledonia 8 Sept.-13 Oct 1944
7th Australian Div.
Troop Training Cairns, Aust. 14 Oct.-14 Nov. 1944
40th U.S. Inf. Div.
Troop Training Cape Gloucester 15 Oct.-18 Nov. 1944
9th Australian Div.
Troop Training Cairns, Aust. 17 Nov.-2 Dec. 1944

Ships and Craft Used

An average of 2 APA (LSI), 2 LST, 4 LCIs were available to each training unit during this period.

On 2 October 1944, six British LSIs reported to Commander

Seventh Amphibious Force and were assigned to the Amphibious Training Group for duty. These were HMS Clan LaMont, Glen Earn, Empire Mace, Empire Spearhead, Empire Arquebus, Empire Battleaxe. These ships were not satisfactory, but no other were available since other transports under control of Commander Seventh Amphibious Force were engaged in combat operations.

The LSIs carried only the British LCA (landing craft assault) which were personnel boats only, similar to the LCP(R). Davits could not take the LCVP without extensive conversion. The Amphibious Training Group issued two LCM(3)s to each ship. In addition, these ships had limited troop and cargo capacity-- about 800 troops, eight 2-½ ton trucks and 20 1/4 ton trucks. Cleanliness and sanitation were not up to the standards maintained by ships of the United States Navy.

All LVTs and DUKWs in the Southwest Pacific Area were either in use on operations or being assembled in staging areas for future operations. None were available for training.

Shore Parties

As in previous training, the units involved were required to form Shore Parties from organic elements of the division. Again, the lack of mechanical equipment and sufficient engineer troops hampered complete and efficient Shore Party training. The most common source of Shore Party personnel was from one of the regiments not in training. This assignment was rotated among the three regiments of the division.

Naval Gunfire Training

During the period 12-20 August, 1944, forward observers of the 31st, 33rd, and 43rd U.S. Infantry Divisions and 120th, 126th, and 129th Field Artillery Battalions received training at Aitape with a destroyer division furnishing gunfire. Training was coordinated with combat missions of the 43rd Infantry Division operating in the Aitape sector. In this manner forward observers not only gained experience in working with firing ships, but found "live" targets and performed under combat conditions.

Philippine Phase

Establishment of ATC Subic

During the period of the Leyte and Lingayen operations, troop training was at a standstill since nearly all combat units were being employed in the Philippine Campaign. However, it was deemed essential to commence refresher amphibious training as early as practicable in preparation for the eventual invasion of Japan. Several areas along the Coast of Luzon, Philippine Islands, were reconnoitered and Subic Bay, Zambales Province was finally selected as the site for an Amphibious Training Center in the Philippines.

In early March 1945, General Headquarters directed that the ATC, Milne Bay, be transferred to Subic Bay and that preparations be made to train three Divisions simultaneously. Because most Army units would have a considerable number of officer replacements since their last amphibious operation, it was directed that a Staff and Command Course and Specialists School for officers be conducted prior to troop training of each division. The organization for this training was to be along the same lines as that used during the training in New Guinea--officer schools at the Center and troop training in the staging areas conducted by Mobile Training Units.

In early April 1945 the Amphibious Training Center, Subic Bay, was placed high on the construction priority list so that the first course could start by 12 June 1945. The completed installations at Subic Bay included facilities for the Amphibious Training Base, Headquarters Amphibious Training Group, lecture halls and class rooms for the Staff and Command and Specialists Schools, and quarters and mess for 300 officers.

Staff andn Command and Specialists Courses

In accordance with General Headquarters* directive, a two-weeks Staff and Command and Specialists School proceeded all troop training. Increased emphasis was placed on such subjects as air support, naval gunfire support, and communications. As soon as it was known that JASCOs (Joint Assault Signal Company) would be assigned certain division s for training, a Specialists School for the Air Liaison and Shore Fire Control Sections of these units was initiated. The JASCO Shore Party Communications Sections were to receive instruction and training with the Shore Parties.

Since the Seventh Amphibious Force was to be transferred

to the control of Amphibious Forces Pacific on 15 August 1945, "Transport Doctrine, Amphibious Force Pacific Fleet" was used as a basis for all instruction. While this required some changes in technique, the basic doctrine was the same as previously taught in the Southwest Pacific Area.

Troops Training

Troop training was accomplished by sending Mobile Training Units to the divisions concerned rather than attempting to transport all divisions to Subic Bay. Training Units were organized in the same manner as those used in New Guinea and had in addition one transport division of four APAs and one AKA. The transport division commander was also the commanding officer of the Mobile Training Unit.

Because of the limited time for training, it was necessary to handle up to three divisions at once. Again the transports and landing craft had to be split three ways. The shipping allocated each training unit was only sufficient to lift one RCT. Thus exercises involving the embarkation and landing of an entire Army division could not be accomplished.

Units to be Trained

Following is a list of the units scheduled for training, including dates and location of training:

Unit Place Inclusive Dates
81st and Americal U.S. Inf. Divs.
Command & Staff & Specialists Subic 15-24 June
Troop Training Leyte Cebu 1-23 July
1st U.S. Cav, 40th, 33rd, Inf. Divs.
Command & Staff & Specialists Subic 13--22 July
Troop Training Lucena, Luzon
Iloilo, Panay
Launion, Luzon
30 July-21 Aug.

Unit Place Inclusive Dates
24th, 41st, 43rd U.S. Inf. Divs.
Command & Staff & Specialists Subic 11-20 Aug.
Troop Training Lingayen, Luzon
Zamboanga, Mindanao
28 Aug.-19 Sept.

ATC Organization

On 10 June 1945, Rear Admiral J. L. HALL, Jr., USN, Commander Amphibious Group 12, reported to Commander Seventh Amphibious Force for duty as Commander Amphibious Training Group. He succeeded Captain R. E. HANSON, USN, who had commanded the group since July 1944. Captain Hanson then became Commanding Officer of the Amphibious Training Center, Subic Bay and Commodore J. B. McGovern, USN, who had reported with Transport Squadron 16, was placed in charge of troop training.

The following diagram illustrates the Amphibious Training Group Organization:


Cancellation of Training

The cessation of hostilities brought about the cancellation of all amphibious training since the troop units concerned were required for the occupation of Japan and Korea. At this time the 81st and Americal Divisions had completed their course of training the 1st Cavalry, 40th and 33rd Infantry Divisions had finished the Command and Staff and Specialists Schools and were midway in their troop training, and officers of the 25th, 41st, and 43rd divisions had started the Command and Staff and Specialists School.

At its end the Amphibious Training Group was embarked on one of the most extensive amphibious training programs of the war initially the training of eight army divisions for the assault on Kyushu and later the same program for ten divisions for operations against Honshu.


Vice Admiral BARBEY with Rear Admiral ARTHUR D. STRUBLE, U. S. Navy (left), Commander Amphibious Group Nine and Rear Admiral WILLIAM M. FECHTELER, U. S. Navy (right), Commander Amphibious Group Eight.


When WW2 Ended Where Did all the 100’s of Millions of Weapons Go?

World War II ended 74 years ago – so what happened to the hundreds of millions of weapons that were made for it?

World War II was like no other war: it was warfare on an epic and global scale.

War Production 1939 to 1945 (estimated)

Major weapons groups & System Total

  • Tanks, self-propelled artillery, vehicles: 6 million
  • Artillery, mortars, anti-tank guns: 8 million
  • Aircraft: 850,000
  • Missiles: 45,000
  • Ships: 55,500

What probably set this war apart from other conflicts was the rapid pace at which technology progressed throughout it.

For instance, at the start of the war, most sides were using prop-driven fighter aircraft such as the French De.520 monoplane.

But by the end of the conflict, aircraft such as the jet-powered German Me 262 and British Gloster Meteor were entering service and becoming the norm, thus hailing in the postwar dominance of jet propulsion in air warfare.

Messerschmitt Me 262 B1-A.Photo gravitat-OFF CC BY 2.0

Dewoitine De.520 C.1 compared to the Me 262 A-1a [Percentage Increase]

Maximum speed: 347 mph (560 km/h) 559 mph (900 km/h ) +61%

Rate of climb: 2,820 ft/min (853 m/min) 3,900 ft/min (1,200 m/min ) +38%

Service ceiling: 33,000 ft (10,000 m) 37,565 ft (11,450 m ) +14%

Range: 777 mi (1,250 km) 652 mi (1,050 km) -16%

Dewoitine D.520. Photo: PpPachy / CC BY-SA 3.0

What actually happened to all this weaponry after the war? Well, the answer is not as straightforward as you might think.

Many of the new types of weaponry which appeared during the war were produced to meet varying needs and specifications. Because they’d been built to such specialist requirements, they rapidly became outdated. This resulted in a huge amount of equipment being scrapped when the fighting was done.

German equipment destroyed in the Mont Ormel area, waiting to be scrapped near the Dives River-Valley

Many vehicles, aircraft, and ships were sold for scrap, being stripped of valuable parts and being melted down as metals like aluminum could be re-used.

The numbers involved were truly staggering. Between 1945 to 1946, around 5,500 aircraft were scrapped at Kingman Air Force Base in Arizona alone.

Acres of World War II aircraft in storage, awaiting their fate at Kingman, 1946.

In Germany, the scale of the scrapping was on a similar if not a more intense scale as the ravaged economy was in desperate need of raw materials.

German military aircraft in the yard of a German aluminum works at Grevenbrioch. The wrecked planes will be broken up for scrap.

In addition, a lot of the Allied weaponry was scattered around the world and it was simply too expensive to ship it all home.

A 1943 Willys Jeep, the basis for the design of jeepneys. Photo: Joost J. Bakker / CC BY 2.0

Such a large number of American Jeeps were left behind in the Philippines that a whole new type of public transport was created by converting them into small buses called ‘Jeepneys.’

A typical jeepney. Photo: Lawrence Ruiz – CC BY-SA 4.0

In the case of Libya and Tunisia, there were so many military vehicles left abandoned on the battlefield that recovering them as scrap actually helped the economies of these countries to recover after the war.

Most often, a lot of the equipment used in battle had been destroyed beyond repair. Ships and aircraft were particularly prone to this. A ship sinking a thousand feet to the seabed or an aircraft crashing into the ground at 400 miles per hour was normally completely useless.

The HMS Ark Royal, a British Aircraft Carrier, was torpedoed off Gibraltar by the Germans in 1941. It now rests on the seabed at a depth of around 3,300 ft (1,000 meters).

Legion moving alongside the damaged and listing Ark Royal to take off survivors

Tanks were a different matter altogether. They could often be recovered from the battlefield, repaired and put back into service quickly. However, by the end of the war, most of these tanks were thoroughly worn out and nearly unserviceable.

M25 Tank Transporter Dragon Wagon.

There was also a common problem in that production of many World War II designs had stopped years ago. So vehicles, ships, and aircraft were either getting too old to be adequately maintained, or were no longer effective in a fast-evolving battlefield.

Type 3 Chi-Nu tanks of the 4th Tank Division, with a few Type 3 Ho-Ni III self-propelled guns among them.

This was particularly true of the German and Japanese equipment, as most of their production capability and infrastructure had been destroyed by the mass bombing campaigns of World War II. This rendered most of their military equipment impractical to use after the war.

German Heinkel He 111 planes bombing Warsaw, Sep 1939.

At the end of the war, most German aircraft had been destroyed, were in a bad state of repair, or had been deliberately disabled by their crew. There was also a reluctance by countries to use Axis equipment as such weapons were seen as former tools of oppression and hatred.

Despite that, there were instances where Axis equipment was used out of necessity or desperation. The French used a number of German Panther tanks from the end of the war until 1949, at which point the much delayed (and ultimately very unsuccessful) home-produced ARL-44 heavy tank replaced them.

ARL 44 at Mourmelon-le-Grand. By The shadock – CC BY-SA 3.0

The Lebanese brought a handful of Italian SM 79 medium bombers due to their ties with Italy and the fact they were inexpensive to buy after the war. But the aircraft quickly fell into disuse as they were old and poorly maintained.

The Sturmgewehr 44 Assault rifle was a ground-breaking German design. It arose out of a war-time need for an infantry rifle that was more compact, semi-automatic, and with a large magazine capacity at the expense of a lesser range. The weapon later went on to have a significant influence on the development of the Russian AK-47 assault rifle.

The Sturmgewehr 44 Assault rifle. A soldier demonstrates the transitional MP 43/1 variant. By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 de

Few survived the war as only a limited number were made and the 7.92×33mm caliber made it impractical for widespread post-war military service. But it was used for a number of years afterward by the East German Paramilitary Police.

The STG 44 was also used by the East German Paramilitary Police Force until 1962. However, such uses of Axis weaponry was the exception rather than the rule.

Often the method to prolong the use of World War II munitions was to upgrade them so that they remained relevant and effective.

/>MP44 (Sturmgewehr 44), Germany.

Many armored fighting vehicles proved to have very adaptable designs. They were often modified or upgraded to give them a second life and extend their usefulness.

This trend started during World War II, and a good example was the Czech-supplied Panzer 38(t) which was later rebuilt and turned into the German Tank Destroyer Marder III. The modifications extended its useful service life for another few years although, like many designs, the Marder III had reached the limit of its potential by the end of World War II.

Marder III Ausf. M tank destroyer.Photo: Bundesarchiv, Bild 101I-297-1729-23 / Kurth / CC-BY-SA 3.0

A precedent had been set, and some weaponry proved to have such great potential that it was continually upgraded, often reaching the pinnacle of its design potential long after the war years.

A prime example of this was the American M4 Sherman tank, which was still being upgraded decades after it was first produced.

Sherman M4A1(76). Photo: Baku 13 / CC By-SA 3.0

Even as late as the early 1960s the tank was being modified by the Israelis, who upgraded 180 surplus American Sherman M4A1s. They added a shortened version of the powerful French 105 mm F1 gun, as well as giving it a new, improved suspension and engine.

Sherman M-51. Photo: Bukvoed / CC BY 2.5

The new tank was given the designation M-51 and nicknamed the “Super Sherman.” It proved highly effective against the more modern Soviet-built T-54, T-55, and T-62 tanks the Arab army was using.

The M-51 was eventually phased out of Israeli service in the 1980s. They sold 100 to the Chilean army who used them until 1999 when they were replaced by Leopard 1s.

Some designs were so good and well made that they soldiered on for years to come with few, if any, modifications. The classic Russian T-34/85 medium tank and the F-4U Corsair naval fighter airplane fell into this category.

The F-4U Corsair was still being produced for years after the war, with production only ending in 1953. After that, the aircraft was slowly phased out of military service until 1976 when the El Salvador Air Force completely replaced it.

Vought F4U Corsair. Photo: Gerry Metzler / CC BY-SA 2.0

As ships were both costly and time-consuming to build, as well as being very labor intensive to run, many were disregarded after the war. However, some ships, like the USS Iowa, were maintained.

The Iowa was a 58,400 ton American Battleship which was continually updated and kept in service on and off until 1990 before entering the naval reserve and, eventually, in 2011, becoming an official Museum ship.

USS Missouri leading USS Iowa into Tokyo Bay, Japan, 30 August 1945. Note destroyer USS Nicholas in escort.

Very few military boats were sold to private individuals, but it is interesting to note that actor, John Wayne, bought a former World War II American YMS-1-class. It was a 136 ft long Yard Mine Sweeper and he ran it for the last 17 years of his life.

It was said that the ship was so expensive to run that it nearly bankrupted him several times and he had to take on extra movies to be able to pay to keep it running.

USS YMS-324 in San Francisco Bay, c. 1945–46

On the other hand, many weapons were so badly designed in the first place that they were scrapped as soon as possible and were never used post-war.

This was the case for both the German Me 163 Komet Jet Interceptor and the Italian Breda 6.5mm Model 30 light machine gun. This gun was prone to over-heating and jamming as well as having no carrying handle, a small magazine capacity, and a barrel changing issue.

A German Messerschmitt Me 163B Komet rocket-propelled fighter (s/n 191095) at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Dayton, Ohio (USA).

Some World War II surplus stock was very attractive to buy as it was in plentiful supply and the designs were combat proven. Such stock had the added bonus of being readily available and often at very affordable prices. For instance, a lot of third world countries bought World War II aircraft like the American P-51 Mustang for counter-insurgency duties.

North American P-51 Mustang of 354th Fighter Group D-Day 1944.

Such surplus stock could even be cannibalized for spare parts to keep a weapon that was out of production running for years.

A lot of small arms were so robustly built for the demanding environment of the battlefields that they were able to be kept in use for a very long time. They also proved popular on the civilian market because they often were extremely simple to operate – they were designed to be so because mostly they were used by conscripts or poorly trained troops.

Mustang P-51H

As such, a lot of the small arms from World War II had long military careers after the war. The American M3 sub-machine gun was used until recently by the Philippine Army, and the British Bren light machine gun was only finally phased out of service from the Irish Army Reserves in 2006.

Philippine Naval Special Warfare Group members. Two of them are armed with M3.

Some weapons are just so well designed or eminently suitable for updating that they have stayed in service up to the present day. The M1 Garand rifle and the Colt M1911A1 automatic handgun are two excellent examples.

One firearm which provided itself to be exceptional was the American M1 Garand .30 caliber semi-automatic rifle.

World War II Infantryman, kneeling in front of M3 Half-track, holds and sights an M1 Garand rifle. Fort Knox, Kentucky, June 1942.

After the war, it found a new market, at first in its original form before continuing in front-line service after being modified to become the M14 rifle 7.62 mm, selective fire automatic rifle. This gun stayed in the American Army and Marine Corp service until 1964, when it began to be replaced by the M-16 5.56mm automatic rifle.

A U.S. soldier with an M14 watches as supplies are dropped in 1967 during the Vietnam War.

World War II second-hand small arms were popular for decades. It is a sad fact that the weapon used by Lee Harvey Oswald in 1963 to kill the American President, JFK, was a war surplus Italian Carcano Model 91/38 rifle, that he had bought by mail order for just $12.98 ($107 in 2018 value).

Some of the ex-military equipment of World War II was put to more unusual but still practical use. For instance, since 1964, the now world famous Reno Air Races in Nevada, United States, has included a category called “Unlimited Gold” which is solely for World War II aircraft.

Hawker Sea Fury. September Fury at the Reno races. Photo: Calyponte / CC BY-SA 3.0

The 2018 winner of this class was a British TMK 20 Sea Fury which had a course average speed of 418 mph (over 673 kph). Other participants were F-8F Bearcats and P-51D Mustangs.

Some military vehicles were converted to agricultural use. This was particularly the case in Australia. The turrets were taken off British Matilda tanks and bulldozer blades were added, while Sherman tanks were used to help plow fields.

British Matilda II tank.

While many aircraft found new leases of life well into the 1950s and 60s as trainers, target tugs, or transporters, the American DC3 Dakota military transporter is still used today as a cargo carrier in some South American countries.

A 1944 Douglas DC-3C (2015). Photo: Bubba73 (Jud McCranie) / CC BY-SA 4.0

The Canadian naval World War II cargo ship, the Cromwell Park, was subsequently used to create an artificial reef in Rivera Beach, Florida. The ship had been sold for commercial shipping in 1946 and renamed the Harmac Vancouver. Later, it was sold on again, this time to a Greek company where it was renamed Amaryllis.

In 1965, the ship was trying to take shelter from a hurricane when it ran aground on the East Coast of Florida in the United States. In 1968, the ship was towed to a spot that was 85 feet (almost 26 meters) deep and sunk to make a permanent artificial reef.

An M22 Locust, American light tank at Bovington Tank Museum in the UK.

Many vehicles, ships, and aircraft have now been placed into museums for preservation, while others have been set up as memorials across the world to remember — as well as celebrate — man’s bravery and foolhardiness in pursuing the glory of war.

The fact that, over 70 years later, these weapons are still around is a testimony to their enduring design and ingenuity.


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Mark Clark

Editor kami akan menyemak apa yang telah anda kirimkan dan menentukan apakah akan menyemak semula artikel tersebut.

Mark Clark, in full Mark Wayne Clark, (born May 1, 1896, Madison Barracks, N.Y., U.S.—died April 17, 1984, Charleston, S.C.), U.S. Army officer during World War II, who commanded Allied forces (1943–44) during the successful Italian campaign against the Axis powers.

A graduate (1917) of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., Clark served overseas in World War I. Early in 1942 he became chief of staff of army ground forces. Later that year, as deputy commander in chief to General Dwight D. Eisenhower, he executed delicate and demanding assignments in connection with the Allied invasion of North Africa, including a dramatic submarine trip to Algeria for a secret meeting with French officers.

Clark’s responsibilities were considerably enlarged when he was appointed commander of the American 5th Army, which effected a major landing at Salerno (September 1943) aimed at wresting the Italian peninsula from Axis control. Clark received the surrender of the Italian fleet and the government of Marshal Pietro Badoglio the same month his march into Rome (June 4, 1944) marked the fall of the first enemy capital. In December he was appointed commander of the 15th Army Group and finally received the surrender of the stubborn German forces in the north of Italy on May 2, 1945.


Lark II YMS-76 - History

The rakish 1963-64 Studebaker Avanti was among the most daring 1960s American cars, a modern masterpiece with totally unique American styling that even top exotic Italian auto stylists wouldn't attempt to do.

The Avanti had advanced safety features, when no U.S. automaker particularly gave a darn about safety. Such features included a built-in roll bar, padded interior and door latches that became structural body members when closed.

Performance? An Avanti with a supercharged V-8 was one of the fastest 1960s autos. A supercharged model hit 168 mph, while a modified version reached 196 mph--a staggering speed for a 1960s production street car. Some 29 Bonneville speed records were smashed by a supercharged Avanti.

Safety? The Avanti (Italian for "forward") was the first mass-produced fiberglass-body four-passenger American car. It also was the first such car to use caliper-style disc brakes.

Sexy? James Bond author Ian Fleming ordered a black Avanti and shipped it to foreign countries he visited outside his native England. Ricky Nelson, the second most popular (behind Elvis) rock and roll singer of the late 1950s and early 1960s, also owned an Avanti (which I drove one evening in the 1980s because it was for sale at a Ft. Lauderdale exotic car dealer). In short, the Avanti was a modern masterpiece. Too bad it didn't last long enough to help the veteran Studebaker Corp. from failing in the United States in late 1963.

Studebaker was more than 100 years old when the Avanti debuted. It began making horse-drawn wagons in 1862 and produced its first cars--electric models--in 1902. But "Stude" was in deep trouble by the mid-1950s. It lacked the economy of scale of larger U.S. automakers and thus its cars, although good, weren't cost-competitive against giants such as General Motors.

However, Studebaker survived the 1950s by producing compact economy Lark models, which sold well in the depressed economy late in that decade, along with some sporty Hawk models, such as the now-classic 1956-58 Golden Hawk.

But then the prosperous 1960s arrived, and Studebaker again had to offer winners from its South Bend, Indiana, headquarters and plants because Lark volume fell by more than half for 1961.

Hard-charging young Sherwood Egbert arrived as Studebaker's new president in 1961 and quickly had Lark and Hawk styling updated on a crash basis by noted Milwaukee-based designer Brooks Stevens.

Stevens did the best he could while dealing with Studebaker's dated cars and engines, and Egbert felt Studebaker needed a dramatic new car. It had to really grab the public's attention to help generate much-needed sales and to rejuvenate the automaker's rather staid image.

Egbert's star car was the Avanti. With Stevens updating higher-volume models, Egbert recruited flamboyant Raymond Loewy, a world-famous industrial designer who had considerable auto design experience. Loewy had come up with the startling, slick 1953 Studebaker coupe--arguably the best-styled American car of the 1950s.

Given a rough idea of what Egbert wanted the new car to look like, Loewy had the Avanti's styling done under his supervision by his hand-picked team of young Tom Kellogg and seasoned Bob Andrews and John Ebstein.

To avoid distractions and interference from Studebaker executives, Loewy sequestered his highly talented team in a rented desert ranch house near Palm Springs, Calif.. The team knew the car was urgent business, so they worked 16 hours daily for weeks.

Loewy gave his men instructions that established the Avanti's design theme, such as "Coke-shape a must" and "wedgy silhouette." In fact, GM's most famous styling chiefs worked the same way, initially giving general directions and then specific instructions.

However, Loewy personally designed the Avanti's wheel openings, which had a shape similar to the flight trajectory of the sensational Russian Sputnik space satellite. He knew Egberrt loved flying, so the Avanti got an aircraft-style cockpit.

The Loewy group gathered in Palm Springs on March 19, 1961. It rapidly developed a clay scale model of the Avanti, which Loewy rushed to Studebakr's headquarters. Egbert wasn't a "car guy," but knew a winner when he saw one. He was delighted with the car, and Studebaker's board approved its construction just five weeks after Loewy's team began work on it. No major American automaker had ever done a car so quickly.

The Avanti had a coke-bottle "waist" and thin-section roof with an extra-large rear window and the built-in roll bar. Razor-edged front fenders swept back into the curved rear end and into a jacked-up tail.

The front had no conventional grille--just an air scoop below a thin bumper. The hood had an asymmetrical hump, and the interior featured aircraft-style instrumentation and controls, some placed above the windshield. Occupants sat in four slim-section bucket seats similar to those in an Alfa Romeo sports car.

No time or resources existed for wind-tunnel testing, but the Avanti nevertheless was highly aerodynamic--one reason it could hit nearly 200 mph. Loewy and his team had just guessed at the car's slippery shape.

There also was no time or money for steel body dies, so the Avanti body was made of fiberglass. The car was enormously strong, with a shortened, beefy Lark convertible frame and sport suspension with front/rear anti-sway bars and rear radius rods for superior handling.

Powering the Avanti was a modified version of Studebaker's dated but sturdy 289-cubic-inch V-8. This "Jet Thrust" engine developed 240 horsepower in standard "R1" form, with such items as a 3/4-race high-lift camshaft, dual-breaker distributor, four-barrel carburetor and dual exhausts. It developed 290 horsepower in supercharged "R2" form.

There also were a few supercharged "R3" V-8s with 335 horsepower and an experimental non-supercharged "R4" 280-horsepower V-8 with dual four-barrel carburetors. Then there was an amazing twin-supercharged, fuel-injected "R5" V-8 with magneto ignition. It produced an astounding 575 horsepower.

To Studebaker's delight, the public was crazy about the Avanti, which drew many to Studebaker showrooms. It was upscale and nicely equipped. The 1963 and 1964 models each had a $4,445 base price, when a less practical Chevrolet Corvette Sting Ray two-seat coupe cost $4,252.

But quality problems arose because Egbert rushed the car into production, knowing time was running out for Studebaker. It didn't help that production was delayed for months because Molded Fiberglass Co., which also built Corvette fiberglass body parts, botched Avanti bodies--forcing Studebaker to set up its own fiberglass production.

Many Avanti buyers canceled advance orders and bought a Corvette or other sporty cars.

Making matters worse, the word was out that Studebaker was on the ropes and might go out of business. In fact, it closed its South Bend operation in December, 1963, when the last 1964 Avanti barely left its plant.

Suffering from ill health, Egbert had left that November. Studebaker built Larks and a few other models in Canada until 1966. The Avanti 240- and 290-horsepower V-8s actually were available for some 1964 models. But Studebaker engines were gone by 1965, so two Chevy engines were offered for 1965 and 1966, when Studebaker production ceased after totaling 8,947 cars that year.

Only 3,834 Avantis were built in 1963 and just 809 were classified as 1964 models. The general rule is that the 1963 Avanti had round headlight surrounds and the 1964 model had square ones.

A fair number of Studebaker Avantis have survived because of their no-rust fiberglass body and solid construction. A 1963-64 R1 is valued at $10,800 in good condition and at $20,500 if in excellent shape, according to the Cars of Particular Interest guide. It says a supercharged 1963-64 R2 is worth $12,000 in good shape and $22,800 in excellent condition.

However, the Sports Car Market value guide puts figures for an R1 at $16,000 to $28,000 and at $20,000 to $32,000 for an R2.

The Avanti was too good to die quickly. It lasted for decades after 1963 with Chevy V-8s after being initially rescued by two successful South Bend Studebaker dealers, Nate Altman and Leo Newman.

Altman and Newman bought all rights to the car, formed Avanti Motor Corp., and continued to have it hand-built for years in an old Studebaker plant as the "Avanti II," powered by a Corvette V-8. The revived car's chief engineer was Gene Hardig, the original Avanti head engineer.

"The Avanti was too sensational for us to just let it go," Altman told me during an interview at the Avanti II factory. He was wildly enthusiastic about the Avanti and worked tirelessly for more than a decade to make it successful.

The Avanti II was nearly the same as the Studebaker version, although Altman removed the car's slight front rake, substituted the modern Corvette V-8, gave it much higher quality and let buyers choose various high-grade interior materials such as carpets.

Other individuals continued to build the car for years when Altman passed away in the mid-1970s and the Altman family sold the operation.

The Avanti still turns heads. No car has ever looked like it, and none probably ever will.


Karl Marx’s Early Life and Education

Karl Marx was born in 1818 in Trier, Prussia he was the oldest surviving boy in a family of nine children. Both of his parents were Jewish, and descended from a long line of rabbis, but his father, a lawyer, converted to Lutheranism in 1816 due to contemporary laws barring Jews from higher society. Young Karl was baptized in the same church at the age of 6, but later became an atheist.

Did you know? The 1917 Russian Revolution, which overthrew three centuries of tsarist rule, had its roots in Marxist beliefs. The revolution’s leader, Vladimir Lenin, built his new proletarian government based on his interpretation of Marxist thought, turning Karl Marx into an internationally famous figure more than 30 years after his death.

After a year at the University of Bonn (during which Marx was imprisoned for drunkenness and fought a duel with another student), his worried parents enrolled their son at the University of Berlin, where he studied law and philosophy. There he was introduced to the philosophy of the late Berlin professor G.W.F. Hegel and joined a group known as the Young Hegelians, who were challenging existing institutions and ideas on all fronts, including religion, philosophy, ethics and politics.


Machine Gun

A side arm for mobile suits manufactured by Yashima Heavy Industrial. It shot real rounds, and was also used by a group of mobile suits of the Earth Federation Forces Γ] .

Heat Hawk

A hatchet-type weapon for close combat. The blade could glow red with heat that was hot enough to melt armor. The MS-05 and many other suits were also equipped with this weapon Γ] .

Shield

A defense equipment attached to the upper arm. It could protect against a machine gun, but its bulletproof performance was not as strong as the L-shaped shield of the MS-06 Γ] .

Beam Sniper Rifle

Shoulder Shields


Studebaker goes bankrupt

On this day in 1933, American automaker Studebaker, then heavily in debt, goes into receivership. The company’s president, Albert Erskine, resigned and later that year died by suicide. Studebaker eventually rebounded from its financial troubles, only to shut down the assembly line and transition out of the automobile business in 1966.

The origins of the Studebaker Corporation date back to 1852, when brothers Henry and Clement Studebaker opened a blacksmith shop in South Bend, Indiana. Studebaker eventually became a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn wagons and supplied wagons to the U.S. Army during the Civil War. Around the turn of the century, the company entered America’s burgeoning auto industry, launching an electric car in 1902 and a gas-powered vehicle two years later that was marketed under the name Studebaker-Garford. After partnering with other automakers, Studebaker began selling gas-powered cars under its own name in 1913, while continuing to make wagons until 1920.

Albert Erskine (1871�) assumed the top job at Studebaker in 1915. Under his leadership, the company acquired luxury automaker Pierce-Arrow in the late 1920s and launched the affordably priced but short-lived Erskine and Rockne lines (the latter named for the famous University of Notre Dame football coach: Before his death in a plane crash in 1931, Studebaker paid Rockne to give talks at auto conventions and dealership events). During the early 1930s, Studebaker was hit hard by the Great Depression and in March 1933 it was forced into bankruptcy. (In April 2009, Chrysler became the first major American automaker since Studebaker to declare bankruptcy.) Erskine, who was saddled with personal debt and health problems, killed himself on July 1, 1933.


Tonton videonya: СТИХ. ОБЗОР Ori and the Will of the Wisps (Julai 2022).


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